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POLIT

OF

THE POLITICAL CONSTITUTIONS Great Britain and Ireland, Allerted and vindicated;

THE CONNECTION and COMMON INTEREST of both Kingdoms, demonstrated ;

AND THE GRIEVANCES, which eacb, more especially the later,

with it's Capital, has suffered, under oppressive and tyrannical Governors, usurping and lawless Magistrates, dependent and iniquitous Judges, and spurious and corrupt Parlements,

Set forth in several ADDRESSES and Letters

TO THE

Free-CITIZENS of DUBLIN; First delivered and published with the sole Intent to de

teet public Abuses, to revive the ORIGINAL PrinciPles of the Policy, and to restore the constituTIONAL FREEDOM of Elections, in general, those

of Members of Parlement, in particular; Now republished as a cautionary Information to the City of

LONDON, and for the Justification of the AUTHOR, CHARLES LUCAS A Free-Citizen of 'Dublin, while Dublin was, now an Exile for the Cause of Truth and the LIBERTY of his Country,

To which are added, The CENSOR: or, the CitizeNS JOURNAL,

AND An APPENDIX, containing the ADDRESS of the MER

CHANTS and TRADERS, Citizens of DUBLIN, to his MAJESTY, and the DecLARATIONS and RESOLUTIOns of several of the free and loyal Corporations of that City.

IN TWO VOLUM E S.

VOL. II,

L 0 N D 0 N:

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ADDRESS XVII. H Η

AVING pursuant to my Promise to You, MY BELOVED

BRETRHEN and Friends, published the Great Charter

of the Liberties of our City, and layed that, as the Foundation to the intended Superstructure, I shall now procede to the next Part of my Engagement, which is to explane the Constitution of this City, and to point out the Breaches made therein, and by whom.

In my nineth, fiveteenth, and other Addresses, I have endeavored to define a Body Politic. Whatever is sayed of the greatest, holds equally good of the smallest Body Politic. And, many Advantages and Benefits acrue in ours, which are not to be found in the great Body Corporate.

As civil Society, or the great Body Politic, with all it's Magiftrates and Officers, from the highest to the lowest, was instituted and framed for the general Good of the People, not regarding any Particulars; so, the Institution of this Body Corporate, was solely intended for the Citizens, with due Subordination to the great Community, of which it is but as a Member; and no Individual, whether Magistrate, Officer or Member of the Corporation, has, or can have, any Power, Privilege or Authority, but what he derives, mediately or immediately, from the Body of the Citizens, to whom, and in whom, all that the Crown by it's Prerogative, or the Legislature by it's Authority, could grant, were granted and vested, for the fole Emolument of the Citizens and their Succefors for Ever.

As every good Husband-Man fhould, to the greatest Certainty, know the Extent and Limits of his Eftate; fo, it is incumbent on every Citizen, to know the Extent and

Limits of the Franchises, in which he has a Free-hold, an Estate, of no less Value to him, than a large Tract of Land, to a Countryman. We can not therefore, be too exact, too minute, in taking a Survey of our Free-hold, with it's appendant Privileges.

Whoever takes a View of our Charter, must see, with what an extensive Eflate, this City was endowed, and with what extraordinary Liberties and Privileges, the Citizens were honored and distinguished from the rest of the Subjects.

All the Lands, within the ascertained Liberties of the City, that were not granted to Churches, Convents or Colleges, were vested in the City, from the original English Foundation; and upon the Dissolution of Monasteries, at the Reformation, many of their Estates, as well, in the Country, as City, particularly those

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of All-Hallows, and some Parts of those of St. I homas and St. Mary, were granted to the City by Henry VIII. and other fucceding Kings. By this Means, an Effate in several Counties of the Kingdom, and a Right of Presentation to sundry ecclefiaftical Benefices became vested in the Corporation of the City.

Having large Poffeflions thus secured to the City, the next Provision to be made was for the Franchises or Liberties of the Citizens, without which, the greatest Estate could be of no real Value,

By the firft Gratts of Henry II. and John, the Citizens were created a Body Corporate and Politic, with the usual expressed, as well, as the implied Powers and Privileges, incident to the Creation of a Body Politic, which we shall hereafter endeavor to explane. By the Charter of John, ineluded in the Great Charter, beginning at Paragraph the 8th, the Franchises are specially granted and set forth. And, it is observable, that every Grant is expressly made to our Citizens of our City of Dublin, and to their Heirs and Successors for Ever.

By this Charter, the City is made a free and independent MANO'R; with Jurisdiction within it self, beyond whose Limits, no Citizen is answerable: The Citizens are exempted from that shameful Barbarism of trying and determining Matters of Right, Causes criminal, &c. by Combat; from that detestable Vafalage of Hofting, or Coyne and Liverie; or obliging them to lodge or entertain Servants or Soldiers of their Lords or of the King, without their free Consent: And freed from the Payment of all arbitrary Tolls, Taxes, and other Customs throughout the King's Dominions: That Justice may be always at Hand, it is provided, that the Hundred or City Court should be held once every Week: That due Regard may be payed to the Infranchised, that no Foreigner should buy the Staple Commodities of the Kingdom from any other, than a Citizen; nor have Licence to sell Wine or keep a Tavern except on board a Ship: That no Foreigner shall intrude or incroach upon the Citizens proper Privilege of selling Goods, as Cloth, for Example, by Retate, and that no foreign Merchant shall even stay longer in the City, than is neceffary for the Disposal of his Wares by Wholesale, which is fourty Days: That no Citizen be deprived of his Liberty or otherwise difurbed throughout the King's Dominions, upon any idle Demands or frivolous

Pretences of the Crown or the Subject, unless where positive Proof of a Debt is made : That the Clame layed by the Crown and great Lords to the Ward of their Tenants, by which, they assumed the Cuftody and Disposal of the Persons and Estates of the Subject, should be abolished in the City: That Guilds may be instituted upon the same Foundation, as in Bristol, in the City: And that no Citizen may be compelled to bail his Tenant, or any other Person, against his Will: That all the Lands and Tenements, and all the waste Places within the City Liberties may be disposed of, or built upon, at the Pleasure of the Citizens: That the resident Citizens be exempt

from

from serving on Juries, or in other civil Offices in any other County in the Kingdom, in which they may have Eftates; and that extern, or non-franchised Men, who may have Estates in the City, may not be impaneled with the Citizens on Juries, to try any Matter within the City; unless in Matters concerning the Crown, or the Community of the City : And, that the Citizens in all civil and criminal Matters, with which they may be chargeable, shall not be committed, or confined by Foreigners, but by their Fe'lowCitizens onely: And that they, and all those, who come into the City; shall be exempt from all arbitrary Impositions, and Seisures of the Crown, or it's Ministers: That the Citizens and their Magiftrate, may have, make and exercise the Afize of Bread and Beer, institute a Staple, or Market, and erect and maintain a Standard for Weights and Measures, for the Regulation of the Market, with all Profits and Advantages thence arising, subject onely to the InSpection of the King's Justices and Ministers; and their Correction of Exceffes, Defeets, &c. That the Citizens be for ever exempt from all Cuftoms, Tolls, or Duties imposed upon, or payable by, others for the Expences of walling, paving, making, or reparing Bridges, from Pases for exporting or shiping Goods or Men, and for ballafting or loading or unloading a Ship at Quays, Wharfs or Cranes: That the Citizens may choose among them selves a Mayor every Year, who is to be sworn into Office before the Commonalty, by the preceding Mayor; unless the chief Governor or one of the Barons of the Exchequer happen to be then in the City, before whom the Oath is then to be administered: That no Oficers or Miriflers of the Crown may interfere with the Magiftrates or Oficers of the City, in the Execution of their Offices; unless in Case of Failure of the City Officers: That no Citizen be deprived of his Liberty or confined, by any Magistrate or Officer of the Crown, for any bailable Offence, while he is able to procure sponsable Bail: That, if any Citizen be attached without the City, he is to be tried in the City Court: That no foreign or unfranchised Merchant shall intrude or incroach upon the Rights and Privileges of the Citizens; but, when they come to buy or sell Wares or Merchandises upon the Terms before prescribed, they shall be obliged to contribute to all the Aids and Taxes or Tolls and Cuftoms necessary for the Support of the City, in Proportion to the Quantity of Goods bought or fold: And, that the Citizens may export old Cloth, Wool, Hides and all other Commodities, which are the Product of Ireland, Corn, at Times prohibited, onely excepted, to England, Gascony and wherefoever else they will, for Ever, according to their natural Right; all Statutes or Ordinances to the contrary, notwithstanding. It is likewise, granted to the Citizens, that their Mayor and Bailifs be the fole Justices of Peace, and 7 uffices of Laborers, Artificers and Viftuallers, within the City and it's Libera ties: That the Mayor be Escheator, and Clerk of the Mark.t, with the fullest Powers and Privileges, the Law could admit; and with a positive Prohibition to all Ministers of the Crown, that they should

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