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was before them.” So, after a few days, they boats were gone to sea. Who were in them? repaired to their future home, in the coitage of When the one boat arrived, the hardy crew, utthe bridegroom's father It was about the same terly exhausted with the efforts for their lives, time this year I saw the youthful mother carry the alarm was raised, and very shortly it became her first-born to church for baptisın, though a evident that the other would never reach the little paler than when she stood in the same spot land. The storm subsided almost as rapidly as a bride; yet she looked all the more interesting. it had risen; but its appointed work was accomOnce more she was in the same white dress ; plished; and under the all-wise direction of the and I marked the blush of modest pride that Ruler of wind and waves, it had summoned to Aushed her cheek, as she sought and caught her His dread tribunal the souls of these poor fishfather's eye, while the name of her mother was ermen. pronounced over her child. The responsive Poor Agnes; with what feelings shall I look tear trembled in my own eye, as I marked hers on her pale expressive countenar ce, now clad in filling, and my heart echoed the prayer that no the weeds of heartfelt sorrow. She remains in doubt swelled in the young and happy parents' the dwelling of her father, of which she was the hearts.

pride and joy, and where she is now not the less Not many weeks afterwards, when the cheer- tenderly cherished, because of her irreparable ful festivities of Christmas were just approach. misfortune. ing, after many days of stormy unsettled weather, a calm lovely morning invited my favorite Agnes to visit her own father's house for the few short hours of daylight which this season affords. Every object was reflected in the calm bright mirror of the placid ocean, and the air was balmy

THE “ DARNLEY JEWEL." as on a day in June. She took her child in her

The newspapers have lately been circulating arms, and left her husband with his father and the following account of this much-talked-of brother engaged on some little work of husbandry relic:on their small farm. She called to him cheer.

“ This very curious piece of workmanship of fully as she passed at a little distance, to come the 16th century, which formed one of the finest for her before the evening darkened, and he re- gems of the collection at Strawberry-hill, and turned an affectionate assent. Alas, for the which was purchased at the sale there last sumyoung hearts severed then for ever!

mer by Mr. Farrer of Wardour Street, for a large Very shortly after Agnes's departure, some of sum, has just been bought by her Majesty at their neighbors proposed to go to the fishing, the price, it is said, of 200 guineas. It was and two lads from a little distance arriving, with about to be sold to a foreign collector, who is in their tackle and bait, without waiting for their possession of the celebrated iron ring of the unown usual boat-fellows, as the forenoon was ad-fortunate husband of Mary Queen of Scots, vancing, the father and two sons I have men- when the good taste of her Majesty rescued it, tioned set off, in company with another boat, to and it is now amongst the royal jewels of Eng. the fishing ground, six miles off the north point land, as formerly it was amongst the royal jewof the land. They had nearly reached the spot, els of Scotland. It is the identical jewel worn when a sudden storm arose.' The tide was at by Lord Darnley. It was made by order of the full, and the force of the north Atlantic rush- Lady Margaret Douglas, his mother, in memory ed in with the speed of a whirlwind on the poor of her husband, Matthew Stuart, Earl of Lendevoted crews. One of the boats was well-man- nox and Regent of Scotland, who was murdered ned, and reached the land in safety; but in the by the party who opposed him in religion. The little bark wherein was Agnes's husband, he and jewel, which is of exquisite workmanship, is of his brother were the only efficient men-their fine gold, in the form of a heart, about two inches aged father, and the two lads above alluded to, long and nearly two inches in breadth. On the composing all the crew. They were never surface, which opens in front, there is a coronet, heard of; the deep and turbid sea, doubtless, in which are three small rubies and an emeoverwhelmed them; and till the day when the rald. Under the coronet there is a sapphire in 6 sea shall give up her dead,” how they met the shape of a heart, with wings of ruby, emetheir fate can never be known.

rald, and sapphire. The coronet is supported We shall draw a veil over the sorrows of the hy Victory and Patience. There are also two heart-stricken survivors of the catastrophe---the figures on the jewel, representing Faith and aged and desolate woman berest of her husband Hope. The robes of all these figures, which and both her sons; a destitute widow and large are very elaborate, are of ruby and sapphire family of one of them; a youthful bride of one of enamelling. There is the following legend : the younger men; a despairing mother of the other, who has, in him, lost her only surviving

" Sal obtein Victorie in yair Pretence, stay, having two years ago, by a precisely simi

Quha hopis stil constanily with Patience. lar catastrophe, had to mourn for husband, son, The coronet and little heart may be both opened and son-in-law; and last, though not least, the up from below; within the coronet are three poor Agnes, on whose little story I have been letters in cipher, “M. L. S.,” with a crown of dwelling with melancholy interest. What were laurel over them. On the reverse of the coroher feelings when the fierce and sudden storm net within are two hearts joined and pierced by arose, sweeping over the waste of waters she two arrows, bound by a wreath with a legend, was gazing on? She believed her busband safe“Quhat we Resolve.” When the little heart is on shore! First came to her ear reports that I opened, a skull and two bones are seen, and two


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hands holding a label, from which hangs a horn intended for the accommodation of a part of the with the rest of the legend, “ Death sal dessolve.' people attending worship; and perhaps it was On the other side of the jewel is the sun shining so; although there is also some ground for supon a heliotropium, or sunflower, beautifully posing that it was, in a great measure, a mere enamelled, the moon and stars are also repre- peculiarity of architecture, some churches havsented. There are a salamander in the flames, ing the same kind of bench on the outside. It a pelican feeding her young with her blood, á may be remarked, that its running round the shepherd, a traveller, a dog, and a bird, and a whole interior, except the east end, is no disphenix, all emblematical, with a legend- proof or its having been designed for the con'My stait to them I may compaer.

gregation, as might be supposed from the laity For you quha is of Bontes rare."

having laiterly been forbidden to enter the chan

cel, for such a rule does not appear to have When the whole heart is opened, on the reverse existed in the Anglo-Saxon church: at least are seen two men in Roman armor fighting; such is the natural inference from the 44th conan executioner holding a woman by the hair stitution of King Edgar, published in A. D. 960: with a cuttle axe, as about to decapitate her; “ And we ordain that no woman shall approach two frightful jaws, out of which issue three spec- the altar while the mass is being celebrated.” tres in flames. The figure of time is seen draw This, of course, implies that at ary other time a ing a naked figure, supposed to be Truth, from a woman might do so. well; and a female on a throne, with a fire in Judging from Anglo-Saxon illuminations, the which many crosses are burning. There are people generally sat on low, rude, three-legged three legends, ' Ze seem al my Plesur.'. 'Tym stools, placed dispersedly over the church. But gaves al leir,' and Gar tell my Relaes.' The a writer in the British Critic* very justly obwhole is exquisitely worked. and is one of the serves, that sitting on the ground or standing most extraordinary remains of the art of the were then much more common postures than age.”

now. “In a manuscript,” says he, " in the HarIt cannot escape the notice of many of our leian Library in the British Museum, dated readers, that there is a serious blunder in res. A. D. 1319, is represented Archbishop Árundel pect of chronology in this account. The earl preaching to the people from a pulpit

, raised of Lennox was killed four or five years subse-about two feet from the ground, his cross-bearer quently to his son Lord Darnley, so that, if this standing by his side, and his hearers all sitting jewel was made on the occasion of his death, it on the ground. A copy is given in Strutt s 'Annever could have belonged to the unhappy youth tiquities. In the ‘Pictorial History of England,' whose alliance to Queen Mary forms so dismal after a short account of the rise of the mendicant a chapter in our history. We take leave to re-orders, there is a drawing without date, but promark, that the history of the jewel seems to re- bably belonging to the fifteenth century, of a quire further elucidation.-Edinburgh Journal. friar preaching from a movable pulpit. In this

instance, the scene is probably not in a church, and the ground appears to be covered with branches of trees or plants; but still the posture

represented goes to confirm the supposition of PEWS.

that being customary in churches." The usual

covering for the floors of churches, and, indeed, From Chambers's Etlinburgh Journal.

of private houses in those times, was rushes. One of the religious controversies of the day, Wooden seats appear to have been introduced the merits of which we have not the slightest soon after the Norman Conquest. In Bishop inclination to discuss, has been the means of Grostête's injunctions (1240), it is ordered that bringing to light some curious records regard the patron may be indulged with a stall in the ing the early history of church seats; a matter choir. And in the twelfth chapter of a synod at on which considerable obscurity has hitherto Exeter, holden by Bishop Quivil in the year rested. We propose to cull a few of these no- 1237, we read as follows:-“We have also tices from the various publications in which they heard that the parishioners of divers places do appear.

oftentimes wrangle about their seats in church, The writers on this subject have divided it two or more claiming the same seat; whence into two epochs—that before and that after the arises great scandal to the church, and the di. Reformation--the moot point being when pews, vine offices are sore let and hindered: wherefore properly so called, were first introduced and gen- we decree, that none shall henceforth call any erally used; but without discussing mere words, seat in the church his own, save noblemen and we shall commence by showing how worship- patrons ; but he who shall first enter shall take pers were accommodated in early times, taking his place where he will.” Thus, it appears that up the etymology of the term pew in our chron- the seeds of the modern system were sown in ological progress.

the church as early as the thirteenth century, In Anglo-Saxon churches, and in some of for “noblemen and patrons” were allowed to early Norman date, there was a stone bench have seats of their own. The next innovation running round the whole of the interior, except presents itself as we advance nearer the Reforthe east end; an arrangement sometimes con- mation. Wooden seats begin in some instances tinued even in decorated churches, as in Exeter to have cross-bars by way of doors. In Bishop's Cathedral, and in late Tudor, as in North Peth- Hull are some very fine and completely open erton, Somersetshire, and in King's College chapel. This might be presumed to have been

(* No. 64, p. 499.


wood-seats, bearing date 1530; so there are to that party by whom it was considered as a in Crowcombe, Somersetshire, and Bourne, sort of idol worship. Another injunction to Cambridgeshire, both 1534; and in Milverton, which they objected, was that for standing up at Somersetshire (though very poor), 1540. That the saying of the Gloria Patri. By having high these seats were in some instances appropriated, enclosed seats, they were screened from the obis plain from the fact ol initials being sometimes servation of those officers whose duty it was to marked on them; as in Stogumber, and also in report if any one disobeyed the behests of the Hurstpierpoint, Sussex.

law. The need for pews, thus commenced in We now come to the Reformation, when the the early days of the reformed church, was conchange of the forms of worship almost necessa- tinued during the Stuart reigns, and it accordingrily implied a change in the arrangements for ly appears that pews were much multiplied the congregation. The daily prayers, instead during that period. About 1608, galleries were of being read at the altar, were now repeated by introduced into churches. In that year, St. Ma. the minister in "a little tabernacle of wainscot ry the Greater, at Cambridge, was scaffolded, provided for the purpose;" otherwise a reading that is, galleried. In 1610, a gallery was erectdesk. We soon after find allusions in our popu- ed at the west end of the collegiate church of lar literature to pews, or pues, as the word was Wolverhampton, by the Merchant Tailors' Com. then spelt.* Thus, Shakspeare has the follow- pany. It rests on two arabesquely-carved uping line in Richard III.,

rights, which join on to the piers; the upper part, And makes her pue-fellow with others moan.”

as in most early instances, is banistered, and

contains four panels, two bearing shields, and or a character in Decker's “Westward Hoe,” two inscribed with texts from Holy Scripture. it is said, that “being one day in church, she So well established were pews in 1611, that made moan to her pue-fellow." "Bishop Andrews we find, from the following ludicrous entry, they uses the expression in one of his sermons (1596); were even then baized. In the accounts of st. and in a supplication of the poor Commons ad- Margaret's, London, is an item of sixpence, dressed to Henry VIII., in 1546, on the subject paid to Goodwyfe Wells, for salt to destroy of the Bibles lately put up in every church, it is the fleas in the church-warden's pew.” In the complained, that "for where your highness gave book of another London parish, a few years later, commandment that thei should se that there it is recorded that “Mr. Doctor has his pew were in every parish church within your high- trymed with green saie.” From another record ness's realm one Bible at the least set at liberty |(1620), we learn that the sexes were separated so that every man might freely come to it, and in different pews, for a certain Mr. Loveday was read therein such things as should be for his reported for sitting in the same pew with his consolation, many of this wicked generation, as wife, “which being held to be highly indecent,” well preests as other their faithful adherents, he was ordered to appear, but failing to do so, would pluck it other into the quyre, other into Mr. Chancellor was made acquainted with his

where poor men durst not presume to obstinacy. The matter was finally compromised come.

by Mr. Doctor's giving him a seat in his pew; That pews

existed immediately after the Re- the comfortable luxury of green saie” no doubt formation, thus clearly appears ; but a question compensating uxurious Mr. Loveday for the loss remains as to the nature of the seats which were of his wife's company. The march of comfort so called. Etymologically, a pew is any thing and decoration proceeded rapidly, as may be which gives support, or a seat of any kind. Was seen from a passage in a sermon preached by the sense of the term thus general in 1546, or the witty Bishop Corbett of Norwich two years did it refer to those particular enclosed or box- asterwards (1622). “Stately pews,” he says, like seats which are now recognised in England “are now become tabernacles, with rings and as pews ? It seems to us that, either now, or at curtains to them. There wants nothing but least immediately after, the term had come to beds to hear the word of God on: we have casebe restricted to such enclosed seats. And his- ments, locks and keys, and cushions, I had altory makes us aware of reasons for such enclo- most said bolsters and pillows, and for these we sures coming then into demand. The forms love the church. I will not guess what is done prescribed for worship were then rigid dictates within them ; who sits, stands, or lies asleep at of the law, against which many persons of puri- prayers, communion, &c.; but this I dare say, tanical tendencies were disposed, as far as they they are either to hide some vice, or to proclaim safely could, to rebel. The order, still to be found one'; to hide disorder, or to proclaim pride."* in the canons of the English church, that when- The reasons for heightening the sides of pews ever, in any lesson, sermon, or otherwise, the ceased with the power of Charles I.

, and from name of Jesus shall be in the church pronoun- the civil war they gradually declined, until they ced, due reverence be made of all persons, young reached their present comparatively moderate and old, with lowness of courtesy and uncover- elevation. ing of the heads of the men-kind, as thereunto It is generally understood, though we can doth necessarily belong, and heretofore hath been accustomed,” was particularly obnoxious * Swift has illustrated the sleeping accommoda

tion offered in pews by the following lines :* The etymology of the word is traced by Du. A bedstead of the antique mode, cange (Glossary, s. v. iii. 332) to the Latin podium, Compact of timber many a load, which ineant, in the Latin of the middle ages, any Such as our ancestors did use, thing on which we lean. From it the old French Was metamorphosed into pews : word puy, the modern appui (support), and the Which still their ancient nature keep, English pue, or pew, are derived.

By lodging folks disposed to sleep.

some pue,


present no certain authority on the subject, that ment will send on the seventh day, weather perfixed church seats scarcely existed in Scotland mitting. before the reign of Charles I. People were in By the eighth article, the post-boats will conthe habit of bringing seats with them to sit upon tinue their services without interruption, even in in Church. It is stated that, at the riot in the the time of war, until one of the Governments High Church of Edinburgh, in 1637, on the oc- shall have signified its wish that the service casion of introducing a liturgy, the chief agents should cease. in the tumult were servant women, “who were In ports where regular government steamers in the custom of bringing movable seats to do not exist, private vessels and steamers may Church, and keeping them for their masters and be employed to carry bags. For this purpose a mistresses."*

Humbler people brought little posi-hox shall be pui up on board the packet for clasp stools for their accommodation, and it was the reception of letters. such an article that the famous Jenny Geddes There is nothing new in the regulation of the threw on that occasion at the dean's head—the Levant correspondence, which continues to be first weapon, and a formidable one it was, e'n- transmitted three times a month. ployed in the civil war. The more formal seat- Letters may be franked or not; and lettres ing of churches which now exists in Scotland, charges, or particularly recommended, may be may be presumed to have gradually sprung up sent in both countries. The English Post-office in the ciurse of the few years during which that is to pay to the French two francs for every war lasted, a time remarkable beyond all that thirty grammes of letters not franked; and in went before for attendance on religious ordi- the same case the French Post-office will pay nances, and the space of time devoted to them, the English a shilling an ounce. it being by no means unusual in those days to Letters from France to England, franked, will spend six hours at once in church. Very few pay in France by the amount levied on French notices of the church accommodation of this time letiers by the law of 1827. The letters from are to be found; but it appears from the Pres- Paris, however, will pay but the tariff of Bou. bytery records of Perth under 1645, that a dis-logne. Letters franked from England to France pute then arose between the magistrates and will pay five-pence per single letter, weighing kirk-session of that town, "anent the unorderly half an ounce. (This, in addition to the tariff of extraction of a seat forth of the kirk.” In the Boulogne mentioned above, will make tenpence rural districts of Scotland, the seats of the estab. postage between England and Paris.) lished churches are generally divided amongst There are especial charges for letters exthe land proprietors for the use of themselves changed with St. Malo, Cherbourg, and Granand their tenantry; bnt in some of the large ville. towns they are let by the magistracy, and are Journals of either country are to be delivered a source of considerable revenue.

at the port of the country to which they are adThe propri ty of having a large part of the dressed exempt from duty. area of every church appropriated by affluent Pamphlets may be sent by post from one counpersons, who perhaps make little use of the priv- try to another, paying in France as usual; in ilege, has lately been questioned by a party of England one penny for two ounces; sixpence the English clergy; and an effort is now mak- from two to three ounces; eightpence from three ing to have pews everywhere abolished. The to four ounces; and twopence per ounce more bishops of London and Hereford have declared up to sixteen ounces, beyond which weight the for this object in their respective charges to their English Post-office will not receive them. clergy..

The following is Article 86, which relates to a point eo much disputed, and which has involve ed English journals in some expense:

" Art. 86. In order to insure reciprocally the POSTAGE CONVENTION BETWEEN

integrality of the produce of the correspondence FRANCE AND ENGLAND.

of both countries, the French and English GovMonday's Moniteur publishes the Postage ernments will prevent, by every means in their Convention between France and England, sign- power, the transmission of correspondence by ed April 3, 1843.

other channels than the post. Nevertheless, it The first titre, or chapter, establishes towns is understood, that couriers sent by commercial of the two countries, from which letters for one houses or others, to carry accidentally a single another are to be despatched. The French letter, or one or more newspapers, may freely towns are-Paris, Calais, Boulogne, Dieppe, traverse the respective territories of both states, Havre, Cherbourg, Granville, St. Malo, in the these couriers presenting the letter or the GaChannel. The English towns are-London, zettes at the first bureau of post, where the postDover, Brighton, Southampton, Jersey, and age will be levied in the usual manner."-ColoGuernsey. For the Mediterranean, the French nial Gazette. post bureaux of transmission are-Paris, Marseilles, the office at Alexandria, Smyrna, the Dardanelles, and Constantinople. The English are-Alexandria, Gibraltar, and Malta.

Servia.-Paris, May 2.-The affairs of Servia The principal transmission of letters between are arranged. The Divan has conceded all the the countries takes place between Dover and demands of Russia :-Prince George witsch is to Calais, six days a week; the French Govern: abdicate, his councillors and Kiamil to quit Servia,

and a new election to take place, probably in favor * History of the Rebellions in Scotland from 1633 of Prince Milosch. An attempt was made at Milan to 1660. Constable's Miscellany.

to assassinate the Viceroy, which failed.--Exam. Vol. II. No. III. 23


THE OXFORD TRACTARIAN SCHOOL. of controversy. Their principles, logical From the Edinburgh Review.

and ethical, are so totally different from

our own, that we feel it as impossible to ART. VIII.-1. Tracts for the Times. By argue with them as with beings of a differMembers of the University of Oxford. ent species. There may be worlds, say 5 vols. 8vo. 1833-40.

some philosophers, where truth and false. 2. Church Principles considered in their hood change natures—where the three an. Results. By W. E. Gladstone, Esq., gles of a triangle are no longer equal to M.P. 8vo. London: 1840.

two right angles, and where a crime of un3. Ancient Christianity, and the Doctrines usual turpitude may inspire absolute envy. of the Oxford Tracts. By the Author of We are far from saying that the gentlemen Špiritual Despotism. Vols. I. and II. above mentioned are qualified to be inhabiLondon.

tants of such a world ; but we repeat that 4. The Divine Rule of Faith and Practice; we have just as little dispute with them as or, a Defence of the Catholic Doctrine, that if they were. With men who can be guilty Holy Scripture has been, since the times of of so grotesque a petitio principii as to supthe Apostles, the sole Divine Rule of Faith


that to those who question the arro. and Practice in the Church, against the gant and exclusive claims of the Episcopal Dangerous Errors of the Authors of the Clergy, and who “ask by what authority " Tracts for the Times,and the Romanists. they speak,” it can be any answer to cite By William Goode, M. A., of Trinity the words, “ He that despiseth you desCollege, Cambridge. 2 vols. 8vo. Lon. piseth me,” and “whosesoever sins ye redon.

mit they are remitted,"*-with men who 5. The Kingdom of Christ delineated ; in think that no serious"

person can treat Two Essays, on our Lord's own Account lightly their doctrine of Apostolical succes. of his Person and of the Nature of his sion, and that if there be, it is to some purKingdom, and on the Constitution, Powers, pose to quote the text, “Esau, a profane and Ministry of a Christian Church, as

person, who for one morsel of meat sold his appointed by Himself. By Richard Whate birthright,"t-with men who can so wrest ly, D.D., Archbishop of Dublin. 8vo. the meaning of common terms as to repreLondon : 1841.

sent the change effected in the eucharistic 6. Oxford Divinity compared with that of elements by the words of consecration, to the Romish and Anglican Churches, with be as inuch a miracle as that performed at a Special View of the Doctrine of Justifi. the marriage feast at Cana, i-with men cation by Faith. By the Right Rev. C. who are so enamored of the veriest dreams P. M'Ilvaine, D.D., Bishop of Ohio. Svo. and whimsies of the Fathers, as to bespeak London: 1841.

all reverence for that fancy of Justin and 7. The Church of the Fathers. 12mo. Lon- others, that the “ass and the cole” for don : 1842.

which Christ sent his disciples, are to be 8. The Voice of the Anglican Church, being interpreted severally of the Jewish and the declared Opinions of her Bishops on the Gentile believers," and also to attach She Doctrines of the Oxford Tract Writers. much weight to that of Origen, who rather 12mo. London : 1843.

expounds them of the “old and the new 9. Anglo-Catholicism not Apostolical ; be- Testaments,”—with men who can treat ing an Inquiry into the Scriptural Au- with gravity the various patristic exposithority of the Leading Doctrines advocated tions of the “five barley loaves,” which in - The Tracts for the Times.By W.

some suppose to indicate the “five senses," Lindsay Alexander, M. A. 8vo. Edin- and others the “five books of Moses,"s~ burgh : 1843.

It may sound paradoxical, but it is never should have preferred a name not derived from an theless true, that with the disciples of the individual, had we known of any such as widely Oxford Tract School* we have no manner

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used and as generally understood. The Oxford party, it is true, vehemently protest against being

designated by any name, whether derived from an • We have employed the term Puseyism, simply individual or not, which would imply that they conas the ordinary name by which a certain system of stituted a particular school or sect, on the ground doctrines has come to be popularly designated, and that their doctrines are not those of a school or seci, by which it is therefore most readily recognised. It but of the “Catholic Church!" But in this we canis not intended to imply that the reverend gentleman not humor them; they are in our judgment decidedly from whose name the term has been derived, would a " Sect," and nothing more. subscribe to every statement or opinion contained in * Tracts, Vol. i. No. 17, p. 6. she works of the school to which he belongs; but + Tracts, No. 19, p. 4. his own writings leave us no doubt, that in all the #Br. Crit. Vol. xxvii. pp. 259, 360. more important he cordially concurs. Still, we $ Tracts, No. 89.


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