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blood to run more quickly under the impulse of Mr. Simmons's en. thusiastic description. “Land of sunny skies and sparkling lakes," the latter writes concerning Nicaragua; "of beautiful scenery; of mountains blue and verdant dales; of magnificent forests and flowery fields; of fruitful soil and innumerable fruits; of healthful and delightful climate! . . . The primeval tropical forest, with its gigantic trees, its exuberant vegetation, exquisite forms and glowing colors, is a living wonder. Its majestic mountains and smoldering volcanoes, with their canopies of smoke, lift one's thoughts to the plane of sublimity. The simple, polite, and fun-loving people, their strange and interesting mode of life, the queer Spanish-American towns and picturesque Indian villages will furnish no end of enter. tainment and amusement to the pleasure-seeker. The antiquarian will find a rich field for investigation in the Toltec and Aztec remains, the forgotten places of Worship, the overturned and halfburied statues, overgrown sepulchers, and strangely carved rocks. The student of natural history will find an inexhaustible store of wealth in the wonderful flora and fauna of the country. To the sportsman it is a veritable 'happy hunting ground' below, stocked with an astonishing variety of game both in forest and stream, while to the yachtsman it offers one of the most changeful and charming winter cruises to be had anywhere in the world.” It is not superfluous to repeat that this is an opportune book. In the onward movement of the world to the realization of its sublimer destinies, some such monumental work must come early in the new century as the completion of a canal between the two oceans.

Theodore Beza. The Counsellor of the French Reformation, 1519-1605. By HENRY

MARTYN BAIRD, Professor in New York University, Author of History of the
Rise of the Huguenots of France, etc. 12mo, pp. 376. New York : G. P. Putnam's
Sons. Price, cloth, $1.60.

No one who reads this volume will have the disposition to underestimate the greatness of its hero or the importance of the epoch which it portrays. The times were those of stress and struggle, when Protestantism in France was fighting some of its first great battles, and when there was no place for craven souls in the field. How crucial were these times Professor Baird shows in detail, and how supreme a leader was Beza for the emergencies which confronted the Protestant faith. We cannot but regard him with veneration. As an educator, author, controversialist, preacher, and Christian disciple he was a central figure in his generation. Not by any empty words of eulogy, but rather by the plain and consecutive narrative of what he accomplished, does Professor Baird demonstrate this to have been the fact. And yet too little is known of his leadership; for, to repeat the surprise of the author, "there seems to be no life of Theodore Beza accessible to the general reader, either in English or in French.” To remedy this defect the professor has contributed a welcome volume. In its scope it sweeps the whole life of Beza, containing among its chapters those that are entitled,

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"Childhood and Youth," "Beza in Paris," "Beza's Activity at Lausanne," "Becomes Calvin's Coadjutor-Rector of the University of Geneva,” “Speech at the Colloquy of Poissy," "Counsellor of Condé and the Huguenots in the First Civil War," "Beza Succeeds CalvinEdits Greek New Testament," "Controversies and Controversial Writings," "Beza and the Huguenot Psalter," "The Patriotic PreacherHenry IV's Apostasy," "Beza's Later Years in Geneva," add "Closing Days.” To gain an accurate and full understanding of these succeeding incidents in the hero's life the professor has gone to such original sources as Beza's autobiographical notes, letters, and treatises. His labor in their translation and chronological arrangement must have been very great; yet with that disposition for historical authorship which has already won him notice he has prosecuted his present task to a completion that is most satisfactory. There is merely room to quote his description of Beza's personal traits which individualized him among the great reformers of his time : “Theodore Beza, whose career and influence I purpose to trace, did not possess precisely the same remarkable natural endowments that fitted Martin Luther and John Calvin for the accomplishment of their brilliant undertakings, but in a different sphere his task was of scarcely inferior importance, and was accomplished equally well. Like Melanchthon, he belonged to another and not less essential elass of men whose great office it is to consolidate and render perma. nent what has been begun and carried forward to a certain point of development by others. But between Beza and Melanchthon there was a marked contrast of allotted activity. Melanchthon was born fourteen years later than Luther, and survived him by the same number of years. He was, therefore, a younger contemporary of the great German reformer, and his office was preeminently that of supplementing what seemed naturally lacking in the master whom he loved and revered, moderating that master's inordinate fire, by his prudence restraining the older reformer's intemperate zeal, by his superior learning and scholarship qualifying himself to become in a peculiarly appropriate sense the teacher of the doctrines which Luther had propounded. Beza was still nearer to Calvin in point of birth, for only the space of ten years separated them. But he out lived Calvin more than four times that number of years, and ended his life at over fourscore, and early in another century. Thus, while Melanchthon is naturally to be regarded as a companion of Luther, Beza presents himself to view chiefly as a theological successor of Calvin, in whose doctrinal system he introduced little change and which he merely accentuated, and as an independent leader of the French Reformed Churches during over a third of a century. More, perhaps, than any of the other prominent leaders of the great religious movement of his time, Beza is entitled to be styled the " courtly reformer.'” The professor has written with anfailing discrimination, and only words of praise are to be spoken of his volume, wherein Theodore Beza becomes to as increasingly real, influential, and heroic.

Report on the Island of Porto Rico: Its Population, Civil Government, Commerce,

Industries, Productions, Roads, Tariff, and Currency. With Recommendations by HENRY K. CARROLL, Special Commissioner for the United States to Porto Rico. Respectfully submitted to Hon. WILLIAM MCKINLEY, President of the United States. 8vo, pp. 813. Washington : Government Printing Office.

Though this voluminous report is in the nature of a government document, rather than a publication for miscellaneous reading, its importance justifies a cordial notice. As a special commissioner for the United States appointed “to investigate the civil, industrial, financial, and social conditions of Porto Rico,” Dr. Carroll twice visited the island, and through a period of several months prosecuted his necessary investigations. There is more in his very ample report than may here be enumerated. Much of it is made up of testimonies inyited from persons of varying occupations and social rank upon the different phases of life in Porto Rico. So minute was Dr. Carroll's observation during his exhaustive jour. neys through the municipal districts of the island that it is not easy to detect the omission of any needed information from this report. “The United States,” he writes, “is to be congratulated on the acquisition of Porto Rico. It is a beautiful island, well worthy the admiration of its new possessors, accustomed to the most varied and picturesque scenery in their own wide domain.” And no one can read the commissioner's report without the conviction that the future has many good things in store for Porto Rico. When, however, Dr. Carroll proposes for it “a territorial form of government similar to that established in Oklahoma," and "a delegate to Congress" elected by the legal voters of the island, he suggests an experiment that to many will seem hazardous. It is but a step from territorial government to Statehood; and whether the Constitution permits such a step yet remains to be shown-to say nothing of the expediency of the measure. Dr. Carroll has, nevertheless, furnished a document which is authoritative and comprehensive.

MISCELLANEOUS. Ulric the Jarl. A Story of the Penitent Thief. By WILLIAM 0. STODDARD.

Crown 8vo, pp. 459. New York : Eaton & Mains. Cincinnati : Curts & Jennings, Price, cloth, $1.50.

The story begins Around the Viking House-fire, and goes on with the Going Out of the Ice, the Launching of the Ship, the Fall of the Ice King, the Saxon Shore, the Taking of the Trireme, the Great Sacrifice of the Druids, the Passing of Lars the old, the Jew and the Greek, the Storm in the Middle Sea, the Dead God in Africa, Carmel and Esdraelon, the Rabbi from Nazareth, the Tomb Song of Sigurd, the Passing of Oswald, the Messenger of the Procurator, the Cunning of Julius, the Lion and the Tiger, the Jarl and the Rabbi, the Javelin of Herod, the Places of Sacrifice, the Mob of Samaria, the House of Pontius the Spearman, the School of Gamaliel, the Secret Messenger,

the House of Ben Ezra, the Son of Abbas, and the Passover Feast. Then a closing chapter entitled, “A Little While.” It is a new story moving toward and centering upon the Christ-one of ten thousand times ten thousand illustrations of the fact that from every point of the compass, from all lands and periods of time, the human mind turns ever to Jesus and to Calvary as the magnetic center of history, the eternal center of human knowledge and faith and love and imagination. The story is well written and impressive.

The Amateur Practical Garden Book. Containing the Simplest Directions for the

Growing of the Commonest Things about the House and Garden. By C. E. HUNN and L. H. BAILEY. 12mo, pp. 250. New York: The Macmillan Company. Price, cloth, $1.

The garden-maker can follow the instructions of this little handbook to advantage. Avoiding scientific phrase and elaborate discussion, it puts into simple language the things that many need to know. “The same questions," writes Professor Bailey-of the Horticultural Department of Cornell University, and one of the two editors of the book

are asked every year, and they will always be asked the questions about the simplest garden operations. Upon this desire for commonplace advice the horticultural journals live. A journal which publishes only things which are now would find little support. Some of these common questions I have tried to answer in this little book. I wish them answered in the simple and direct phrase of the gardener. Therefore I asked my friend, C. E. Hunn, gardener to the Horticultural Department of Cornell University, who lives with plants, to write advice for one who would make a garden ; and this he did in a summer vacation. These notes, edited and amplified, now make this book.” Not only financial return, but, what is not less desirable, the cultivation of the taste for artistic gardening, will follow obedience to the counsels of this practical little treatise.

Hoses. By AMY LE FEUVRE, author of Probable Sons, Teddie's Button, The Odd

One, etc. Illustrations by Sydney Cowell. 12mo, pp. 266. New York: Wilbur B. Ketcham. Price, cloth, 75 cents. The author is a popular writer for and about children. Her bright stories teem with the quaint sayings and interesting experiences of the children who live and play and prattle and discuss so delightfully in them. Sixteen charming new stories make up this pretty volume. Their very titles entice the lover of child life.

Elvira Hopkins of Tompkins' Corners. By IZORA CHANDLER. Author of Three

of Us, A Dog of Constantinople, etc. 12mo, pp. 195. New York: Wilbur B. Ketcham. Price, cloth, ornamental, 75 cents.

The dedication implies that the author's real name is not revealed. The book purports to be written by the comfortably-off maiden lady" whose face is sketched on the cover. Its shrewdness is none the less effective for being written in the quaint country dialect of central New York; indeed its style recalls David Harum.


JULY, 1900.


The hour is ripe for a new study of Christian ethics. Many new questions—questions that are practical and urgent—are before the public mind, and the adjustment of the old principles to the new issues is necessary both for mental peace and moral power. In a living, progressive society the law is ever falling behind the facts of life. A system of law once formulated attains a kind of sanctity. This is as true of human as of divine law. The case that has been decided becomes a precedent, and when the precedent fails to apply to new conditions resort is had to legal fictions, which assume that to be true which is not true—as when a foreigner under Roman law assumed to be a Roman citizen in order to get jurisdiction -a court of equity intervenes, assuming to stand on different principles and to supersede the civil law, or the legislative body acts which derives its authority from an original source. Law never keeps pace with society. The history of civil law is illustrative of Christian ethics. The formulation of its principles is always behind the times. A conventional conscience gets itself expressed in a conventional code. This code attains a kind of sanctity; it stiffens and hardens, fails to readily adjust itself to growing society, and there is unrest and moral waste. Then follows the era of ethical fictions, courts of equity, and finally new legislation.

This paper is an attempt to define Christian ethics by a study of its relations to several other phases of philosophic thought. Christian ethics is related to, and is to be differentiated from, philosophic ethics. As soon as man begins to

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