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of Heaven. Now, at the mandate of Joshua, the sun stays his wheel, and the moon darts her silvery beams in silent majesty over the vale of Aijalon, till the shout of triumph tells the victory won.

We remark, farther, that when the knowledge of the true God was communicated to the kingdom of Syria, it was accomplished through the instrumentality of a little captive maid, who had been placed in the family of Naaman, the leprous general. The sympathies of the little captive were roused in behalf of her master. She expressed her artless wish that her master were with the prophet in Samaria, that he might be healed of his leprosy. How true that "the foolishness of God is wiser than men!" At the suggestion of the captive, the general repairs in pomp to the prophet at Samaria. Here God honors a living ministry. But the simple prescription of the prophet gave offence to the leper. He directed him to dip seven times in the Jordan. But he turned away enraged, saying, "Are not Abana and Pharpar, rivers of Damascus, better than all the waters of Israel?" Rebuked by his servants, he returned to the prophet; he obeyed; and his "flesh was restored like the flesh of a little child." Now his bounding heart was moved with pure sentiments of gratitude; and when his offering of silver and garments was refused by the prophet, he desired two mules' load of earth that he might build an altar, and offer sacrifice to God, in the land of Syria. The same is true under the gospel dispensation. Notice the case of Cornelius the centurion. While he fasted and prayed, an angel was sent to tell him that his prayers and alms had come up for a memorial before God. But why not tell him the whole story of redemption? This was not consonant with the divine economy. It was reserved for his fellow-man; and therefore he was directed to send to Joppa for one Simon Peter, who should instruct him in things pertaining to the kingdom of God. "And while Peter taught them the way of God more perfectly, the Holy Ghost fell on all that heard the word."

A farther illustration of the subject is found in the case of the eunuch of Ethiopia. He had obtained a copy of the "law and the prophets," and he read it. But, in the absence of a teacher, "the veil was on his heart." It is true, the Spirit that moved the ancient seers was present, and competent to teach; and this process would have been effectual, but a different one was adopted: and hence the Spirit said to Philip, "Go join thyself to the chariot." He obeyed, and while he preached unto the stranger Jesus, as the true Messiah, the veil was taken away, and he believed and was baptized, and went on his way rejoicing in the knowledge of personal salvation. The case of Saul of Tarsus is another instance. On his way to Damascus, on an errand of persecution and blood, he was arrested by the power of God, and overwhelmed by a light exceeding the effulgence of an Asiatic sun; he fell to the ground, and exclaimed, "Who art thou, Lord? What wilt thou have me to do?" This seems to be a case of more than ordinary interest. In the days of the Saviour's incarnation a question of similar import was proposed to him by the rich young man, to whom he gave a direct reply, "Go sell that thou hast," &c. But now after Christ was glorified, and no longer tabernacled among men, he did not answer Saul as he had the young nobleman, but sent him into the city, and directed Ananias to go and lay his hands on him, that he might receive the Holy Ghost.

From these facts, and many more that might be named, which are matter of historical record, we think the proposition above stated is clearly sustained.

The language of the whole scheme of Christianity is, "He that believeth shall be saved." But St. Paul very justly asks, “How shall they believe on him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher?" From this view of the divine plan, but partially executed as yet, we may anticipate success in any religious enterprise which may claim the attention of the church. We say, but partially executed; for certainly if the principles above stated be correct, the want of success in the cause of Christianity is to be attributed, in a very great degree, to the indifference of the church. The heathen were promised to Christ for his inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for his possession. But how is this to be effected? Simply by the method already stated. St. Paul says, "To the intent that unto principalities and powers in heavenly places might be made known by the church the manifold wisdom of God." Without any forced construction of this passage, we think it strongly corroborates the views already expressed. It is then through the church: "Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God will shine." From the present attitude of the church we behold, in delightful perspective, the full execution of this plan of Heaven's own appointment. He that dwelleth between the cherubim is shining forth "to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ." A voice more thrilling than the trump of Judah's holy seers has issued from the most excellent glory, "Awake, O Zion! put on thy strength!" God is raised up out of his holy habitation, and before the silent gaze of all flesh is marching to the actual redemption of the world!

Behold! a whirlwind cometh out of the north, and a great cloud of mercy, and a fire infolding itself, and a brightness about it; connected with this, is the terrible wheel of providence encircling the Spirit of the living God. It sweeps in dreadful majesty, covering the heavens with his glory, and filling the earth with his praise! Before it the mountains of opposition are trembling; the waters of sin are rolling back; the depths of iniquity utter a voice in wild consternation; the sun and moon stand still in their habitation; and every revolution of the mighty chariot wheels of the great God is marked with light, and life, and liberty, and salvation!

Behold he cometh! The clouds are his chariot, illumined by the burning coals at his feet! Floods of light are poured on the dark habitations of man; monuments of his power lift themselves amid the desolated waste; and he that runs may read, "Life and immortality are brought to light by the gospel!" Salvation's banner waves in peaceful triumph over the sepulchral temples of heathen idolatry; the fires of the funeral pile are being quenched in the waters of life; the shriek of despair is hushed in the anthem of praise; and the valley of dry bones begins to teem with life through the vivifying efficacy of a dying Saviour's blood. The bewildered pagan casts his idols to the moles and bats; and, guided by the light of truth, is crying, "Open thou mine eyes to behold wondrous things out of thy law!"

The nineteenth century is the most illustrious epoch of the world's history-an age characterized by the most liberal schemes of bene

volence. It is distinguished by moral enterprises of such magnificence as shows their origin to be in the Spirit of God. They contemplate nothing short of the complete execution of the plans of Heaven. A voice of thunder has broken on the ear of the church. We behold her "coming up out of the wilderness, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as an army with banners." She swells beyond the measure of the chains that burst from around her. She stretches herself to distant regions, and reaches an anxious arm to rescue the millions who fall within the circle of her vision, who have hitherto been left to "live, sicken, die, and sink to hell." The Sun of righteousness is melting away the icy fetters which have closed her avenues, and fast bound her energies. Now a holy flame begins to burn on the altar of every heart. The hoary-headed sire, in deeds of moral daring, is rivalled by the buoyant youth he but yesterday dandled on his knee. The deep tinge of conscious guilt on the cheek of the miserly worldling is rapidly yielding to the more generous aspect which marks the nobler spirit of the Christian philanthropist. The fertilizing stream still rolls on. The rich cast in of their abundance, and the indigent widow contributes her mite, while the smiles of heaven sit undisturbed upon her brow. But a short time since a cloud of portentous aspect darkened the horizon of the church. Her friends looked with gloomy anticipations upon the future. They feared lest the spirit of covetousness, like the gathering strength of Samson, should grasp the pillars of the church, and bury itself beneath her ruins. But the cloud has disappeared; the evil spirit has been rebuked, and fled; the rock has been smitten, and living waters are gushing out to fertilize our spiritual Jerusalem. What though Sanballat and Sabeath rage, the temple of God rises in stately grandeur, and the gathering nations say, "Beautiful for situation is Mount Zion, the joy of the whole earth."


From the Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review for April, 1838.


A Manual of Drawing and Writing, for the use of Schools and Families. By REMBRANDT PEALE. Second edition, improved. New-York: B. & S. Collins. 1835. pp. 96, 12mo.

THIS is the second edition of a manual, which comes to us recommended by such names as those of Mr. Sully, Professor Morse, Judge Hopkinson, Professor Anthon, Chancellor Kent, Miss Leslie, and the late Dr. Hosack. We are led to notice it as pointing out a path in the field of elementary education somewhat unfrequented, and highly promising. On some points of the system we are not entirely free from doubt; but the manly and liberal tone of the work, and the repu tation of the artist from whose pen it proceeds, command our unqualified respect.

On such a subject it is always pleasant to be instructed by a master. To use a favorite expression of Coleridge, Mr. Peale manifestly" writes down upon his subject," and his remarks are merely the overflowings of a full mind. Being an artist almost by inheritance, familiarized VOL. IX.-July, 1838.


by frequent visits with the great works of Italy, and for many years in the practice of the art, he gives us directions which awaken far more confidence than those of the ordinary guides to the use of the pencil. It is an additional recommendation, that the book is written with terseness and condensation of style, and without a single dash of egotism. It is a small volume of about one hundred pages, well executed as to type and illustrations. The characteristic of the system is the position that drawing and writing are branches of the same imitative art, and that the former is the proper introduction to the latter. The general views of the author may perhaps be best learned from his own words :


Writing is nothing else than drawing the forms of letters. Drawing is little more than writing the forms of objects. Every one that can learn to write is capable of learning to draw; and every one should know how to draw, that can find advantage in writing. The two may

be taught together without increasing the task of the learner, provided the teacher understands the right method; which is to habituate the hand to move in all directions, and the eye to judge whether the movements be correct. The art of drawing, therefore, requires a knowledge of the forms and proportions of objects, and the practice of marking them on a plane surface, as they might be marked on a glass held between the eye and the objects.


Writing is chiefly acquired by practice, and executed without thought, becoming so mechanical a habit, by constant repetition, that the writer can seldom form his letters but after one fashion. Those persons, therefore, who are capable of diversifying their writing have learned to draw their letters after different models; and can, with comparative facility, learn to draw the forms of other objects.

"It is worthy of especial remark, that there is no person, however ignorant of drawing, who does not habitually discriminate between the proportions and contours of objects, even in the human countenance, in their most minute variations. This demonstrates the universal accuracy of the eye, and leaves us to conclude that nothing more is required to become draughtsmen than to analyze those objects, to reason upon their proportional differences, to define them by specific rules, and to acquire, by strict manual exercise, a habit of prompt obedience to the will in the imitation of those contours; as all the facility which is necessary and may be attained in drawing, as in writing, depends upon the habits of motion to which the fingers and wrist may be trained by frequent observations and practice."

In correspondence with these principles, the author proceeds to give a series of studies, directions, and examples, first in drawing, and then in writing. The analysis of forms is simple and pleasing. The pupil begins with the practice of simple lines, straight and curve, regular and irregular, and is taken through sixteen examples of this kind. Special attention is directed to the means of overcoming the difficulty of perpendicular lines, and oblique lines from the left downward, and to what the author well calls "fixing the rule and compass in the eye." In this, as in every part of this manual, we are agreeably impressed with a marked exemption from that artistical pedantry which would tie down the beginner to the necessity of drawing perfect figures before he advances to practice; a pedantry which deforms many instruction books, and disheartens many learners.

Next comes the transition from drawing to writing, "The regular course of drawing is here suspended, to introduce a system of writing which is essentially founded on that of drawing, and for which the student must be now prepared. To attempt to write before the eye has become critical of the forms, and the hand can obey the judgment, is only to labor against reason, and to fall into bad habits. The teacher of writing endeavors to guard against these by the force of habit, which, in a degree, answers the purpose ;, but not with the certainty and charm which encourage such as have been prepared by the elements of drawing. It is time enough then to commence writing, which is of so much importance that its attainment is worthy of every effort; but no effort can be so effectual as one which follows a wellgrounded study of principles which are the foundation of that as well as so many other arts. Children are usually put to writing too young. They cannot begin to draw too soon. And they should not be permitted to learn to write until they are somewhat prepared for it, which will make it easy and desirable: indeed it is the only rational mode of proceeding, and chiefly advantageous as the eye is taught to judge without hesitation of every kind of line which the hand may be required to execute.”

Without the use of figures it would be scarcely possible to render any abstract of this portion intelligible. Let it suffice to express our high admiration of the judicious rules and models here suggested. Especially would we commend the liberality of views with respect to allowable variations in the form and posture of letters, which we have seldom found in teachers of this art. The remainder of the work is occupied with exercises in drawing and writing intermixed. On these we need only remark, that they seem to be exactly such as the system demands, and such as will secure proficiency to those who faithfully use them. There are a few observations of Mr. Peale, on instruction in writing, which express so exactly our own views, that we shall subjoin them in an insulated manner.

“As in drawing, so in writing, it is an error to commence with heavy strokes. Accuracy of form is best attained by light lines; and all the beauties of hairstroke and swell can be afterward studied, and easily grafted upon the true forms. It is enough to conquer one difficulty at a time; nor is it necessary to compel delicate little fingers to strain in the formation of very large letters in copies, the professed object of which is to teach a small current hand, when a medium size is sufficient for their definition.

"It may be remarked, as advantageous in this manual, that the elegances of copperplates have not been employed, which, both in writing and drawing, frequently deter young people from attempting to imitate them. Ruder lessons, given with the pencil or the pen, less perfect though they may be, are more within the reach of ordinary abilities. The object here is to teach correct principles and a good honest practice, a medium common-sense course, which may enable the student afterward to acquire, by self-directed efforts, more varied refinements and elaborate excellences.

"Since the great purpose of writing is to be understood, simplicity of form, with certainty and facility of execution, are more desirable than curious and bewildering flourishes; yet every elegance in the fashions of writing may be ultimately cultivated by those who have a

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