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honest, and industrious people. In the late bloody contest, they bore a conspicuous part, when they fought, bled, and conquered, in defence of their civil rights and privileges, which they expected to transmit untainted to their posterity. They are nearly all, to a man, opposed to this new Constitution, because, they say, they have omitted to insert a bill of rights therein, ascertaining and fundamentally establishing, the unalienable rights of men, without a full, free, and secure enjoyment of which there can be no liberty, and over which it is not necessary that a good government should have the control. They say that they are by no means against vesting Congress with ample and sufficient powers; but to make over to them, or any set of men, their birthright, comprised in Magna Charta, which this new Constitution absolutely does, they can never agree to. Notwithstanding this, they have the highest opinion of the virtues and abilities of the honorable gentlemen from this state, who represented us in the General Convention; and also a few other distinguished characters, whose names will be transmitted with honor to future ages; but I believe, at the same time, they are but mortal, and, therefore, liable to err; and as the virtue and abilities of those gentlemen will consequently recommend their being first employed in jointly conducting the reins of this government, they are led to believe it will commence in a moderate aristocracy: but, that it will, in its future operations, produce a monarchy, or a corrupt and oppressive aristocracy, they have no manner of doubt. Lust of dominion is natural in every soil, and the love of power and superiority is as prevailing in the United States, at present, as in any part of the earth ; yet in this country, depraved as it is, there still remains a strong regard for liberty: an American bosom is apt to glow at the sound of it, and the splendid merit of

preserving that best gift of God, which is mostly expelled from every country in Europe, might stimulate Indolence, and animate even Luxury to consecrate herself at the altar of freedom.

My constituents are highly alarmed at the large and rapid strides which this new government has taken towards despotism. They say it is big with political mischiefs, and pregnant with a greater variety of impending woes to the good people of the Southern States, especially South Carolina, than all the plagues supposed to issue from the poisonous




box of Pandora. They say it is particularly calculated for the meridian of despotic aristocracy; that it evidently tends to promote the ambitious views of a few able and designing men,

and enslave the rest; that it carries with it the appearance of an old phrase, formerly made use of in despotic reigns, and especially by Archbishop Laud, in the reign of Charles I., that is, “non-resistance.” They say they will resist against it; that they will not accept of it unless compelled by force of arms, which this new Constitution plainly threatens ; and then, they say, your standing army, like Turkish janizaries enforcing despotic laws, must ram it down their throats with the points of bayonets. They warn the gentlemen of this Convention, as the guardians of their liberty, to beware how they will be accessory to the disposal of, or rather sacrificing, their dear-bought rights and privileges. This is the sense and language, Mr. President, of the people; and it is an old saying, and I believe a very true one, that the general voice of the people is the voice of God. The general voice of the people, to whom I am responsible, is against it. I shall never betray the trust resposed in me by them; therefore, shall give my hearty dissent.

WEDNESDAY, May 21, 1788. Gen. SUMPTER, agreeably to notice given yesterday, (Tuesday, 20th,) moved for an adjournment of the Convention to the (20th October) twentieth day of October next, in order to give time for the further consideration of the Federal Constitution. After considerable debate, it was rejected by a majority of (46) forty-six - yeas, eighty-nine, (89;) nays, one hundred and thirty-five (135).

Friday, May 23, 1788. On motion, Resolved, That this Convention do assent to and ratify the Constitution agreed to on the 17th day of September ļast, by the Convention of the United States of America, held at Philadelphia.

On the question being put to agree to the same, the yeas and nays were called for by the unanimous voice of the Convention, and are as follows:

FOR THE PARISHES OF St. PaiLIP AND ST. MICHAEL, CHARLESTON. – Yeas : His excellency, Governor Thomas Pinckney, did not vote. Lieutenant-Governor Thomas Gadsden, C. C. Pinckney, (general, Christopher Gadsden, (general - member of Congress of '65, at New York.) Edward Rutledge, (governor — one of the Congress of '76,) David Ramsay, (Dr.,) Thomas Heyward, Jun., (judge - and one of the Congress of 76,) Edward Darrell, Isaac Motte, John Mathews, (governor,) Edward Blake, Thomas Bee, (judge,) Daniel De Soussure, Thomas Jones, John F. Grimke, (judge,) William Johnson, John J. Pringle, (attorney-general,) John Blake, Daniel


Stevens, Daniel Cannon, Anthony Toomer, Hugh Rutledge, (judge,) John Budd, (Dr.,) Francis Kinloch, Thomas Sommersall, Michael Kalteisen, (captain of Fort Johnson,) Richard Lushington, (colonel,) Nathaniel Russel, Josiah Smith, Lewis Morris, Edward Lightwood, John Edwards. 31.

Christ CHURCH. Yeas: Hon. Charles Pinckney, Hon. John Rutledge, Hon. A. Vanderhorst, William Read, Joseph Manigault, Jacob Read, Joshua Toomer. 7.

St. John's, BERKLEY.— Yeas: Hon. Henry Laurens, Gen. William Moultrie, Henry Laurens, Jun. 3.- Nays: Peter Fayssoux, Keating Simons, Thomas Wal. ter. 3.

Absent: Francis Marion. 1. ST. ANDREW's.— Yeas : Glen Drayton, Hon. Richard Hutson, Thomas Fuller, James Ladson, Ralph Izard, Jun., Charles Drayton, Hon. William Scott. 7. - Nays:

Sr. GEORGE's, DORCHESTER. Yeas : John Glaze, Morton Waring, Thomas Warring, Maj. J. Postell, William Postell, Mathias Hutchinson, John Dawson. 7.Nays : none.

St. James's, Goose CREEK. -Yeas: Hon. Ralph Izard, Peter Smith, Hon. Benjamin Smith, Gabriel Manigault, William Smith, J. Parker, Jun., J. Deas, Jun. 7.Nays : none.

Sr. THOMAS AND Sr. Dennis. — Yeas : Hon. John Huger, Thomas Karwon, Thomas Screven, Robert Daniel, Lewis Fogartie, Isaac Harleston, Isaac Parker. Nays: none.

Sr. Paul's PARISH. 2 Yeas : Paul Hamilton, George Haig, Joseph Slann, Roger Parker Saunders, William Washington, (hero of Eutaw and Cowpens.) – Nays : John Wilson, Hon. Melcher Garner. 2.

Sr. BARTHOLOMEW's. — Yeas : Hon. John Lloyd, John Crosskeys. — Nays : Benjamin Postell, William Clay Snipes, O'Brien Smith, Paul Walier, Edmund Bel. linger. 5.

ST. HELENA's. — Yeas: Hon. John Barnwell, Hon. John Joyner, Hon. John Kean, Hon. William H. Wigg, Hon. Robert Barnwell, Hon. William Elliott, Hon. James Stuart. 7. - Nays : none.

St. James's, SANTEE. — Yeas : Isaac Dubose, Lewis Miles, Samuel Warren, Richard Withers, John Mayrant, Thomas Horry. 6. — Nay: John Bowman. 1.

Prince George's, WINYAW. – Yeas : Hon. Thomas Waties, (judge of C. C. P., and chancellor,) Samuel Smith, Cleland Kinloch, Hon. William Allston, Jun. 4. – Nays : none. - Absent : Peter Horry. 1. All Saints'. — Yeas : Daniel Morral, Thomas Allston. 2.

Nays : none. PRINCE FREDERICK's. — Yeas : William Wilson, Alexander Tweed, William Frierson, James Pettigrew. 4.- Nays : Patrick Dollard, William Read, J. Burges, Jun. 3.

St. John's, COLLETON County. — Yeas : Thomas Legare, Richard Muncreef, Jun., Hon. Daniel Jenkins, Hugh Wilson, Isaac Jenkins, Ephraim Mikel, William Smelie.

Nays : none.

ST. PETER's. — Yens : John Fenwick, Joachin Hartstone, Seth Stafford, Rev. Henry Holcom. 4. — Nays : John Chisholm, John Lewis Bourjin, Jun. 2. - Absent : Wils liam Stafford. 1.

PRINCE WILLIAM's. — Yeas : Thomas Hutson, John M'Pherson, James Maine, John A. Cuthbert, John Lightwood, John Simmons, Stephen Devaux. 7.— Nays:

ST. STEPHEN's.-Yeas : John Palmer, Hon. Hezekiah Mahams, Samuel Dubose, John Peyre. 4. - Nays: none. Absent : Thomas Cooper, Thomas Palmer. 1 vacant.

DISTRICT EASTWARD OF THE WATEREE. — Yea: John Chesnut. 1. - Nays: Thomas Sumter, Andrew Baskins, John Lowry, Benjamin Cudworth, William Massay, Hugh White, Thomas Dunlap, Samuel Dunlap, John Montgomery. 9. - Absent : 8. Boykin.

District or NINETY-SIX.— Yea: Dr. John Harris. 1. - Nays : James Lincoln, Adam Crain Jones, Edmond Martin, Andrew Hamilton, Joseph Calhoun, William Butler, John Bowie, Hon. John L. Gervais. 8. Absent : John Ewing Calhoun, Charles Davenport. 2.

NORTA SIDE OF SALUDA. — Yeas : Samuel Earle, Lemuel J. Allstone, John Thomas, Jun. 3.- Nays: none.

SOUTH SIDE OF SALUDA.— Yeas: John Miller, William M'Caleb. 2. — Nays none. — Absent : Robert Anderson. 1.

District OF SAXE-Gotha. -- Yea: Hon. Henry Pendleton. 1.- Nays : Hon. Richard Hampton, J. Culpeper, William Fitzpatrick, Llewellen Threewits, John Threewits, Wade Hampton. 6

LOWER DISTRICTS BETWEEN BROAD AND Saluda RIVERS. — Yeas: none. - Nays : Hon. Edanus Burke, J. Lindsay, Philemon Waters, Robert Ruthford, Hon. J. Hampton. 5.


LITTLE RIVER DISTRICT. — Yeas : John Hunter, Thomas Wadsworth. 2. — Nays : Samuel Saxon, Joshua Saxon. 2. - Absent : James Mayson. 1. UPPER OR SPARTAN District. — Yeas : none.

- Nays : William Kennedy, James Jourdon, Charles Sims, Thomas Brandon, Hon. Zacariah Bullock. 5.

District BETWEEN BROAD AND Catawba RIVERS, Richland County. —Yeas: none. - Nays: Hon. Thomas Taylor, William Meyer, Thomas Howell. 3.

FAIRFIELD County. Nays : James Craig, Jacob Brown, John Gray, John Cook. 4.

Chester District. -Yeus: none. — Nays: Edward Lacy, Joseph Brown, William Miles, James Knox. 4.

DISTRICT CALLED The New Acquisition.— Yea : Rev. Francis Cummins. 1. Nays : Hon. William Hill, Robert Patton, Samuel Watson, James Martin, James G. Hunt, Samuel Lowry, Andrew Love, John M'Caw, Adam Meek, Abraham Smith. 10.

St. Matthew's. — Yeas : Hon. William Thompson, Hon. Paul Warley. 2. — Nay: Hon. John Linton. 1.

ORANGE. – Yeas : Lewis Lesterjette, Jacob Rumph, Donald Bruce. 3. - Nays: none. - Absent : Lewis Golsan. 1.

Sr. Davuu's. — Yeas: Lemuel Benton, William Dewitt, Calvin Spencer, Samuel Taylor, R. Brownfield, Benjamin Hicks, Jun. 6. — Nuys : none. - Absent : Trist. Thomas. 1.

DISTRICT BETWEEN SAVANNAH RIVER, AND THE North Fork or Edisto. — Yeas : Stephen Smith, Hon. William Dunbar, Joseph Vince, William Robison, John Collins, Jonathan Clark. 6. -- Nays : none. - - Absent : William Buford. 1. Yeas, 149. | Nays,

73. | Majority,

76. | Absent,

15 So it was resolved in the affirmative.

JOHN S. DART, Secretary of Convention.

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1 St. Andrew's,

7 St. George's, Dorchester,

7 St. James's, Goose Creek,

7 St. Thomas and St. Dennis,

7 St. Paul's Parish,.

5 St Bartholomew's,

2 St. Helena's, :

7 St. James's, Santee,

6 Prince George's, Winyaw,

0 11 All Saints',

0 0 Prince Frederick's,.

4 St. John's, Colleton County,

7 St. Peter's,

2 Prince William's,

7 0 0 St. Stephen's,

3 District Eastward of the Wateree, District of Ninety-six,

2 North side of the Saluda,

0 South side of the Saluda, District of Saxe-Gotha,.. Lower District, between Broad and Saluda Rivers, Little River District, Upper, or Spartan District, District between Broad and Catawba Rivers, Richland County, Fairfield County, Chester County, District called the New Acquisition,

10 St. Matthew's,..


0 Orange,


1 St. David's,

6 District between Savannah River and the North Fork of Edisto, 6

1 149 73

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Two hundred and thirty-six members appointed to the Convention.
Fourteen absent.
Two hundred and twenty-two attended, of which there were,

In favor of adoption,..
Against adoption,


OVUM REIPUBLICÆ. - The Congress of 1765.

[From Garden's Anecdotes, Second Series.] South Carolina is literally one of the Nine primitive Muses of American Liberty. Before the thirteen were she is." We must never forget that the parent of the revolution, the very Ovum Reipublice, was the Congress which convened in New York, in 1765. But nine colonies were represented, as four were overpowered by the royal party. But South Carolina beat down the strong opposition of the crown, and was the only one, south of the Potomac, that sent a delegation. This was the achievement of General Gadsden. In this primeval council, our members were far from being insignificant. Three committees only were appointed, and of two the sons of Carolina were chairmen. Mr. Lynch (father of the patriot who signed the Declaration of Independence) was chairman of the one to prepare an address to the House of Commons, and John Rutledge (who was then but twenty-six years of age) of that for the house of lords. This Convention of sages was the parent plant of our present confederacy of republics. Thus was South Carolina among the aboriginal founders of the Union.

Extract from the official Journal of the Congress of 1765. Met in New York, on Monday, 7th of October, 1765. After having examined and admitted the certificates of appointment of the above members, the said committees proceeded to choose a chairman by ballot; and Timothy Ruggles, Esq., of Massachusetts, on sorting and counting the votes, appeared to have a majority, and thereupon was placed in the chair.

Resolved, nem, con., That John Cotton be clerk to this Congress, during the continuance thereof.

Resolved, That the committee of each colony shall have one voice only, in determining any questions that shall arise in the Congress.

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