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Fairs and Markets instituted in England, have since become very

Famous. Since Spirituous Liquors were first made, they have ruined many

A Family. When the Russian Monarchy was founded at Ladoga, monarchies were much in

Fashion The Sclavonic Alphabet was invented, and had one letter that was shaped like

A Fish-hook. The University of Oxford was founded by Alfred the

Great, who could make A Fife or a Watch. Alfred the Great divided England, and composed his

Body of Laws, that he might Have Peace. Lanterns were invented, to give light during the absence of

Phæbus. The Land-tax first levied in England, was not

Half Paid. When Knighthood was first established in England, every knight carried

A Half-pike. When Edinburgh was built, the founder erected for himself

A Palace. When Greenland was discovered, it was supposed to extend near to one of the

Poles. Christianity was introduced into Russia by the Princess

Olga, to make her subjects Happy and Loyal. Wolves were expelled from England and Wales, by

driving them away with the ball and Whip. Otho the Great, conquered Italy, and annexed it to his dominions, while he was in

A Passion. Juries were instituted by Ethelred II., and each jury.

man was commanded to Speak and Obey. Duties on imported Goods, were first collected in Great

Britain, on all that the people had to Beg or Buy. The Grand Canal in China was built, and the boats had to

Obey the Waves. The Arabic Figures were introduced into Europe by

the Saracens, and taught to every Happy Poet. Instructions. In the Tables of Modern Chronology, including Euro. pean and American History, Remarkable Battles, Sover.

igns of England and France, Treaties of Peace, Distin. guished Men of Modern Times, and all events transpiring since the year 1200, we find it convenient in many cases to have the formula represent the last three figures only, and complete the date by prefixing a figure 1.

Example. i 7 10 St. Paul's Church in London was built, ghe, te, se, and surrounded by

Gates. The Mnemotechnic Phrase, Gates, represents 710, and, by prefixing the figure 1, or adding 1000 years, we make the correct date. We translate the phrase by saying, ghe, seventeen hundred, and te, se, ten. After learning the different Tables, the student will very readily tell whether events belong to Ancient, Middle Age, or Modern Chronol. ogy. In Ancient Chronology, whenever an event transpired more than 1000 years before the Christian Era, the figure 1, the first figure of the date, is always represented in the formula. In the Middle Ages, extending from the Christian Era to the year 1000, there are never more than three figures; consequently the figure 1 must not be prefixed to any events but Modern ones. All of the Modern dates between 1000 and 1200 are represented in full by the formulas, so that we can establish this rule :

If the first articulation in the formulas for Modern Events does not represent a figure 1, then that figure must be prefixed to the translation, to complete the date.

We carry this rule still further, in some subjects con. nected with American History, as in the American Battles, pages 122-4, the Presidents of the United States, page 151, and the periods of the Settlement and Admission of the States, pages 152–3. In these Tables we have the formulas represent only the last two figures of the year, and we supply the figure 1, for the thousand, and the figure 6, 7, or 8, for the hundred. The most of the events in these Tables were between 1700 and 1800, or after the year 1800. This rule enables us to make shorter formulas, which are easier to learn than long ones. .

Throughout this work, there are quite a number of proper names of persons and places, that the learner will find difficult to pronounce. All of these have been ar. ranged in alphabetical order, and inserted in a “Pronouncing Index,” beginning on page 233, with the correct pronunciation in the second column, parallel with the original name. These pronunciations are printed in a new alphabet, which has a letter for every sound. The alphabet will be seen on page 231, and the Instructions on that and the two preceding pages. By a little examination of the letters in the Alphabet, and some practice on the piece of composition printed in the new style, on page 232, the correct sound of every letter will be readily seen. After the Alphabet has been learned, the student should read over the names in the Pronouncing Index, a few times, aloud, giving their correct pronunciation according to the spelling in the second column, to get in the habit of pronouncing them correctly. Then, whenever a name is seen in any part of the book that cannot be readily pronounced, the Index should be referred to for the correct pronunciation. This Pronouncing Index will be of considerable use to teachers ; as Classical Dictionaries and Pronouncing Gazetteers are not always at hand, from which to obtain the pronunciation of proper names.

We are under obligations to Charles Anthon, LL. D., Professor of Ancient Languages in Columbia College, New York, for valuable aid and information respecting the correct pronunciation of many of the Classical names.

..Modern Chronology.

1. Arragon and Castile kingdoms established, A. D. 1036 Macbeth King of Scotland, killed by Malcolm III., . 1057 Turks under Solyman, subdue Asia Minor, . . . 1074 Tower of London built, . . . . . . 1078 Court of Chancery established in England, . . . 1079 Band of Assassins organized, by the “Old Man of the

Mountain," . . . . . . . . 1090 Duelling introduced into Europe, . . . . 1096 First Crusade : conducted by Peter the Hermit, . . 1096 Jerusalem taken by the Crusaders under Godfrey,

1099 Order of Knight Templars instituted, in Europe,

1118 Degree of Doctor first conferred, at Bologna, . . 1130 Kingdom of Portugal established, . . . . 1139 Guelphs and Ghibellines in Italy and Germany, - 1150 City of Moscow founded, . . . . . . 1156 Henry II. of England, took possession of Ireland, . 1172 Third Crusade, by Richard Cæur de Lion, and Philip II.

of France, . . . . . . . 1188 Acre taken by the Crusaders, after a siege of 2 years, and a loss of 300,000 men, . .. .

1191 Robinhood and Little John the Robbers, lived, . . 1197 Parliament first convened in Great Britain, .

1204 Hamlet King of Denmark, reigned, . . Ghengis Khan proclaimed Emperor of the Tartars, . 1206 Magna Charta signed by King John, . . June 19th. 1215 Court of Common Pleas established in England, .. 1215 Ghengis Khan invades Persia, . . . . . 1218 League of the Hanse Towns, formed, .

1241 Hermits Order began, . . . .

. 1257 Caliphate of Bagdad abolished by the Tartars, . . 1258 Last Crusade to the Holy Land,

1270 Band of Assassins broken up, . . . . . 1272 Sicilian vespers—10,000 Frenchmen massacred,

1282 Wales united to England, by Edward I.,

1283 Jews banished from England, by Edward I., . . 1290 Acre and the Holy Land reconquered by the Saracens, 1291 Turkish or Ottoman Empire founded by Othman I., : 1299 Robert Bruce elected King of Scotland, . . . 1306


Modern Chronology.


Swiss Republics established, by William Tell, . A. D. 1308

Lincoln's Inn Society established, . . . . 1310

Rhodes taken by the Knights of St. John, from the

Greeks, . . . . . . . . 1310

Tell shot Gesler, the Austrian Governor, with an arrow, 1317

Madeira Islands discovered, . . . . . 1344

Canary Islands discovered by the Spanish, . . . 1345

Windsor Castle built, by Edward III., . . . 1346

Rienzi Tribune of Rome, exiled, . . . . 1347

Order of the Garter established by Edward II


Plague ravages all Europe, . . . . . 1349

Chivalry at its zenith in England, . . . . 1350

Marino Faliero Doge of Venice, beheaded,


Watt Tyler's insurrection in London,


Tamerlane invaded Persia, and captured Ispahan, 1384

Westminster Abbey built, . . . . . 1399

Tamerlane invades Syria, and sacks Aleppo,

Council of Constance begins-lasts 34 years, .


Freemasonry forbidden in England,


Joan of Arc burned to the stake, at Rouen, . . 1431

The sea breaks in at Dort in Holland, and drowns

100,000 people, . . . . . . 1446

Vatican Library founded at Rome, by Pope Nicholas V., 1447

Jack Cade's insurrection in England, . . . 1450

Fall of the Eastern Roman Empire-Constantinople taken, 1453

University of Glasgow founded, . . . 1454

York and Lancaster war begins-lasts 30 years, . 1455

Printing introduced into England by Caxton, . . 1474

Arragon and Castile united, forming the kingdom of Spain, 1479

Cape of Good Hope discovered, by Bartholomew Diaz, 1486

Standing Army first established, by Henry VII. of Eng-

land, . . . . . . . . . 1486

Kingdom of the Moors in Spain abolished, by Ferdinand, 1492

America discovered, by Christopher Columbus, Oct. 11th. 1492

Cape of Good Hope first doubled, by Vasco de Gama, 1497

Madagascar discovered by Tristan de A'Cunha, Port., . 1506

Reformation in Germany, begun by Luther, . . 1517

Royal Library at Paris, established by Francis I., . 1520

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