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The Third Punic War commenced, after which the

Romans caught the Carthaginians in A Trap. Corinth taken and Greece reduced to a Roman province, was a great

Outrage. The Extension of the Roman power, to Greece, Macedon, etc., sung many a nation's

Dirge. Tiberius Gracchus was put to death, and denied

A Tomb at Home. Adherbal was murdered by Jugurtha, when he looked like

A Dead Hun. The War commenced against Jugurtha, when he showed himself very

Hot-headed. Marius defeated and captured Jugurtha, in

A Hot Siege. The Civil War began between Marius and Sylla, before

warriors had adopted the Use of the Fife. The First Mithridatic War commenced, before warriors had adopted the

Use of the Fife. Marius sat among the ruins of Carthage, but he would

have preferred sitting on A Sofa with a Wife. Sylla was Dictator, having no Council of

Seven. Spartacus, the Gladiator, commenced the Servile War, and he did not find it a very

Wise Game. When Catiline's conspiracy was discovered by Cicero,

he took refuge in the House of a Chum. The First Triumvirate, between Pompey, Cæsar and Crassus, was a coalition of three

Sages. Julius Cæsar's first Campaign, was not conducted by

A Slave. Cicero was banished at the instigation of Clodius, and he left rather than be

A Slave. Cæsar invaded Britain, and attacked the cities very

Slily. Cæsar passed the Rubicon, and was proclaimed Dictator, by the

Wise of Europe. Pompey's Pillar, erected at Alexandria, is higher than

A House-roof. Cæsar when he was killed in the Senate-house, had the reputation of

A Wise Warrior. The Second Triumvirate, Octavius, Antony and Lepi. dus, enlisted

A Wise Army. Cicero who was murdered by the followers of Antony, . was one of the

Wise of Rome. Augustus Cæsar was Emperor, and he showed the wis. dom of

A Wise Muse, The Temple of Janus was shut, and the god of war took

An Easy Nap. Dionysius of Halicarnassus completed his History, which has been celebrated in

Song

Middle Age Chronology.

1. Cappadocia reduced to a Roman province, . . A. D. 17 Caligula assassinated by Chereas, . . . . . London founded by the Romans, . . . . . Caractacus chief of the Britons, captured by the Romans, Nero destroyed the Druids, . . . Boadicea Q. of Britain defeated Romans under Suetonius, First persecution of the Christians, by Nero, . . . Nero set Rome on fire, and laid it to the Christians, . Josephus, the Jewish Historian, made Gov. of Galilee, . Jerusalem destroyed, by Titus Emperor of Rome, . Plague at Rome—10,000 perished in a day, . . . Herculaneum and Pompeii destroyed, by an eruption of

Mt. Vesuvius: Pliny the elder suffocated, . . 79 Julius Agricola elected Governor of South Britain, . Britain conquered by the Romans under Domitian, . . Pliny the yr. sends Trajan an account of the Christians, 102 Trajan's Column, 140 feet high, erected at Rome, . . 114 The Jews massacre 200,000 Greeks and Romans at Cyrene, 115 Plutarch the Biographer, died . . . . . . 119 Caledonians reconquer Scotland from the Romans, . 121 Adrian Emperor of Rome, leads an Expedition into Britain, 121 The Romans destroy 580,000 Jews in Judea, .

135 Fast of Lent instituted, . . .

. . . 142 Antoninus Pius defeats the Moors and Germans, in battle, 145 Glass-making practiced by the Chinese, . . . . 200 Septimius Severus builds a wall across Britain, . 208 Grist-mills invented in Ireland, . . . . . 214 Alexander Severus murdered, in a mutiny of his army, 235 The Franks first mentioned in history, . . . . 241 Ossian the Caledonian poet, flourished, . . . 256 Temple of Diapa at Ephesus, burned, . . . . 260 Zenobia Queen of Palmyra, defeated by Aurelian, , 272 Candle-light introduced into churches, . . . . 274 Porcelain ware invented in China,

274 Silk first brought to Europe, from India, . . . . 274 Tenth (last) persecution of the Christians, by Diocletian, 303 Constantine the Gr., the first Christian Emperor, reigned, • 306 Constantine with his army, saw a Cross in the Heavens, 312 350 357

Middle Age Chronology.

2. Christianity becomes the religion of the Roman Empire, A. D. 325 Council of Nice; the first general Council, . . . 325 Constantine abolished the combats of the gladiators,

325 Constantine removed the seat of the Roman Empire from

Rome to Constantinople, . . . . . . 328 Church Music first introduced into public worship, . Paris founded, by the Franks, . . . . . Eastern and Western Roman Empires divided, , , 364 Bells invented, by Paulinius Bishop of Campania, . 400 Fergus the first king of Scotland, began his reign, . 404 Rome sacked and plundered, by Alaric king of the Goths, 410 France founded by Pharamond, on the lower Rhine,. 420 Saddles first invented, . . . . . . 421 Theodosius established public schools, and attempted the

restoration of learning, . . . . . 425 Romans withdraw their troops from Britain, . 426 Carthage surrenders to Genseric.—Kingdom of the Van

dals in Africa begins, . . . . . . 439 Archery introduced into Britain, . . . . . 440 Saxons first arrived in Britain, under Hengist and Horsa, 451 Battle of Chalons—Theodoric the Visigoth, defeated and

killed by Attila the Hun—163,000 men slain, : 451 Fall of the Western Roman Empire, . . . .

476 Kingdom of Sweden (Ancient Scandinavia), began, . 481 Shoeing of horses first practiced, . . . . . 481 St. Patrick the patron saint of Ireland, died, . Clovis I. king of France, converted to Christianity, . 496 Paris first made the Capital of France, . . 510 Fleet of Vatialanus the Goth, while besieging Constan

tinople, destroyed by a burning mirror, . . . 514 Justinian's code of laws first published, . . . 529 Belisarius reduced Carthage, Africa, and the Moors, . 534 Kingdom of Northumberland in England, founded, . . 547 Latin language ceased to be spoken in Italy, · · · 580 Gregory the Great, elected Pope of Rome, . . 590 Christianity introduced into Britain, by Augustin, . . 597 Mahomet published his Koran, . . . . . 612 Jerusalem and the Cross of Christ, taken by the Persians, 614

491 640

660

697

781

Middle Age Chronology.

3. Hegira : or Mahomet's flight from Mecca to Medina, A. D. 622 Pens first made from quills, . . . . . . 635 Christianity introduced into China, . . . . . 636 Alexandrian Library destroyed by the Saracens, University of Cambridge founded, . . .

644 Organs invented, and first used in Churches, Republic and Doges of Venice, established, .. Spain conquered by the Saracens, . . . 713 Christian Era first adopted by Historians,

748 Bagdad made the seat of the Caliphs, by Almansor, . 757 Charlemagne commenced his reign in France, . . . 768 Charlemagne annexed Italy and Lombardy to France, . 774 Haroun al Raschid declared war against the Romans, Golden period of Learning, in Arabia, . . . . 785 Law pleading in courts first practiced, . . . . 788 Empire of the West, established by Charlemagne, . 800 Kingdom of Denmark established by Gotricus, . . . 801 Kingdom of England founded, by Egbert, King of Wessex, 827 Fairs and markets instituted in England, . . . . 830 Spirituous liquors first made, . . . . . 835 Russian monarchy founded at Ladoga by Ruric, . . 862 Sclavonic Alphabet invented, . . . . . University of Oxford founded, by Alfred the Great, . . 886 Alfred the Great divides England into Counties, and com

poses his Body of Laws, . . . . . . 890 Lanterns invented, by Alfred the Great, .. Land-tax first levied in England, . . Knighthood first established in England, .. Edinburgh built, . . . . .

950 Greenland discovered by the Icelanders, . . 950 Christianity introduced into Russia, by the Princess Olga, 955 Wolves expelled from England and Wales, . . . 959 Otho the Great, Emperor of Germany, conquered Italy, · 962 Juries first instituted, by Ethelred II., . . . . 979 Duties on imported goods, first collected in Great Britain, 979 Grand Canal in China, built ; 866 miles long, , , 980 Arabic figures introduced into Europe, by the Saracens, . 991

867

890

891

897

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