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Coryell, in his article entitled "What Books Do Boys Recommend to Each Other?" told how he made his boys not only swallow the classics but swallow them whole.-THE EDITORS.]
G. LEACH gained his first intimate knowledge of Scandinavia while traveling in that country on a fellowship from Harvard, following four years spent at Princeton and his graduate work toward his A.M. and Ph.D. degrees at Harvard University. He was for many years Secretary of the AmericanScandinavian Foundation, and during that time he secured economic support for the exchange of forty students annually between the United States and Scandinavian countries. He has been made Knight of the North Star in Sweden and Knight of the Dannebrog in Denmark. Mr. Leach is the author of several books on Scandinavian subjects.
10 Frederick M. Davenport has been
To given the ability tenport barly and
judge accurately. His character study of Governor Nathan L. Miller of New York, published in this issue of The Outlook, is something which no citizen interested in our Government should fail to read. Mr. Davenport was educated at Wesleyan University in Connecticut, and at Columbia. He is now Professor of Law and Politics at Hamilton and is holding office as New York State Senator for the third term.
AROLINE ELIZABETH MACGILL is a
Come which may peace be un
familiar to our readers. Miss MacGill makes her first appearance in The Outlook in this issue, although she has contributed to the "North American Review," "Scribner's Magazine," and the "Independent," and has written monographs for various historical and economic series. After gaining her A.B. degree at Cornell in 1904 she did graduate study at the President White School of History and Political Science and at the University of Wisconsin, and later became instructor in economics at Rockford College and the University of Wisconsin.
For eight years she served as a research worker, editor, and collaborator on the staff of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Since 1915 she has been engaged in literary and social work.
EVERAL weeks ago Mr. Roger C. Hoyt,
S Eastern Advertising Manager of The
Outlook, gave a talk on the function of advertising over the radiophone at the Westinghouse broadcasting station at Newark. Despite the proverbial hostility which is supposed to exist between editors and their business office, we have urged him to put his remarks on paper for the benefit of those who did not hear him speak. Mr. Hoyt joined the advertising staff of The Outlook in 1906
ofton avaduating from Williams College
HE OUTLOOK joins in the heartfelt expressions of hope and sympathy which are pouring into the White House from all parts of the country elicited by the gallant struggle of the Presidential family against the ravages of disease and the threats of death.
At this writing the condition of Mrs. Harding, while still serious, is more encouraging. That this great anxiety should be thrust upon the President at a time when he is confronted with some of the most serious political perplexities and problems that any President has ever faced is pathetic, and the pathos is increased by the fact that he has been sustained and strengthened during his public career by a very fine family life.
The family is still the ideal unit of American life, and the country is proud, sometimes consciously, sometimes subconsciously, of the fact that the White House is full of associations of dignity and happiness in the relations of husbands and wives-George and Martha Washington, John and Abigail Adams, Grover and Frances Cleveland, William and Ida McKinley, Theodore and Edith Roosevelt. Warren and Florence Harding have continued this fine tradition in a way that has commanded the respect and admiration of their countrymen and countrywomen.
IRISH FREE STATE
STEP forward was taken in setting up the Government of the Irish Free State at the meeting of the Dail Eireann which convened in Dublin on This is the first repreSeptember 8. sentative body brought together in Southern Ireland since the London Treaty was indorsed by a great majority of the voters. The minority members elected-that is, those who insist upon fighting to the bitter end for a completely independent Irish Republic-refused to take their seats in this assembly with the exception of one anti-treaty member, Lawrence Ginnell, who appeared for the sole purpose of making a disturbance, but refused to qualify as a member and was ruled out of the body.
The shadow of the deaths of Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith cast a regretful but not a hopeless tone over the assembly. The new head of the Provisional Free State Government is William T. Cosgrave, who has been in charge of
SEPTEMBER 20, 1922
the civil side of affairs since Collins was killed. The only opposition to the election of Mr. Cosgrave and of the men named as his associates in the new Provisional Cabinet was the vote cast against him by a few labor members. The other most notable figure in the new Cabinet is Richard Mulcahy, who is to be Minister of Defense. Thus he is a successor to Michael Collins, while Cosgrave may be regarded as a successor to Grif
fith in that he is really the head of civil affairs, while Collins, whom he nominally succeeds, was really the head of military affairs.
In accepting his election Mr. Cosgrave declared that it was his intention to push forward the London Treaty which has been sanctioned by the Dail and the electorate, to help in enacting a constitution for Southern Ireland, and also "to assert the authority and supremacy of Parliament, to support and assist the national army in asserting the people's rights, to ask Parliament, if necessary, for such powers as are deemed essential for restoring order and suppressing
crime, to expedite as far as lies in the power of the Government a return to normal conditions, and, having established the country on a Free State constitutional basis, to speed the work of reconstruction and reparation."
There is still a good deal to be done to put the Free State into complete operation. The most important thing is an agreement with the British Government on a form of constitution which will carry out the substantial provisions of the London Treaty. The armed opposition still existing in Southern Ireland seems to be decreasing and to be largely the work of comparatively small bands of irregulars.
THE TRIUMPH OF THE TURKS
THE victory of Kemal Pasha over the Greeks is one of the most complete and sweeping military successes of modern times. The Greek army was more than defeated, it was crushed and dispersed. The Turks under Kemal followed up their successes rapidly. Smyrna, the military and naval base of the Greek forces, was evacuated by the Greeks in disorder and the Kemalist troops entered the city on September 9. Scores of thousands of refugees, mainly Greeks and Armenians, had fled to Smyrna for refuge, fearing slaughter by the Turks. Just how far Kemal Pasha has been able to keep his troops under discipline is not positively known, but he at least issued the proper formal orders to refrain from slaughter of the Greeks.
The reaction of this depressing defeat of Greece by her ancient enemy was instantly felt in Athens. The Ministry under which this disgrace was possible resigned. A new Ministry was formed under the leadership of Triantafillakos. The new Minister announced that his policy would be to defend the Greek interest at the peace conference, but the constitution of the new Cabinet indicates that the Government still represents the old régime and the policy of King Constantine. Naturally, alarmed and excited Greeks are turning to Venizelos as a possible leader, and it is not at all impossible that the popular demand and perhaps a plebiscite of the voters will recall the statesman to undo the work of those who drove him from Greece. Venizelos is now in Paris, and is quoted as saying:
I have seen America and have been amazed to observe how a free people 93
with free institutions can work out their own salvation. It is my ambition to make Greece an America in Europe. For a few months I had the United States of Greece in my hands, only to have them wrested away by European politics. Perhaps our next attempt will be crowned with better
The basic comment on this new and threatening situation in the Near East is that the Allies missed their opportunity, just as they did in Russia, to agree upon a definite, sane and safe policy and to enforce it with united power and vigor. Now Turkey, as represented by the Nationalist or Angora Government headed by Kemal Pasha, is urging radical claims for a settlement that would again make Turkey a menace in the Balkans and in Europe and would restore the old rule of the Turks over Constantinople. Kemal has already issued a statement as to his demands. includes Adrianople, all of Eastern Thrace up to the Bulgarian border, supremacy in Constantinople, and a control in the interest of all countries over the Dardanelles, in which apparently the Turks should have the chief part. Recent despatches declare that there is now a movement of Kemal's army in the direction of the Straits and that the military question there is serious.
Kemal's victory was celebrated in Constantinople by noisy demonstrations. There was rioting which threatened to be dangerous, when the Allied authorities put a stop to it.
Thus the Turkish rule, marked for centuries by slaughter, pillage, and hatred of all Christians, is again a disturbing and threatening factor in European as well as in Asian affairs. The Entente Powers had hoped to confine that rule to parts of Asia Minor, but, because of lack of unity of purpose and because of jealousy between the Powers, the situation has been allowed to become dangerous and extremely difficult of adjustment.
A LEAGUE AT SEA
HE discussion between Lord Robert Cecil and the Earl of Balfour at the third annual meeting of the Assembly of the League of Nations now going on at Geneva illustrates the natural limitations of action in the League. Lord Robert, as quoted in the reports, thought the League was doing splendid work, but its large machinery was used for too small matters. He wanted the League, now that the time to forget war had come, to enter on a higher plane. And he especially thought it a reproach that the League had done nothing to restore peace in the Near East. Balfour replied: "The League has neither ships, men, nor money, so how could it deal
with a non-member of the League like the Kemalist Government? There is a certain class of critics of the League, including Lord Robert Cecil, who regard the League as a substitute for the Governments, replacing the Foreign Offices and the War Department and occupying itself with all sorts of political questions, besides every branch of welfare work."
So far the Assembly has discussed in a general way and with no definite results large international questions like German reparations, disarmament (the League reports a reduction in Poland of a million men, in France of 200,000, and substantial reductions in Italy, Sweden, and Japan), the disposition of Austria (a destitute orphan among nations and sorely in need of a protector), but it seems more likely to do some positive good in its proposals on what may be called world welfare projects. About these projects a staff correspondent of The Outlook wrote from Geneva just before the League Assembly met:
"The League's campaign against the white-slave traffic has been far more successful than that against large armaments. In 1904 and 1910 certain international agreements with regard to this subject were concluded, but, unfortunately, did not secure a general adhesion; only thirteen nations signed them. Due to the League's praiseworthy energy, not only was a new and improved agreement drawn up, but thirtythree signatories have already been secured.
"A special tragedy is that of the fate of the several hundred thousand women (mostly Armenian Christians) whom the Turks have seized and imprisoned in their harems. In view of such a horrible destiny, the League has brought about co-operation among the interested Powers; it has even tried to bring moral pressure on the unspeakable Turk, and has established homes for those who have been rescued.
"As the campaign against opium and other habit-forming drugs largely originated in America, under the leadership of the late Dr. Hamilton Wright, it is natural that we should take particular interest in the League's efforts to coordinate international activity in this respect. Mrs. Wright, herself an expert, has been appropriately appointed to the League's Advisory Board. The League invites all states, whether member-states or not, to ratify the Hague Convention (which was framed by Dr. Wright), and would enforce a law throughout the world that no opium shall be exported or imported without a written certificate from the country of importation that it is needed for legitimate purposes. Meanwhile the amount of opium necessary to
be grown for such purposes is being ascertained by reports from the various countries as to their annual requirements. The information thus obtained will provide the League with a basis for further measures for the better execution of the provisions of the Hague Convention. The League is also extending inquiries, through its Opium Commission, as to all harmful drugs.
"There are at least three reasons why Western Europe now contains Russian refugees. The first reason is because of the movements of armies in 1914, 1915, and 1916 to and fro across the Russian frontiers.
The second reason is because
of Bolshevist outrages. The third reason is because of famine and starvation. At least a million and a half of refugees need aid. What shall be done with them? There is not enough work to go round and the refugees are generally at a long distance from the few countries, like Bulgaria, for instance, where employment is to be had and where the cost of living is low. With regard to these unfortunate men, women, and children, the League of Nations has already accomplished a good work among its own member-states. England and France have agreed to support small groups of students and children; Jugoslavia has made arrangements to give employment to over half of the many refugees within its borders; Bulgaria has offered to receive twenty-six hundred new refugees and Czechoslovakia to receive no less than five thousand agricultural laborers, besides a thousand students and a number of children. Finally, our own American Relief Administration has approached the League, proposing co-operation with regard to some fifteen thousand Russian refugees who are in a peculiarly pitiable condition in Constantinople. It contributed $100,000 conditionally upon the League's raising half as much again to transfer the refugees to other countries. The League did raise a third of this sum, but, as the prospect of getting more was not bright, American donors generously offered to make good the balance."
N accordance with the custom established early in the European war by the Lafayette Day National Committee, September 6 was celebrated in New York and other cities as the anniversary of both the birth of Lafayette and the Battle of the Marne. In New York exercises were held in the forenoon at Union Square near the statue of General Lafayette. Dr. John H. Finley, formerly Commissioner of Education for the State of New York, and now one of the editors of the New York "Times" and author of a notable book on French culture
(C) Keystone GENERAL PERSHING LAYING A WREATH AT THE FOOT OF THE LAFAYETTE STATUE IN UNION SQUARE, NEW YORK CITY, SEPTEMBER 6
entitled "The French in the Heart of America," presided at this meeting, at the close of which General Pershingwhose name will go down in history as the author of the phrase, "Lafayette, nous voila!" (Lafayette, we are here!)laid a wreath upon the statue of the great Franco-American Revolutionary patriot. There were anniversary services held in old St. Paul's Church on lower Broadway, and in the churchyard there was an interesting ceremony in which water from the Marne and earth from Ay, France, were placed upon the grave of the distinguished engineer, Lieutenant-Colonel Stephen Roche-Fontaine, who served on the staff of Washington.
In the afternoon members of the National Committee escorted General Pershing and Count Charles de Chambrun, a great-grandson of Lafayette, to West Point, where a ceremony was held near the statue of Lafayette on the beautiful parade ground of the Military Academy. Colonel Franklin Q. Brown, of the National Committee, presided, and the attendance of the Superintendent of the Academy, with members of his staff, and a large body of the corps of cadets,
made of the occasion a beautiful military spectacle. The chief address was delivered by Maurice Léon, of the New York Bar, who originated the idea of the celebration of September 6 as the joint anniversary of the Battle of the Marne and the birth of Lafayette. Mr. Léon eloquently reviewed the attachment and sacrifices of Lafayette for the young American Republic, and the aid which more than a hundred years later the American people and American soldiers and sailors gave to the Republic of France in her struggle for liberty. The French and American Republics have many bonds of sympathy that they should foster in mutual understanding and in pursuing a common aim in the progress of democratic civilization. This was vividly suggested by an anecdote of General Pétain which Mr. Léon related:
In July, 1918, near the Marne, General Pétain, commander-in-chief of the French Armies, stepped out of his headquarters as the advance guard of the American forces were going forward to meet the German rush toward Château Thierry. He stood silently and for a long time watched them pass by, an unending column of splendid manhood. Then he came in. His officers listened for
a comment. It is reported that all he said was, "For us this is a transfusion of blood."
An inopportune thunder-storm drove the large audience which had gathered on the parade ground into the beautiful assembly room of Cullom Hall, where the Count de Chambrun, who is French Chargé d'Affaires in Washington during Ambassador Jusserand's absence, made a stirring address in finished English. General Pershing read messages from Marshal Joffre and Marshal Foch, and used those messages as the text for as delightful an occasional speech as could have been asked for by the most exacting critic. He said that he had not intended to take part in the "battle of oratory" of the day, but he showed himself as much of a master of oratorical technic as he is of military tactics. His presence and his speaking constituted one of the most graceful tributes to Lafayette that the day produced.
VARDAMAN LOSES HIS HOLD
T is a pleasure to record the fact that ex-Senator Vardaman has been defeated for the Democratic nomination for United States Senator from Mississippi. Vardaman and his kind have long been a drag upon the political life of their State. The contradictions of American politics have never been more clearly illustrated than by the fact that men like Vardaman, Russell, and Bilbo could be selected by the same electorate that chose the keen-minded John Sharp Williams as its Senatorial representative.
For a first-hand report of the feeling in Mississippi The Outlook telegraphed to Mr. Frederick W. Jones, of Hollandale, Mississippi, who recently contributed to this journal articles upon the flood menace and the insurance scandals in his native State. In reply to our query Mr. Jones telegraphed us as follows:
Vardaman's defeat means new political life for Mississippi, also a return of honor and the assurance of prosperity. Russell and Bilbo, the present Governor and his immediate predecessor, both of whom have brought scandal upon the office, went down with the ex-Senator. With them goes a hitherto dominant faction that has held power through demagoguery and corporation baiting.
The women of Mississippi in their first opportunity to use the ballot saved the day. In the first primary Vardaman led Stephens by 8,000 votes, but Miss Kearney, the third candidate, polled 18,000 and made a second primary necessary. In the interval between the two primaries she advocated the election of Stephens. Governor Russell's statement Memphis after the first primary that he was writing many letters urging the election of Vardaman also cost the ex-Senator heavily. The BilboRussell type of Governor with its