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can War, Missouri Compromise, Promulgation of the Monroe Doctrine.
Complete each of the sentences by marking a cross (X) after the clause which helps to make the most sensible statement.
Congress is made up of two Houses to represent all parts of the country
because there were two Houses during the Revolution
to prevent hasty and unwise legislation
The secret ballot is used because it
prevents men from voting twice
One freshman confronted with this test scored 100 per cent, and other members of the course made only a few mistakes. It would seem from this result that the growth in the study of civics and government in our primary and secondary schools has not been without definite results. Either that or the present-day college student takes a wider interest in public affairs than he is credited with by those who lament the shortcomings of the rising generation.
GOVERNOR ALLEN ON THE KU KLUX KLAN
ANSAS is engaged in trying out the Ku Klux Klan through an action brought in the State Supreme Court to restrain its secret activities. Naturally, Governor Henry J. Allen is much interested in the question. In an interview in New York recently Governor Allen gave such a vivid description of the Klan as he sees it that we quote at some length from it in the New York "Herald:"
In my State the thing has gone beyond a laughing matter. Every day my mail is choked with letters from people who have received threatspitiful letters from poor people so frightened they know not what to do. Every one who has a private grudge is using the Klan to scare his enemy. Bigotry and religious intolerance are rife. Pulpits where once was preached the brotherhood of man now thunder denunciations against each other, and neighbors who in years gone by lived in peace and harmony now hate each other with a hatred which passes understanding. And they say that all this is the aftermath of a feeling engendered by the war. There is no doubt that many excellent men have joined the Klan from misdirected zeal. In New Orleans its activity is directed against the Jewish element. In other parts of the South the object is the Negro. In Kansas it is the Catholic. I myself have been branded by the Klan as a Catholic and all of my family, Catholic. They must have been somewhat surprised when they discovered that I am a Methodist, a thirty-second degree Mason, and a lot of other things which a Catholic cannot be.
What is proposed in Kansas is to have Supreme Court uphold the State
Charter Board in denying the Klan a charter, and thereby make it illegal for the Klan to carry on its organization work. Other States take notice!
AVIATION WITHOUT LAW
OOTLEGGING by airplane between the United States and Canada continues to thrive; Lieutenant Maynard, the "Flying Parson," is killed; President Harding and thousands of spectators at the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial are placed in jeopardy by an irresponsible low-flying aviator; and the lives of countless thousands of innocent spectators at the Yale Bowl and other stadiums are risked unnecessarily because the House of Representatives has so far
flying will be made safer, and rickety airplanes and reckless pilots will be for the most part eliminated. The benefit, therefore, will be shared by those who make airplanes, those who pilot them, those who ride in them as passengers, and those who watch them fly.
Opposition to the passage of the House bill is practically nil. On the other hand, the Department of Commerce, the Army Air Service, the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics, the National Aeronautic Association, the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce, and other civilian and Governmental agencies are for it.
AIR CONTROL AND
HAT some sort of control over avia
failed to provide, as forty other nations tion is needed, however, is not
have provided, for Governmental regulation of civil aviation. And this in spite of the fact that the entire aeronautical industry has asked for that Governmental "interference" to which many American industries have objected.
Before you went hunting cottontail or Ideer this winter you had to have a hunting license; before you sat down behind the wheel of the new car you likewise had to have an automobile license. But if you have the price of an airplane and a few gallons of gas there is nothing in the world—or, rather, in the United States-to hinder your going and coming as you please, without let, hindrance, or license. If you are an irresponsible "stunt" pilot with an obsolete "war" machine, or an unattached or "gypsy" flier with a rickety contraption hitched to a sputtering motor, no one can prevent you from taking passengers for "joy" rides at so much per head.
THE LAW PROPOSED
NE of the most important pieces of
the Wadsworth Bill providing for Federal control of civil aviation, which the Senate passed months ago. If the Wadsworth Bill is enacted into law, there will be established in the Department of Commerce a Bureau of Civil Aeronautics, which will regulate and encourage flying. This Bureau will co-operate with the Forest Service or any other Government bureau which seeks aerial co-operation. The fitness of an applicant for a license to operate an airplane will be passed upon by experts. The machine itself will be inspected and tested, and if found airworthy a license will be issued. Pilots who engage in performances which imperil the lives of others will lose their "papers," and all kinds of "stunt" flying and swooping low over outdoor assemblages will be prohibited. As things stand, there is no provision for any of these things. In other words, if the Wadsworth Bill is enacted into law,
merely the opinion of aeronautical authorities or the long-suffering public, for a committee of the American Bar Association recently began a campaign for uniform aviation laws in all the States. The need for such laws or for Federal control of aviation was strikingly illustrated when that irresponsible pilot flew low over the Lincoln Memorial assemblage. That this solemn ceremony was not turned into a disaster was a matter of mere luck. Maynard, the "Flying Parson," made a splendid record as a pilot in our Army Air Service during the war, and was the victor in America's first transcontinental flight. The blame for his untimely end is placed by aeronautical authorities on the obsolete and patched-up machine with which he did "stunts" at the Vermont fair.
That airplanes are not necessarily deadly means of transportation is shown by the fact that our transcontinental mail pilots recently completed a year of flying without a single fatality, although they flew back and forth over the Rocky Mountains and other dangerous territory in all sorts of weather and at all hours of the day and night. This shows what can be accomplished through caution used in selecting pilots and a rigid inspection of machines. A few airplanes have fallen, just as a few steamships have foundered and a few railway trains have been wrecked. But the vast majority, when caution has been used in se lecting the pilot and inspecting the machine, have flown without accident.
There are statistics showing that in a single year more than 250,000 persons have been carried something like 6,000,000 miles in American airplanes without a single fatality from straight flying. At the same time hundreds of machines in the Army and the Navy Air Services also functioned without accident. No one doubts that commercial aviation is here to stay, just as the automobile and railway train are here to stay. Every
SPEEJACKS IN NEW YORK HARBOR AFTER CIRCUMNAVIGATING THE GLOBE thing possible should be done by Gov- STOP, LOOK-AND LISTEN ernment regulation and otherwise to promote its safety. Above all, there should be Federal restrictions against airplanes being flown over cities and outdoor assemblages except at a considerable height. For even the best pilot may make an error in judgment; even the best of machines may experience some mechanical trouble which may necessitate a quick descent.
HY shouldn't a Museum of Art include music? Isn't music one of the greatest and fines tof the arts?
AN ADVENTUROUS HONEYMOON INTO the port of New York came a motor
length with a beam of seventeen feet and a draught of six. Vessels of this type and size as a rule do not excite much interest in the waters along the Atlantic coast. This particular vessel, however, had dropped in from a trip around the world-the first voyage to be made by a craft of this kind.
Speejacks sailed a year ago last August from Miami, carrying Mr. and Mrs. Gowen, of Cleveland, on a honeymoon voyage. She passed through the Panama Canal, and thence westward, through the Pacific and the Indian Oceans, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Atlantic, back to the starting-place. The voyage was a perilous one, for Speejacks was almost entirely dependent upon her engine power and her gasoline supply. From the photograph it would appear that the only sails which she carried were one square sail and a jib. The signal mast upon which these are set does not look heavy enough to carry sail in much of a blow.
We should say that the feat of the Speejacks is one not likely to be repeated. A power yacht is certainly not the most comfortable type of ocean craft that can be built. A Gloucester schooner with auxiliary power could make the voyage in comparative comfort and at greatly reduced expense. Why burn soline where the trade winds blow?
Four years ago a remarkable series of concerts, free to any one who might care to come, was the contribution of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, to the concert season. These first concerts were very quietly ushered in, for with the exception of brief announcements in the daily papers and the placards placed in the doors of the Museum they were unheralded. On the first Saturday night in January, fiftyfour symphony orchestra players took, their places in the north end of the huge gallery above the great Fifth Avenue Hall of the Museum and under the leadership of David Mannes gave as delightful a concert as might be heard in New York. The hundreds who came to the first concert felt the pride of those who officiate at some event which proves later to have been one of much importance as they mingled with the thousands who came thereafter.
Following the example of New York, London's museum also has added music
to the arts which it offers the public, and has had presented a series of chamber music concerts.
It has been the custom for many years to have a symphony orchestra, led by Mr. Mannes, play in the Metropolitan Museum of Art on reception days. The possibilities for concerts of good music as an additional part of the work of the Museum interested Director Edward Robinson, the trustees, and Conductor Mannes; and such a series was planned. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., has made generous donations to make these evenings possible, as have Robert W. de Forest, Edward S. Harkness, Henry Walters, Arthur Curtiss James, and Michael Friedsam.
Mr. Mannes's programmes have been arranged with the utmost care and have
delighted alike the trained muiscian and the average music lover. The philosopher-composer Brahms has been heard many times at the Museum concerts, both in his symphonies and the more widely known Hungarian Dances. Beethoven, Mozart, Haydn, Dvořák, Schumann symphonies have been played, as have overtures, symphonic poems, suites, and shorter selections by the most representative composers. Contemporary musicians have not been neglected. For this season's concerts, four on Saturday nights in January and four in March, Mr. Mannes will present programmes which prove that the Museum concerts have attained the full dignity of symphony concerts. A partial list of the works to be played is as follows: Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, the Fourth of Tschaikowsky, Schubert's "Unfinished," Brahms's Variations on a Theme by Haydn, the first movement from César Franck's D Minor Symphony, Theme and Variations by Beethoven, one of the Liszt "Hungarian Rhapsodies," "The Fountains of Rome" by the Italian modernist Respighi, two movements from a suite for strings and solo flute by Bach, the "Festival Overture" of Brahms, minuets by Mozart and Schubert, Volkmann's suite for strings with cello obligato, Weber's overture to "Oberon," Berlioz's "March to the Gallows," Wagner's "Forest Sounds" from "Siegfried," overture to Tannhäuser, Tschaikowsky's "Nutcracker" Suite and "Marche Slav."
The director of the Museum, Edward Robinson, has arranged that this year, as in the preceding ones, the Museum will be open for a short time after the concerts so that those who so desire may visit the galleries and collections before going home. As usual, lectures illustrative of the music to be played will be given in the Lecture Hall of the Museum on the afternoons of the concert days.
SHALL WE TURN THEM BACK
MONG those fleeing from the Turk
AMONG those from fans whic
have relatives in America.
Naturally these refugees think of their relatives here as natural and competent protectors. Some of them have tried to join them in this free country. Those among them who have made their journey as far as the Port of New York have found for the most part an impassable door between them and their kin.
Nothing could illustrate more effectively the stupidity and heartlessness of a law that attempts to deal with a human problem on the basis of arithmetic. The so-called quota law determines the fate of an immigrant, not by the qualities he possesses, but by the percentage already admitted from the country from which
he hails. It happens that the Turkish quota of 2,388 is exhausted for the year. It matters not that there are Americans of Greek and Armenian origin prosperous enough, as well as willing, to support these relatives, mainly women and children, who are coming to them for succor. They have to see these people who are no menace to the labor market, who are otherwise admissible, and who are eager for education, turned back.
To pass a law which would admit ail otherwise admissible refugees would open the gate to a flood of immigrants from many parts of the world; for there is scarcely any part of Europe or Asia from which people are not ready to flee. But there is no reason why these particular refugees should not be admitted. The number is limited. The emergency is quite extraordinary. And the alternative of turning them back is exceptionally inhumane.
Congress should lift the Turkish quota sufficiently to enable the otherwise admissible refugees from Anatolia and Thrace to join relatives here who are ready and able to take care of them.
Courtesy Near East Relief
AN ARMENIAN CHRISTIAN GIRL WHO ESCAPED FROM A TURKISH HAREM AND IS
and by a number of their department
Some of the many matters dealt with
"THE LARGEST ORPHANAGE IN THE WORLD"-SOME OF THE 17,000 CHILDREN OF THE NEAR EAST RELIEF ORPHANAGE AT ALEXANDROPOL, TRANSCAUCASIA, HONORING VISITING OFFICIALS FROM THE UNITED STATES
points prepaid in United States postage stamps; the extension of United States railway mail clerks' runs to points in Canada; and a great many other subjects not always of interest to the general public but of great importance to the smooth and efficient handling of the mails and the elimination of red tape.
This conference is the culmination of a long series of events appertaining to postal matters affecting this country and the Dominion which began in the year 1763, when Benjamin Franklin opened post offices at Quebec, Three Rivers, and Montreal and established the first postal service between Montreal and New York, via Lake Champlain and Lake George. Since then from time to time various postal conventions have been entered into by this country with Canada, but the recent conference is the first occasion upon which officials actually responsible for the conduct of postal affairs in both countries have met in joint session, have discussed common problems, made mutual concessions, and arrived at solutions mutually satisfactory. Negotiations in the past have been conducted on the basis of diplomatic interchanges.
A real spirit of reciprocity marked the proceedings. "We ask no concessions," declared the Hon. Hubert Work, Fostmaster-General of the United States, "except those that are going to be of mutual advantage. We are willing to concede anything conceived in that spirit. We ask for no privileges and no advantages, but only the opportunity to co-operate." While in his address of welcome the Hon. Charles Murphy, Postmaster-General of Canada, assured the visitors that, "although in their journey from Washington to Ottawa they crossed
At first the assassination was ascribed to political motives, on the supposition, apparently, that the turbulent and exciting political conditions in Poland had something to do with the matter. The victim's political opponents had attacked him as a radical and asserted that he favored non-Poles (meaning chiefly Polish Jews) and foreign-born races. was himself a Swiss citizen until recently, although he was born in Warsaw. It soon appeared, however, that the assassin, Niewadomski, was certainly a person of unbalanced mind and probably was positively demented. This has led to a very general comparison of the crime with the assassination of President Garfield by Guiteau. In both cases probably the effect of sensational and irresponsible political attacks on the victim had some effect on the minds of the assassins.
One Polish newspaper expressed the belief that the crime has a serious aspect because of the present political complications; another spoke more positively, but perhaps without full information, as to political motives for the crime itself; there is a general and evidently sincere expression in Poland of horror and condemnation. Following the assassination there have been many arrests of persons suspected of connection with political plots and disorder. It is stated that Niewadomski's wildness and irresponsibility had led to his expulsion from two separate political parties.
General Haller, some of whose followers were accused, probably recklessly, of being implicated in the crime, has a notably fine record of war service and is known to Americans because he commanded in France the American, British, and Polish volunteers.
Marshal Pilsudski, the successor of Mr. Paderewski as Premier of Poland, is now at the head of the Polish army, replacing General Sikorski, who has become Premier at the head of a newly organized Cabinet.
Despite all that has been said about the tendency of the Poles' fierceness in
political life and about their warlike propensities, it is pointed out by Mr. Paderewski in his comments deploring the recent crime that this is the first time in the history of Poland that a ruler has been assassinated.
Two somewhat incongruous subjects are occupying the attention of the Lausanne Conference at this writing the Turkish proposal to banish the Patriarch of the Greek Church, and the control of Mosul, which means oil, although that word is carefully avoided in all the discussions. Turkey's willingness to join the League of Nations if she can have her way as to Mosul has an almost humorous aspect.
Meanwhile conditions as to the use of the Dardanelles Straits and the waters to the east, including the Black Sea, are still under debate. The plan now most favored seems to be to allow each nation to have in those waters at one time only three warships, which should be of not over ten thousand tons. This is not acceptable to Russia, but seems to be fairly satisfactory to the other nations. It does not exactly accord with the American view, but we shall probably be satisfied with permission to send small war-vessels on peaceful errands to Black Sea ports, which is really what our delegates most insist upon.
The proposal to banish the Greek Patriarch has naturally excited opposition and hostility throughout the Christian peoples of the East. Greece especially resents this action. A vigorous protest has been received by the Conference from religious organizations in England and America in nowise affiliated with the Greek Church.
In every matter that comes up for discussion at Lausanne the Conference runs against the continued assertion of Turkey that it must and will have absolute national independence and integrity. Ismet Pasha declares that his Government will not accept any sacrifice of principle involving Turkish independence, but that it is ready to make reasonable treaties which shall conform with international law and reciprocity and that the Nationalist Government recognizes the power of its people as fully as does any other governing body.
This sounds logical, but, as we have said before, the Powers have in the history of the past good reasons to make them demand assurances as to the treatment of their own peoples in Turkey and for the recognition of the rights of minorities in Turkey as against relig ious or racial persecution.
F a Rip Van Winkle had waked just in time to read American newspapers about the middle of this month he might have easily concluded that Germany had been invaded by her neighbors, had been subjected to devastation, had lost her factories and her railways, and in general had been deprived by her enemies of the common means of livelihood.
It is not by chance that the picture of a prostrate and suffering Germany has appeared again at this time. France has suggested the possibility of seizing certain German property in the Ruhr unless satisfactory payments on account of reparations are made by January 15. A similar picture of German poverty has been presented every time a day of reckoning has approached. And the picture has called forth a generous response from the sympathies of the world.
GUARANTIES FOR EVERYBODY BUT FRANCE
The people of America and England in particular have become very sorry for Germany. They do not like to think of her university professors living on the edge of starvation. They do not like to hear about German children being short of food and clothing. So sympathetic with Germany have people become that a resolution has been introduced into Congress providing for an appropriation of $70,000,000 to feed the starving Germans and Austrians.
The farmers of the Western States have, moreover, seen the opportunity of providing the starving Germans with millions of bushels of wheat if there is only some way by which they can get payment for it. Bankers have been talking about providing a loan for Germany on condition that they can get a perfectly trustworthy guaranty for the ultimate payment of the loan. English politicians and business people are moved with a desire to see Germany placed back upon her feet, since a prosperous Germany will provide a market for British exports-that is, will be able to pay for them. So sympathy has formed a partnership with business instincts.
Of course English merchants and American farmers and American bankers want guaranties.
But everybody seems to be denouncing France for wanting a guaranty too.
NOT REVENGE, BUT A MORTGAGE
Why is it righteous for American farmers and American bankers to require a guaranty, and wicked for Frenchmen to do so? A search into history reveals the fact that it was not