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ADAME ALINE JEANNIN, a woman of about fifty, cultivated and refined, with property both abroad and here in America; a resident of Waterbury for seven years, whose son-in-law is Captain Albert Lusher, an American citizen, who served overseas in the war; sailed for Europe July 5, on the Paris. She went over at the request of her lawyer, who wished to have her transact some business in Switzerland. When she came to return, she submitted her passport to the steamship authorities. fectly regular, and had been properly viséed by the Swiss Consul in New York. She had noticed on the passport the clause requiring that the holder of the passport on returning to America should get it viséed by the American Consul. The steamship people told her that nobody ever paid any attention to this clause. I may stop here to say that I noticed the same clause on my own passport when in London this summer, and inquired by telephone of the American Consui-General's office, and the person answering laughed over the telephone and told me to disregard it.

When Madame reached Havre to embark on the Paris, after her trunks had been put aboard the steamer and the tender was about to put out, the American official who examined the passports told her that she ought to go back to Basle and get a visé. It was evidently too late then, with her passage paid and her trunks beyond recovery. When she reached New York, on September 9, she was detained at Ellis Island on account of her failure to comply with this technicality. She had to sleep in a hammock, without decencies or privacies, was compelled to mix with the riff-raff of Europe, and not allowed to communicate with her son-in-law, Captain Lusher, for ten days. He, however, obtained permission to attend the hearing of her case on September 19. When he arrived at Ellis Island on that day, he was informed that the hearing had been held on the 18th. At this hearing no opportunity was given Madame Jeannin to have either counsel or friends.present. Captain Lusher was able to obtain a pass for the first time and was allowed to have his first interview with her. He found her in a deplorable condition. The examining board had put this lady, in great distress of mind and broken down by sickness, through what is known in police circles as the "third degree."

The facts of this case becoming known to citizens of .Waterbury who were in touch with persons of influence in Washington, an appeal was made, and as a result almost at once Madame Jeannin's release was secured. Except for this interposition she would have probably been deported. On September 20 she

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[Of course you are right in saying that the word "burnsides" came from

Gray both filed in the United States Patent Office descriptions of appliances for the speaking telephone.

1

The difference between them was this: Young Bell filed application for a patent -and received it; young Gray filed a caveat, or warning to other inventors, to protect his idea and method of embodying it. The application for a patent is in law presumed to be for a completed invention (which nevertheless is often incomplete); the caveat is presumed to protect the principle of an invention yet to be completed (although it may be a complete one). In Gray's case, I read in his volume on "Electricity and Magnetism" the following statement: "If I had filed my description of a telephone as an application for a patent instead of as a caveat, and had prosecuted it to a patent without changing a word in the specification as it stands to-day, I should have been awarded the priority of invention by the Courts. . . . I am borne out in this assertion by the highest legal authority." And he adds his specification, which closes: "I claim as my invention the art of transmitting vocal sounds or conversation telegraphically through an electric circuit."

While the press, after Dr. Bell's death last summer, was sympathetically sounding his well-deserved praises as a man of great and varied scientific achievements it would have been ungracious to seem to begrudge him the universal tribute; but it appears to me only fair. now that his general eulogium is established as the inventor of the telephone (the greatest of his many deeds), to let his closest competitor share the glory, although he missed the immense material gain, of that wonder-working invention.

the hirsute appendages of the distinguished Civil War general. The inversion of his name has, so far as we know, no dictionary authority. It is used as a humorous and colloquial twist, however, by many people. We used it, conscious of course of the origin of the phone," has this: "He once said: 'I

word. Perhaps the slight percentage of humor in the change might well be sacrificed to preserve the name of the soldier who successfully employed this particular type of adornment.—THE EDITORS.]

THE

MANY INVENTIONS

HE Preacher says, "God hath made man upright; but they have sought out many inventions" (Ecclesiastes vii. 29). Why that "but"? Although tempted to "claim everything," inventors, as thinking men, must be aware that-whatever the underlying reasonthe riddle that teases their ingenuity is also stimulating other inventive minds. It rarely occurs, however, that two clever men step forward on the same day with the same world-illuminating idea. That was the case on February 14, 1876, when Alexander Graham Bell and Elisha

And there is a curious further point. The Outlook of August 16 last, in its article on "The Inventor of the Tele

now realize that I never should have invented the telephone if I had been an electrician. What electrician would have been so foolish as to try any such thing?" And he refers it all to his lifelong "study of vibrations." A strange statement, if he really did make it, ignoring the fact that it was only after a strenuous and famous legal contest that he was awarded priority over the claim of an electrician for the invention-and that chiefly as a matter of legal technicality in the form of filing their respective claims in the Patent Office. Elisha Gray's first patent (1867) was for telegraphic appliances, and after that he received about fifty patents, nearly all in connection with telegraphic or telephonic electrical apparatus-multiple telegraphy, typewriting telegraph (stock ticker), telautograph, transmission of

1 Nature's Miracles: Vol. I. Earth, Air. Water: II, Energy, Sound, Heat, Light; III. Electricity, Magnetism. Fords, Howard & Hul bert, New York. 1900.

musical melodies and harmonies (the suggestion to him of the articulating telephone), and divers switches, relays, combinations, etc.-all electrical and promotive of marvelous efficiency in public service. He died in 1901.

Surely, in honoring our benefactors, among the names of Bell, Edison, Marconi, and the rest that of Elisha Gray should stand high and not be forgotten. JOHN R. HOWARD.

Morristown, New Jersey.

WHAT ARE DEBATES FOR?

AVING followed with interest

Thus on a given date six debates were held simultaneously in the State. At a later date the winners of each triangle decided the State championship. The judges of the contests were prominent lawyers or college professors from outside the State. It is impossible to enumerate the advantages of the movement or to describe the interest that it aroused and sustained from the first elimination contests in each school until the State championship was decided. It is safe, however, to say that all who were fortunate in taking part gained a lasting benefit from the experience. That is but an example of what

H progrefe of anglo-am enten debate accomplished by proper direction be

ing, I greatly enjoyed Mr. George L. Moore's recent article and the editorial comment introducing it. I gained an insight into the benefits of scholastic debate during my attendance at the Northwestern State Normal School of Oklahoma, which, like all the Oklahoma State schools, emphasizes the value of debate as an aid to education. To my mind, it is of far greater importance in the development of a young man than seems to be generally conceded by the Eastern schools; at least, by those with which I am familiar.

It would seem that the modern tendencies of educational development are to direct the student's thought into too definite channels of predigested information and fail to give him the incentive toward self-investigation and expression. The practice of debate in vogue in many American schools certainly counteracts this tendency and presents fields of thought outside the beaten path, the investigation and development of which are of untold value to the student.

It is unfortunately, though not surprisingly, true that the interest in debate is far surpassed by that in athletics. This being the case, and granting the benefits of scholastic debate, would it not be well to analyze the two fields with a view toward putting a little football enthusiasm into debating contests?

The American youth loves a fair fight. As athletic contests cater to that desire, they have gained a popularity far in excess of other equally essential fields of scholastic development. Why not, then, borrow a little thunder from football and make our debating contests rival those of the gridiron? To show that this is far from being an impossibility I shall describe briefly the system in vogue in the Oklahoma State schools when I attended them.

There were at that time six State normal schools, three in the eastern and three in the western part of the State. To encourage interest in interscholastic debate each group of three schools formed a Triangular Debating Club. Each school selected from its various debating clubs and student body two teams of three speakers each. These teams prepared opposite sides of a prearranged question; one team remaining at home, and the other journeying to one of the other schools in the triangle.

co-operation. The system may have had its defects, and unquestionably improvements could have been, and doubtless have been, made. Aside from that, is the fact that practically the entire student body gained a two-sided insight into questions that could have been brought to their attention in no other way.

Mr. Moore has interestingly described the popular vote method of judging in England, but has shown all too plainly that such a system cannot meet with favor in American schools. In discussing the decisions of the Interallied War Debt Cancellation question he says: "At all three places the vote overwhelmingly favored cancellation, a commentary not so much on the merits of the debating as on the state of mind of the British college students." Judges of a debate are as important as referees in a football game, and should be selected with equal

care.

Not only must they be authorities on logic, argumentation, presentation, etc., but they must be able to judge the argument as presented uninfluenced by their personal opinions of the question. The average man in the audience cannot meet these requirements. He has neither the specialized training necessary nor the ability to judge impartially. Practi cally every question has its popular side, but a popular decision is not always a just one. Incidentally, I should hardly hope for a favorable decision were I supporting the negative of the Bonus question before an American Legion audience.

In the editorial comment referred to it was pointed out that ill effects might result from the necessity of the participants in debate arguing against their convictions. That has not proved the case in the Oklahoma schools. On the other hand, it has been a decided benefit. In the same issue of The Outlook containing Mr. Moore's article was another by E. K. Parkinson, who, in discussing the average business man, says: "But still more deplorable is the limited capacity of these men for any intellectual enjoyment outside their chosen field. They can talk golf, baseball, racing, yachting, and automobiles, but beyond that they are as dumb as an oyster." Had these men had the opportunities of scholastic debate, wherein they would have been required to study thoroughly

the great variety of debated questions, not only from the angle that most appealed to them, but from the other fellow's point of view as well, their oysteresque qualities would be much less evident.

The editorial comment also stated that "our debates as at present conducted are distinctly unreal. They do not move the hearers because the speakers themselves are not moved; there are no convictions involved." Also that they "do not evoke the interest of the general student body, nor do they call out the talents of the real college leaders." Unfortunately, interest alone is an unsafe guide for the student who wishes to acquire a broader vision. Rather is he led by desire of progress or thrill of adventure to journey into new fields. As he begins to familiarize himself with his new environment he finds he has cultivated an interest where none previously existed. Just as if we limit our reading to that alone which upon the surface is interesting, the masterpieces of literature would be displaced in our schools by the latest best sellers. I would venture to state that in the triangular debates carried out by the State normal schools of Oklahoma the interest of the student body rivaled that aroused by the State championship football games. And one witnessing such a contest could hardly contend that the speakers lacked conviction or that the audience was unmoved.

Mr. Moore's description of the British open forum method of discussion suggests an improvement that might well be made in American scholastic debate. By throwing the question open to general discussion after the principal speakers have finished the greatest advantage would be given to the greatest number. And, after all, the real purpose of debate is to train men to reason intelligently and speak easily and convincingly before an audience. I had the opportunity of seeing this tried out in the A. E. F. during that heart-breaking period after the armistice, when all thoughts were turned homeward but little movement in that direction was evident. Senior Corps Chaplain Thompson, of the Second American Corps, to whom fell the almost impossible task of keeping the homesick Yanks contented, utilized the open-forum idea one evening each week with remarkable success. A few speakers were selected in advance to open each side of the argument, and it was gratifying to hear the prompt and interesting responses from the audience at large. I might also say that, as my duties in the service threw me into intimate association with the Tommies, I was amazed and delighted at their seemingly universal ability to talk easily and interestingly upon almost any subject. If such breadth of information and clarity of presentation can in any way be traced to their open forums, we can do well to imitate them.

DALLAS E. WHITE.

Brockton, Massachusetts.

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INSURES THAT NIGHT THOUGHTS, AFTER MOTHER HAS TURNED
OUT THE LIGHTS, SHALL BE FEARLESS, WHOLESOME, AND HAPPY

WHAT IS JOHN MARTIN'S BOOK?
For the sake of conforming with postal
regulations, it is called a magazine and is
issued on a specific date. In all other
respects it is a book, printed in two colors
on tough stock, and so strongly bound
that it is practically indestructible. It
has a gay cover, a title page, and is full
of pictures.

It is a book; it is respected as such, and loved as a book friend.

WHAT DOES JOHN MARTIN'S BOOK DO?

It makes happiness. It forms good morals, good taste, good manners. It provides excellent art and correct English. Without preaching, it teaches consideration of others, fearlessness, honor, truthfulness, obedience, patriotism. It companions in an intimate, personal way, leading naturally to constructive, wholesome thinking, and leaving in the mind the sanest, most desirable impressions.

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The New Parliament... Europe and the Near East.

552

553

Frank Bacon, Actor..

553

Robin Plus Douglas..

554

The Supreme Court and the Japanese Question.....

554

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The Fall of the Coalition in Britain.. 556
By Major-General Sir George Aston, K.C.B.
What Japan is Leaving:
I-Tsingtau......

By Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore
II-Shantung..

By Charles Hodges Studies in Headgear.

....

557

560

.... 562-563

564

567

567

A Radical in Power: A Study of La Follette....

By Richard Barry

Solstice (Poem)...

By Leslie Nelson Jennings

Lumber Camp Honesty....

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NOVEMBER 29, 1922

M. CLEMENCEAU'S VISIT

TO AMERICA

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F

ATHER VICTORY, as

Georges

Clemenceau was called by his fellow-countrymen, became during the closing months of the war the impersonation of France's will to survive. Now as a visitor to America he remains an impersonation of that spirit. Because we welcome that spirit we of America greet him.

Eighty-one years of age, having served his country during two German invasions, having seen the idea of selfgovernment and civil liberty emerging from the confusion of the rule of Napoleon III take form in the present Republic, having been the joyous warrior of politics for nearly fifty years, having followed throughout the guidance of what has been called by his biographer his "vigilant and apprehensive patriot. ism," having seen the partial failure of his efforts to safeguard France against the dangers he still apprehended even in victory, he believed that he still had a message from France which America would be willing to hear.

No one who saw him preside at the plenary sessions of the Peace Conference at Paris, heard his incisive decisions, watched his mobile hands gloved in gray, caught his expressions of quick understanding, can doubt his intellectual acuteness, his sense of humor, and his alert will. He has the mind that looks forward.

He is not a stranger to America. Over fifty years ago he lived and taught here for a while. Since his earlier sojourn the sky-scrapers have arisen (not high enough, he says; not near enough to the moon) and the Nation has grown proportionately in extent and in stature.

Almost immediately following his arrival he visited the grave of Theodore Roosevelt. Of course his schedule included a call upon ex-President Wilson and President Harding.

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(C) Keystone

CLEMENCEAU ARRIVING IN AMERICA

the movement for world peace and unity. The International Chamber was formed two years ago in Paris to study the great field of economics and trade. It has now become truly international in scope, with a membership embracing nearly thirty nations of North and South America, Europe, and Asia.

The American section is now at work preparing a programme for presentation to the next annual Convention, which will be held in Rome in March, 1923. Mr. Merle Thorpe, editor of the "Nation's Business," which is the organ of the United States Chamber of Commerce, informs us that the American section is engaged in the following work:

It is evolving a basis for a uniform ocean bill of lading.

It has prepared a comprehensive code for international arbitration to eliminate costly and ineffective litigation between business men of different countries, and for the purpose of making this plan effective an International Court of Arbitration already has been named.

It is working on a plan for the collection and dissemination of comparable statistics.

It is about to publish a list of pre

ferred definitions of trade terms used in international transactions.

It is urging the removal of export taxes which are a hindrance to the freedom of trade.

It is committed to a policy of instituting measures for the conservation of fuel and raw materials.

It is urging unification of legislative provisions with respect to hills of exchange and other export probJems.

It is calling attention of governments to the burdensome war-time restrictions in regard to passports and visés.

It is making a careful study of the great losses which business men suffer through lack of adequate laws for the protection of international property and for the suppression of methods of unfair competition.

It will suggest remedial measures for the protection of trade-marks, copyright, etc.

It is engaged in drafting a uniform basis for legislation which will remove existing unfair and burdensome tax practices, such as double taxation. It is hoped that a representative delegation of two hundred leading American business men will attend the meeting at Rome in March. A large group wi leave New York about the middle

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