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Dom Pedro I at Ypiranga, on September 7, 1822, formally declared the nation to

HOPES FOR CUBA

T is encouraging to note that Secre

be independent, and became a Republic Itary Hughes, on the eve of his de

in 1889. Brazil has always been on friendly terms with the United States. Brazil's federal Constitution is closely modeled on that of this Republic; and in many other ways the close relations between the two countries have been manifested. The friendship between the United States of Brazil and the United States of America has grown with the passing of the years. This country, Government and people, sends to Brazil heartiest congratulations on the progress of a century and sincere wishes for its future happiness and prosperity. Our participation in the Brazilian Centenary should constitute another link binding the two nations closer together.

parture for his South American trip, issued a statement regarding the present state of affairs in Cuba which declares that what has been done indicates substantial progress toward a solution of the unhappy state of affairs which has been described pretty fully in The Outlook. It has been due to the activity of General Crowder, the representative of the President in Cuba, and to American firmness in declaring that reform was imperatively necessary that the new measures of reconstruction have been formed.

These measures, Secretary Hughes tells us, are five in number. Mr. Hughes believes that combinedly they

will stabilize financial and business conditions and take much that is objectionable out of the political life of the island. The measures provide for the consolidation of departments on a business basis, for a better system of accounting, more responsibility in expenditures, and for the amendment of the judicial code to make the removal of members of the judiciary easier when there is cause for their removal, and the contracting of a foreign loan to pay the floating debt of Cuba and to make a start on necessary public works. special commission is to be created to deal with the question of public indebtedness, and the Civil Service Law is to be modified so as to enable the executive to reorganize and improve the service.

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These plans are all well designed for the improvement of Cuba's conditions. The bills have already passed the Cuban lower house. It remains to be seen whether the spirit of political dishonesty and of graft in governmental and business matters can be so reformed as to make the application of this legislation thorough and satisfactory.

THE TURCO-GREEK WAR

G

REECE has ample reason to lament its own folly in restoring Constantine to the throne and reversing the policy of Venizelos. It was impossible for the Allies, whom Constantine had deceived and trifled with in war time, to feel

enthusiasm over Constantine's claims against Turkey in the after-war settlement. So the Turks under Kemal and the Greeks under Constantine have been left to fight the matter out, with varying results.

At the end of August, after a long period of cessation of the fighting, came news of a positive reverse for the Greeks. They were forced to evacuate important points in Anatolia, to abandon their plan of occupying Angora, and to show their military inferiority to Kemal's well-organized army of 100,000 men.

It may be, as the Greeks claim, that the Allies granted too much to Turkish greed for territory in Asia Minor and that conflicting interests among the Allies have led to the growth of a dangerous situation in the Near East. But, if so, Greece is largely to blame for allowing herself to be led by such a proved double-dealer as the time-serving Constantine.

What effect the recent renewal of hostilities on a large scale and the repulse of the Greeks will have on the projected conference at Venice to bring about the ending of the Turco-Greek War remains to be seen. It is not impossible that it may be postponed or abandoned. The

Turks, who have already been given too much, are now sure to clamor for more.

A VICTORY; NOT A TRIUMPH

THE

HE primary elections in California and Texas provided politicians, both amateur and professional, with food for thought and talk.

The newspapers have offered many explanations for the slump in Hiram Johnson's usual majority. It was with the purpose of securing the first-hand testimony of a progressive Californian that we telegraphed Mr. Chester Rowell for his own views on the subject. Mr. Rowell's distinguished career as journalist, politician, lecturer, and holder of important public offices entitles his opinion to great weight. In many past campaigns he has stood shoulder to shoulder with Senator Johnson.

In reply to our query, Mr. Rowell has telegraphed us as follows:

"The nomination of Senator Hiram W. Johnson by 70,000 majority at the California primaries was a victory rather than a triumph. Large as the majority is, the pre-election betting odds showed that it is much less than was expected by careful practical observers on either side. The chief significance of the result is a personal tribute to Senator Johnson. Its meaning on issues is much more confused.

"Senator Johnson himself characterized it as 'the same old fight against the same old gang.' In part it was. Some remnants of the old reactionary group opposed him for the same reasons. Others of the same group supported him for new reasons. Also many progressives who do not agree with him on present issues supported him from loyalty to the old fight.

"His irregular party record was the basis of the opposition of some orthodox partisans. Others objected to his alleged alliance with Hearst. To these mostly conservative groups were added many progressives who disagreed with Johnson's irreconcilable attitude toward the League of Nations, and especially the Four-Power Treaty. He himself charged that these opponents were actuated by personal disappointments, but many of them were beyond possible suspicion of personal motives.

"Senator Johnson's recent activity in securing for California products the highest tariff rates ever known also gained him many conservative supporters who would normally have been against him. All these composite groupings on both sides make it impossible to give the result any clear significance on single issues, beyond the conclusion that not enough of those Californians who disagree with Senator Johnson on inter

Paul Thompson

EARLE B. MAYFIELD, OF TEXAS

national issues regarded that difference as important enough to vote against him on it.

"Primarily it was a personal victory. The people voted for Hiram Johnson because he is the man they want."

MERELY A CHOICE OF EVILS

first-hand information of the Texas

read Professor Lomax's compilation of cowboy songs has missed a very valuable chapter of American literature. But if we start discussing cowboy songs, there will be no room left for Professor Lomax's admirable summary of the Texas situation, which he telegraphs us at our request:

"Six men, including the present Senator, Charles A. Culberson, made the race for the for Democratic nomination United States Senator from Texas. Earle B. Mayfield, backed by the Ku Klux Klan, led in the first primary, closely folowed by James E. Ferguson, who advocated the return of light wines and beers. In 1917 Ferguson was impeached and expelled from the office of Governor of Texas. The discussions between these two men in the second primary run-off, held August 26, were characterized by personal abuse, Mayfield attacking Ferguson's record as Governor, and Ferguson retorting with statements that Mayfield was a prohibitionist only in theory. Mayfield refused to discuss the Ku Klux Klan issue.

"In a total vote of about 525,000 Mayfield received a majority over Ferguson of 50,000. Of the 100,000 who voted in the first primary and not in the second a large number declined to cast their ballots for either candidate. Of the six original candidates they felt that the two least desirable men had been chosen for the run-off. Mayfield's nomination

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F situation we appealed to Professor cannot be construed as an indorsement

John Lomax, of the University of Texas. Professor Lomax is a Democrat. He is a Mississippian by birth, but he has been a resident of Texas for many years. He has been secretary of the University of Texas since 1910. If it is not too much of a digression in the midst of an item of political news, we should like to observe that any one who has failed to

HIRAM JOHNSON, OF CALIFORNIA

of the Ku Klux Klan. Rather, it reflects an unwillingness of the people to be represented in the Senate by an impeached Governor. Furthermore, four other candidates for State office backed by the K. K. K. were defeated by large majori ties. Mayfield was also strongly supported by women and other ardent prohibitionists.

"Local Ku Klux Klan candidates in Dallas, Houston, Beaumont, Austin, Waco, and other centers were victorious, but in the race for Senator the Ku Klux Klan issue was subordinate to prohibition and to personal animus against Ferguson.

"It is generally conceded that Mayfield, partly because of his Klan affiliations and partly because of doubt of his ability, will run far behind other men on his ticket. There is little chance, however, for a Republican to win or for the Republicans and Independent Democrats to fuse and elect a man. The Republicans will make their final choice of a candidate on Sept. 7. If they succeed in finding a representative man who will satisfy the thousands of bitterly chagrined Democrats, they will doubtless poll the largest vote the party has received since Texas came into the Union." Certainly the choice of the Lone Star

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voter appears to be a hard one. There does not seem to be even one lone star of any magnitude among the candidates.

A NEW SUPREME COURT JUSTICE ESPATCHES from Washington

D

an

nounce that Justice John H. Clarke, of the United States Supreme Court, has resigned, and that ex-Senator George Sutherland has been nominated by President Harding to fill the vacancy.

Justice Clarke was born in Ohio sixty-five years ago, and is a graduate of the Western Reserve University, of Cleveland. He was general counsel of the New York, Chicago, and St. Louis Railroad for thirteen years, but in spite of this so-called corporate connection has been regarded as so liberal in questions concerning property and labor that many conservative people have with shakings of the head looked upon him anxiously as an ultra-radical. It is true that in many recent important decisions of the Court he has stood with Justice Brandeis, who has long held so-called advanced views in industry and economics. Justice Clarke was appointed by President Wilson. He had served as a United States District Judge before he took his seat upon the Supreme Court bench. He is a man of literary taste and sympathy. He has been an ardent advocate of the League of Nations, and it is believed that he has left the bench in order to devote himself to a furtherance of the principles of the League.

The new Justice, Mr. Sutherland, was born in England sixty years ago, but received his academic education in this country and is a graduate of the Law School of the University of Michigan. He is a Republican; served as a member of the State Senate of Utah; and has been two terms, from 1905 to 1917, a member for Utah of the United States Senate, where he created for himself an enviable reputation as an authority on international law. He is a personal friend of President Harding's and has been President of the American Bar Association. He served as one of the advisers to the American delegation at the recent Armament Conference in Washington, where his views and advice were much relied upon. Mr. Sutherland is a man of broad and liberal views on legal, economic, and social questions, although he is generally regarded as more conservative than Justice Clarke. His appointment is a commendable one, and in making it President Harding has preserved the best standards and traditions of the Supreme Court.

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settings for its screen pictures in a manner consonant with high ideals of the musical art.

The plans for the programmes of the theater are for most of the performances not greatly different from those of the best moving-picture shows. On every Wednesday, however, a musical recital and concert will take the place of the usual performance, and both the music and the performers will be of the highest rank.

The new theater is beautifully decorated and adorned with mural paintings. One novel feature is to be what is called "an ideal condition with reference to illumination," so that during the performance of a screen drama the auditorium remains light enough to read a programme.

A recent newspaper writer on the subject declares that here at last will be found "a concrete realization of the pet dream of the movie interests, discussed for nearly a decade, since first an orchestra with soloists was introduced in an up-town theater incidental to picture presentation—the marriage of the art forms: music and the silent drama."

A COMMISSION OF
INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS

T

EN of the big universities of the Middle West are allied in athletics. In football, for example, they play one another for what is known as the Conference championship. The alliance is known as the Intercollegiate Conference. It is composed of the Universities of Chicago, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Iowa, Indiana, and Northwestern, Purdue, and Ohio State Universities.

Recently the directors of physical eduIcation in these universities created a post of Commissioner of Athletics of the Intercollegiate Conference and appointed to that position Major John L. Griffith. The immediate occasion for the creation of this post was undoubtedly the exposure of certain evils in athletics which had developed in a number of colleges in this country, and among them at least one of the Conference universities. It will be the duty of Major Griffith to conduct an educational campaign on behalf of a sound amateur spirit and a better sportsmanship. That Major Grif fith will undertake his task with no prejudice against a vigorous competition may be deduced from the fact that during the war he directed physical and bayonet training in the United States Army. Since the war he has been on the staff of the Department of Athletics at the University of Illinois.

When we learned of his appointment, we wrote to Major Griffith, asking for

information concerning his aims. In
reply we have received a letter in which
he says:

"In the first place, athletics, and, in
fact, all of our physical education activi-
ties, have grown remarkably in the last
few years and now challenge the atten-
tion and consideration of all. The politi-
cal party now in power was elected on
a platform one of the planks of which
calls for Federal encouragement of those
matters which pertain to the physical
betterment of our youth. There are now
several bills before Congress which aim
toward correcting conditions which the
draft figures revealed relative to our
physical unpreparedness for war. Twen-
ty-eight States have passed compulsory
physical education laws. Furthermore,
there is more interest now in amateur
athletics in the schools and colleges,
judged not only by the increased num-
ber of participants but also by the size
of the crowds that witness the contests,
than ever before.

"The American people prefer to give expression to their physical selves in terms of competitive athletics. In Germany mass setting-up drills as featured by the Turners are popular. We have heard a great deal about a German system of physical education or a Swedish system or a Japanese system, but none of these have ever gained popularity in the United States. The American system embodies the sports and games that have been developed in this country in accordance with our National temperament.

"Our competitive athletics, so long as they are kept clean, are indispensable. They furnish an ideal. Every normal boy aspires to be a Paddock, an Oliphant, or a Thorpe. They furnish wholesome entertainment of an invigorating sort to thousands of spectators. Esprit de corps in the educational institutions is largely developed around the athletic teams. Good sportsmanship and the spirit of fair play, which are both needed to-day as never before in our social and economic life, can be taught better in athletics than in any other manner, and our fighting games furnish a splendid substitute for military training.

"As Commissioner of Athletics of the Intercollegiate Conference, it will be my duty to conduct an educational campaign to bring about a better understanding of the purposes and values of athletics; to explain the rules which the directors have adopted to safeguard athletics; and to enlist the support of students, alumni, and the general public in the observance and enforcement of these rules. It is hoped that this may be accomplished through the co-opera

tion of the press and periodicals and through meetings with students, educators, alumni, and others.

"Further, it will be my duty, in so far as possible, to see that students who are not eligible to compete under Conference rules are disbarred.

"The evils which threaten our intercollegiate athletics are gambling, professionalism, distrust, and enmities which sometimes arise over the contests and a willingness to violate the rules. The argument which is sometimes advanced, that our athletics are wrong because the men strive so hard to win, is misleading. Character is not developed by weak and insipid tackling nor by half-hearted trying on the part of the contestants. On the other hand, it is not necessary for an athlete to hate an opponent in order to play well against him, and the coach who sings hymns of hate to his men about other coaches and other teams is a menace to the game."

INTERNATIONAL GOLF

THE

HE photographer who took the picture (which appears on the next page) of the Anglo-American Golf Match on the National Golf Course at Southampton, Long Island, it is apparent, is neither a golfer nor a sailor. If he were a golfer, he would have picked out a more picturesque portion of the fairway than he selected for his photograph; if a sailor, he would have chosen one of the beautiful water-holes of the National course showing the blue and shining Peconic Bay in its setting of golden sand and evergreen pines and cedars. The National Golf Course is believed by American golfers to be one of the most trying tests of golf in this country, as it is certainly one of the most beautiful courses in its surroundings. It is one of those courses where the slightest deviation from long and accurate play is likely to involve the unhappy golfer in almost insurmountable difficulty. It was the scene during the latter part of August of a contest for the Walker Cup between a team of eight selected British amateurs-some of them Scotch and some of them English-and eight selected American amateurs. The British team came over this summer for the purpose of entering this particular match and the American amateur championship, which was being played over the Brookline Country Club course at Boston as this issue of The Outlook went to press.

On the first day of the contest on the National links the Americans and Britishers played foursomes-not four-ball foursomes, but the ancient and genuine foursome commonly but erroneously called in this country "Scotch four

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