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In the Western States, sheep are brought once a year to the shearing sheds where the fleeces are removed, packed in 300-pound sacks, and started on their long journey by wagon and railroad to the Eastern mill
HE question of our wool supply is one of the least understood, and at the same time one of most vital concern to American industry and welfare.
For clothing and household uses where warmth is a consideration there is no substitute for wool. Other fibers, including reworked wools (shoddy), have been utilized to the limit of economy and serviceability, and yet the United States needs annually to import about 300,000,000 pounds of grease wool -slightly more than the domestic production reported for recent years. These imports come chiefly from the Southern Hemisphere-Australasia, South America, and South Africa. Coarser wools from more primitive types of sheep come from China, India, and South America for use in the making of carpets.
A MILITARY NECESSITY
From a military standpoint, there is no other indispensable material for which the United States is so largely dependent upon foreign countries. 1917 and 1918 it was our good fortune to have access to the British-controlled supply in the countries having a surplus of wools suitable for clothing. Only the South American supply of wool was available to those nations that could transport it. Writing in 1916, Professor Paul T. Cherington, of Harvard University, said:
The present situation makes more conspicuous than ever before the military strategic value of an American wool-growing industry. It emphasizes the desirability from a military standpoint of independence for the United States in its manufacture of woolens and worsteds.
The following statement was made recently by Senator Lodge, of Massachu
An increase in the raising of sheep in the United States is well worth all the money the people will ever spend upon those interests to make us, in peace or war, in sunshine or in storm, always independent, so that under any pressure which may come we shall always be able to clothe our own people.
NATIONAL POLICY ON WOOL SUPPLY
Desirability of independence of foreign-made fabrics and the increase of home manufacturing of woolen goods has been recognized continuously since 1789 by the placing of import duties upon materials manufactured from wool. At no time since that year have woolen goods been admitted to the United States without payment of duty.
Consideration of both civilian and military needs emphasized by Civil War experiences caused President Lincoln's Administration to put into effect a policy of levying an import duty upon wools for the purpose of according to the home producers the benefit of preference in home markets, and thereby developing a larger wool-growing industry. American wool production as compared with National requirements at that time was an infant industry. It has not expanded as was hoped for, although the production in 1919 was about twice that of 1867. The main hindrance to a continued expansion of domestic woolgrowing has been the great uncertainty
attached to the business as a result of changes in tariff laws and frequent extreme depression of prices.
The act of 1867 prescribed a new basis of wool duties. In the succeeding fiftyfour years there have been nine changes of rates, and two of these changes en
eleven years. At each of fourteen National elections in that period the question of the wool tariff was under debate and extreme uncertainty created as to the National policy, and therefore to safety of production.
The longest continued period of protection was from 1897 to 1913, though during that period complete removal of the duty was seriously threatened at three different times. During that period also the industrial development in the United States caused a strong agricultural trend toward the production of foodstuffs for an increasing population. The cheaply grown wools of frontier areas in the Southern Hemisphere could be secured, duty paid, at values not then attractive to most American farmers.
Prior to 1914 it was becoming apparent that wool-growing had reached the limit of expansion in frontier parts. If supplies were to continue or to increase, it must be through expansion of sheepraising under the more intensified agricultural methods of older farming sections. The war demand and the difficulties of foreign transportation acted to replace the effect of the wool duty that had been removed in 1913. Production was rapidly increasing in 1918 and 1919. The collapse of 1920 brought foreign wools into our markets under a virtual bounty arising from the superior value of dollar exchange. American producers were not only discouraged, but in many instances bankrupt. Our future supply is more largely than ever dependent upon the establishment of new flocks, which can be brought about only under fairly stable conditions.
THE TARIFF OF 1922
Fair rates of duty upon imported wools have been established by the
The bands of range sheep in the West, unlike the farm flocks, remain in the open all of the year. The shepherd's home is in the wagon that follows the band from place to place over the vast area of land from which the only returns obtainable are the wool and lambs from the traveling bands
Sixty-seventh Congress. The President, through the Tariff Commission, may raise or lower such rates by fifty per cent, according to the occurrence of changes in the relation of home-production costs to those found to obtain in exporting countries.
The Fordney-McCumber Act provides that duties shall be collected only on the "scoured content," or actual weight of wool in condition for manufacture. Former duties were levied upon grease weights, which included from twenty to seventy-five per cent of dirt and oil in the fleeces as they were removed from the sheep and received at ports of entry. The duty in effect prior to 1913 provided that 33 cents per pound should be paid upon wool imported in the clean or scoured condition. The rates set for wools not scoured allowed imports to enter at less than the equivalent of 33 cents. The new law requires that all duties shall be collected upon the basis of scoured wool and at the rate of 31 cents per pound.
These fair and impartial provisions of the wool duty form a part of the enlightened new policy expressed by the Congress just adjourned toward the agricultural industry, giving the rural citizenship the same consideration in commercial policies as was previously accorded only to the manufacturing industries.
FICTION ABOUT CLOTHING COSTS
Prior to the passage of the recent legislation members of some branches of the clothing industry widely advertised the statement that the wool duties as proposed in the Senate bill would increase the cost of men's clothes by as much as $4 per suit.
The absurdity of such a statement and the unfairness and insincerity associated with its circulation are readily revealed by the facts. Unfortunately, these facts could not be adequately presented or
circulated by the poorly organized growers of wool.
These opponents of a National policy of insuring home producers an equal opportunity in home markets have represented that 33 cents paid at the customs on a pound of scoured wool amounts to 101.4 cents to be paid by the ultimate consumer. It was claimed that the rates of profits secured by wool dealers, spinners, weavers, manufacturing clothiers, and retailers, as calculated upon costs, are, respectively, 10 per cent, 15 per cent, 171⁄2 per cent, 222 per cent, and 33% per cent.
The true effect of such a tariff was set forth by a competent and impartial publication, "The Manufacturer," in the issue of July 25. "The Manufacturer" stated that the only increase above 33 cents (the final rate was set at 31 cents) that legitimately could be added to the consumer's price was the extra amount required for interest on an additional 33 cents from the time a pound of wool entered the cloth mill until it was sold by the retailer, plus an allowance for increased cost of insurance arising from the addition of 33 cents to the original cost of a pound of material. "The Manufacturer" allows 32 yards of cloth for an average suit and 14 ounces as the weight of a yard of goods for winter wear. On this basis, it is shown that the maximum additional cost of a suit resulting from a 33-cent wool duty is not $4, but $1.62. (With the lower rate of duty now in effect, the figure would be $1.52.)
The advertising opponents of the wool tariff, according to their own data, would have used a possible increased cost of $1.62 as a means of exacting an extra profit of $2.38. Commenting upon this revelation of a plan to utilize the wool duty as a pretext for increasing profits, "The Manufacturer" said:
If clothing manufacturers and retailers can make these increased costs of respectively $1.14, $1.62, and $2.78
the basis for increasing prices, not by those sums, but by $4 for suits and $7.50 for overcoats, the difference being clear profit over and above present profits, the public should be so informed. But in justice to the wool growers and the wool manufacturers, the public should not be permitted to be misled into the belief that such arbitrary price increases are attributable to the raw wool duty.
In considering clothing costs as affected by wool values, the following important facts should be kept in mind: (1) The average amount of cloth used in making a man's suit is 31⁄2 yards. (2) One and one-half pounds of wool is used in making a pound of cloth of the best quality. (3) Using cloth weighing 14 ounces to the yard, the total requirement of scoured wool for a man's suit is 4.4 pounds. (4) For a lighter suit of 10 ounces per yard, 3.3 pounds of scoured wool are needed. The average price of all clothing wools quoted for the Boston market of October 21, 1922, was $1.076 cents per scoured pound (duty paid). The present average value of wool in a man's suit is therefore $4.14. Wools used in making carpets are exempt from duty.
The real effect of the duties upon raw wool as prescribed by the FordneyMcCumber Law should be to reduce, and not to raise, the prices charged the consumer for woolen goods. The Emergency Tariff Act that was in effect from May 27, 1921, until September 22, 1922, set much higher duties upon wool than are now in effect under the provisions of the new act. Wool can now be imported under duties considerably lower than were collected for sixteen months prior to September 22. So far as raw wool duties are to be considered as a factor in costs of clothing, the only result that can come through enforcement of the act that became effective on September 22, 1922, is a lowering of clothing prices.
Rootabaga Stories. By Carl Sandburg.
court, Brace & Co., New York. $2. Fine Imaginative stories in characteristic American settings. 8-12. Verotchka's Tales. By Mamin Siberiak. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. $2.50.
Charming, friendly tales of old. Russia with humorous, characteristic illustrations. 8-10. He Who Steals. By Alfreda Balocco. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. $2. Interesting story, told with simplicity and vigor. Gives insight into Italian conditions. 10-12.
Twin Travelers in India. By Mary H. Wade. F. A. Stokes Co., New York. $1.75. Travels of an American boy and girl in India. 10-12.
A wholesome out-of-doors story with much action. Decidedly superior to the usual "girl" story. 12-14.
Phantom Gold. By Kenneth Payson Kempton.
The Woods Rider. By Frank Lillie Pollock. $1.75. Century Co., New York.
An outdoor adventure story. Above the average. 12-14.
The Trail of the Spanish Horse. By James Williard Schultz. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. $1.75.
An interesting frontier story, full of adventure and thrilling episodes. 10-14.
Renfrew of the Royal Mounted. By Laurie Y. Erskine. D. Appleton & Co., New York. $1.75.
Adventurous, exciting story that boys would like. 12-14.
Weird Islands. By Jean de Bosschère.
McBride & Co., New York. $3.
A fanciful and amusing tale of adventure, with interesting pictures. 10-12.
Blackbeard Buccaneer. By Ralph D. Paine.
Penn Publishing Co., Philadelphia.
A pirate story vividly told. Fine illustrations by Frank E. Schoonover. Boys 12-14.
The House of Five Swords. By Tristram Tupper. G. H. Doran Co., New York. A romantic, fascinating story.
$2. Well written.
Dusty Star. By Olaf Baker. Dodd, Mead & Co., New York. $2.
The author of "Shasta of the Wolves" has made another real contribution in this stirring. well-written story of an Indian boy and his wolf cub and their many adventures. 10-14.
A Little Maid of Virginia. By Alice Turner Curtis. The Penn Publishing Co., Philadelphia. $1.50.
A nice addition to this author's historical tales. 8-10.
The Hop Pickers. By Flavia Camp Canfield. Harcourt, Brace & Co., New York.
A story of girl life in the Sixties.
A Princeton Boy in the Revolution.
$1.50. Girls 12-14.
By Paul G.
Tomlinson. Dodd, Mead & Co., New York. $1.75.
Would hold the interest of the 12-14 year old, and might develop further research into the hisfory of the period.
The Rich Little Poor Boy.
By Eleanor Gates.
D. Appleton & Co., New York. $2.
Story of an eleven-year-old boy who, in spite of his sordid surroundings in a New York slum, finds content and success. 12-16.
David Ives: A Story of St. Timothy's. By Arthur Stanwood Pier. Houghton, Mifflin Co., Boston. $1.75.
An excellent boarding-school
12-14 and over.
(Continued on page 490)
A tale of a boy and a dog. Rick, the boy, befriends Ruddy, the shipwrecked dog, and is well repaid by the animal's devotion. A book your boy is sure to like.
By Howard R. Garis Illustrated by Milo K. Winter Price $1.75
Rick Dalton and Ruddy, the dog, go camping with a troop of Boy Scouts. Their adventures, afloat on a nearby lake and blazing trails through dense woods, are further enlivened by the discovery of a mysterious cave and by encounters with unfriendly neighbors in an adjacent camp.
It seemed like certain disaster yet neither Rick nor Ruddy faltered
DOWN whirling, dangerous rapids—
RICK AND RUDDY
By HOWARD R. GARIS
Children love dogs-they know what true friends they make. And was there ever a dog like Ruddy, the companion of the boy hero of Howard Garis' series of Rick and Ruddy stories?
THE SKIPPER OF THE
By Charles Pendexter Durell Illustrated by Harold Brett. Cloth. Price $1.50 A city boy, Samuel Hotchkiss, becomes acquainted with Uncle Seth, a retired sea captain, owner of a cat-boat called the "Cynthia B." From that day forth Sam's vacation is filled with more adventures than he had ever hoped to experience. Interwoven with the main story are many stirring tales of old Nantucket whaling days, all founded on facts.
Ask your bookseller for these books. If he cannot supply you
Milton Bradley Company, Springfield, Mass.
Bradley Quality Books
Why Children Don't Obey
OBEDIENCE is the foundation of character. Yet how
many parents discover constantly that their instructions to their children carry no farther than around the corner. And wilfulness, selfishness, jealousy, disrespect, untruthfulness, ill-temper and many other unpleasant qualities are directly related to that first great fault of disobedience.
New Methods for Old
Until now, scolding and whipping seem to have been about the parents' only methods. But new methods have been discovered which make it easy to train children to obey promptly, pleasantly and surely without breaking
Do You Know How
to instruct children in the delicate matter of sex?
to always obtain cheerful obedience?
to correct mistakes of early training?
to keep child from crying?
to develop Initiative in child?
to teach children instantly to comply with command- "Don't touch"?
to suppress temper in children without punishment?
to teach punctuality? Perseverence? Carefulnes ?
to overcome obstinacy? These are only a few af the hundreds of questions fully an wered and explained.
the child's will, without creating fear, resentment or revenge in the child's heart, aswhipping does. This new method Is based on confidence. When perfect understanding and sympathy exist, obedience comes naturally and all the bad traits that children pick up so easily are not given a chance to develop.
This new system, which has been put into the form of an Illustrated Course, prepared especial y for the busy parent, is producing remarkable and immediate resul's for thousands of parents in all parts of the world, and is endorsed by leading educators. It covers all ages from cradle to eighteen years.
Two Little Misogynists. By Carl Spitteler. Henry Holt & Co., New York. $3.50.
An unusual story by the winner of the Nobel prize. Very beautiful volume. 10-12. Martin Pippin in the Apple Orchard. By Eleanor Farjeon. F. A. Stokes Co., New York. $2.50. A highly imaginative, beautiful story. 10-12 The Joyous Guests. By Maud Lindsay and Emilie Poulsson. Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co., Boston. $2.50.
A collection of Christmas stories. volume. 8-12.
The Fairy Doll. By Netta Syrett. Dodd, Mead & Co., New York. $1.25. Five attractive little playlets.
Memoirs of a London Doll. Edited by Mrs. Fairstar. Macmillan Co., New York. $1.50. Reprint of an interesting little book which first appeared in 1852. Quaint and charming. Girls 6-8.
Lige Mounts: Free Trapper. By Frank Blinderman. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York $2.
An exciting cowboy story. Boys 14 and over. The Story of Don Quixote. Illustrated by Florence Choate and Elizabeth Curtis. F. A. Stokes Co., New York. $3.
This is still another large-page classic with color pictures. It is arranged and retold to suit the reading of boys and girls. 13-15. Including Mother. By Margaret Ashmun.
millan Co., New York. $1.50.
A story of a family in a Middle Western town, with a few human experiences valuable for growing girls. 13-15.
The Black Wolf Pack. By Dan Beard. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.65.
Boys always like Dan Beard's stories. This tells of a boy's search for his father and his own adventures on the frontier. 12-14.
NATURE AND SCIENCE
Bannertail: The Story of a Gray Squirrel. By Ernest Thompson Seton. Charles Scribner s Sons, New York. $2.
A welcome addition to Mr. Seton's exceptiona! books. 10-12.
Beyond Rope and Fence. By David Grew. Boni & Liveright, New York. $2.
A sympathetic story of a horse; would appeal to children's love for animals. 12-14. Bird Stories. By Edith M. Patch.
Monthly Press, Boston. $1.25.
Attractive stories for the children interested in birds. 10-12.
Garden Adventures of Tommy Tittlemouse. Bv
Hunters of the Great North. By Vilhjalmur Stefansson. Harcourt, Brace & Co., New York. $2.50.
Details of this explorer's first trip into the Arctic. 10-14. Kari, the Elephant. By Dhan Gopal Mukerji. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. $2 Story of the growth and adventures of an ele phant from the time he was six months old. Singularly successful in conveying the sense of the wide shadow-haunted places. 8-12. Many Trails. By H. Mortimer Batten. Henry Holt & Co., New York. $2.
Sympathetic stories about wild animals and domestic pets. 10-12.
The Pussycat Princess. By Edward Anthony Century Co., New York. $2.50.
Photographs of cats delightful. Rather mediocre text. 8-10.
THE BOOK TABLE (Continued)
NATURE AND SCIENCE
The Boy's Book of Physics. By Charles Ramsay Clarke and Sidney A. Small. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York.
Although approaching a text-book in its systematic arrangement, this will appeal to boys already interested in the subject, being full of suggestions for experiments and demonstrations, and profusely illustrated. 19-14 and over: Astronomy for Young Folks: By Isabel M. Lewis. Duffield & Co., New York. $1.75. Good introduction; arranged for a study of the constellations month by month. 10-14. Wonders of Chemistry, By A. Frederick Col
lins. T. Y. Crowell Co., New York. $1.00. Well designed to develop an interest in chemistry and full of interesting and authentic information about modern achievements as well as of some important principles of the subject. 12-14 and over.
The story of the founding of America interestingly told. 12-14.
Days of the Colonists. By L. Lamprey. F. A. Stokes Co., New York. $2.50.
Great events in the early days of our history vividly described. 12-14.
The Flower of Fortune. By Emille B. Knipe and Alden A. Knipe. Century Co., New York. $1.75.
An Interesting historical tale of the DutchEnglish days of old New York. Effectively recreates the old atmosphere. 10-12. Pirates. By C. Lovat Fraser. R. M. McBride & Co., New York. $2.50.
Historical account of famous pirates. Interesting. Over 14.
Real Americans. By Mary H. Wade. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. $1.65.
Well told and interesting in their appeal. 10-14.
Heroes of Liberty. By Grace Humphrey. BobbsMerrill Co., Indianapolis. $1.50.
Brief biographical sketches of heroes of various countries. 8-12.
A Book of Boyhoods. By Eugenie M. Fryer. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. $3. Well-chosen biographies, including such men as Chaucer, Raleigh, Stevenson, Joffre, Roosevelt, etc. Suitable for the discriminating young reader. 12-14.
Heroes of Progress. By Eva March Tappan. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. $1.25.
Short sketches of twenty-nine modern and older benefactors of the race, such as Clara Barton, Audubon, Booker Washington, Alexander Graham Bell, etc. 10-12.
Dental science has been seeking ways to better tooth protection.
All old methods proved inadequate. Tooth troubles were constantly increasing. Very few escaped them. Beautiful teeth were seen less often than now.
Dental research found the causes, then evolved five new ways to correct them.
The chief enemy
The chief tooth enemy was found to be film-that viscous film you feel. It clings to teeth, enters crevices and stays.
Food stains, etc., discolor it. Then it forms dingy coats. Tartar is based on film. Most teeth are thus clouded more or less.
Film also holds food substance which ferments and forms acids. It holds the acids in contact with the teeth to cause decay. Germs breed by millions in it. They, with tartar, are the chief cause of pyorrhea.
Much left intact
Old ways of brushing left much of that film intact, to cloud the teeth and night and day threaten serious damage.
Two ways were found to fight that film. One acts to curdle film, one to remove it, and without any harmful scouring. Able authorities proved those methods effective.
The New-Day Dentifrice
Now advised by leading dentists the world over. All druggists supply the large tubes.
They were embodied in a tooth paste called Pepsodent, and dentists the world over began to urge its use.
Other effects were found necessary, and ways were discovered to bring them. All are now embodied in Pepsodent.
Pepsodent stimulates the salivary flowNature's great tooth-protector.
It multiplies the alkalinity of the saliva. That is there to neutralize mouth acids, the cause of tooth decay.
It multiplies the starch digestant in the saliva. That is there to digest starch deposits on teeth which may otherwise ferment and form acids.
It polishes teeth so film less easily adheres. Prettier teeth came to millions
One result is prettier teeth. You see them everywhere-teeth you envy, maybe. But that is only a sign of cleaner, safer teeth. Film-coats, acids and deposits are effectively combated.
Send the coupon for a 10-Day Tube. Note how clean the teeth feel after using. Mark the absence of the viscous film. See how teeth whiten as the film-coats disappear. Cut out the coupon now.
10-Day Tube Free 1014
THE PEPSODENT COMPANY, Dept. 451, 1104 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, Ill. Mail 10-day tube of Pepsodent to