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manded that we be represented in the best possible manner by high officials of the country and by an adequate naval display.
When Secretary Hughes landed in Rio on September 5 he was escorted to Guanabara Palace, which was placed at his disposal. Since then this same palace has been placed at the disposal of the President of Portugal. No other representatives have been so highly honored by the Brazilians.
The following day, September 6, Secretary Hughes and other members of the American mission presented their credentials to the President of Brazil.
On September 7, the one hundredth anniversary of the independence Brazil, the Exposition was opened by an international parade participated in by soldiers and sailors from fifteen countries. Our American bluejackets and Marines led the parade, and were beyond doubt the finest-appearing men in it. This was attested by the great applause that greeted them all along the line of march. After the completion of the parade the President of Brazil congratulated Secretary Hughes, who was sitting beside him, on the magnificent appearance of our men.
During the following days Secretary Hughes was extremely busy with the many ceremonies and official calls, luncheons, banquets, and public speeches. Among these ceremonies was the official opening of the Exposition by the President of Brazil and the dedication by Secretary Hughes of the new American Consulate in the Exposition Grounds.
Meantime our three thousand blue
jackets were acting as unofficial repre-
It had been originally planned for the
The Maryland got under way late in the afternoon of September 12, and, demonstrating the flexibility of her American motive power-electric drive -gathered headway rapidly and in a few minutes was steaming at over eighteen knots without a particle of smoke from her funnels. With men standing at attention on deck, and with the band playing the national airs of each country as she passed their foreign men-of-war, she steamed majestically out of the harbor, a fitting representative of the power and dignity of the United States. The Maryland maintained this speed, and even better, all the way to New York, even during a
two days' gale, and succeeded in shattering all records for the run between Rio and New York.
On the way back Secretary Hughes was again hauled before King Neptune on crossing the equator and was presented with a handsomely engraved Neptune certificate which made it known to all men that he had become a trusty "shellback" and had been duly initiated into the mystic and ancient order of the Deep. During the ten days' voyage Secretary Hughes inspected the crew, their mess tables, where they slept, the engine-room, fire-rooms, and all parts of the ship and made himself very popular with the men by the interest he displayed in their work. They had expected to find him rather austere and dignified, but, on the contrary, they found him to be a regular fellow and a good shipmate. This favorable impression was mutual, for upon landing in New York Secretary Hughes stated to the press that his trip on the Maryland had been the most enjoyable and instructive voyage he had ever made and that he had great admiration for the officers and the men of the Maryland.
It is safe to say that the visit of Secretary Hughes under such auspicious circumstances as attended his trip to Rio has done much to strengthen the ties of friendship between the United States and Brazil and to bring about a clearer appreciation in both countries of our kindred aspirations. Secretary Hughes has added greatly to the prestige of this country by his visit, and it is hoped that our Government will continue its efforts in this direction.
THE AMERICAN NAVY AND THE
BY COMMANDER ROBERT A. BACHMAN
ITH events in the Near East bursting suddenly from an apparently peaceful condition into a state of war, the United States Navy found itself once more so placed as to make it the center of the entire Nation's eager interest.
In order to clear up the official status of our official representative in Turkish waters and to make plain just what part the Navy is playing to-day, when the situation between England and Turkey is so strained, it may be well to state exactly in what capacity Rear-Admiral Mark L. Bristol is acting, and how he is representing our Government.
When the Allied Governments conIcluded the armistice with Turkey, they established an Allied High Commission to deal with whatever problems might arise in connection with the Near Eastern situation. During the World War the United States had broken off diplomatic relations with Turkey, although
ar had never officially been declared.
On this Allied High Commission the
This official designation, however, left him without adequate power and au thority to deal with the many phases of our foreign relations which demanded his attention. In all common councils a greater voice than his was exercised by the other Powers on account of being represented by diplomats with higher credentials. To correct this situation and our interests at that time were of the greatest variety and importance the President, upon recommendation of the State Department, on August 11, 1919, appointed Rear-Admiral Bristol High Commissioner of the United States, and the negotiating of all matters between the United States and
(M.C.), U. S. N.
Near Eastern countries was carried on through him. Although since then diplomatic relations have been resumed, the office of High Commissioner proved to be so desirable that it has been continued to this day. By this change of rank the importance of Admiral Bristol's position was properly emphasized, and consequently the usefulness of his office proportionately increased.
In brief, the duties of the High Commissioner include the following appointments: He is diplomatic representative of the United States, Senior United States Naval Officer in Turkish waters, representative of the United States Shipping Board in the Near East, Chairman of the Constantinople Chapter of the American Red Cross, General Assistant of the Near East Relief Committee, and General Director of all United States Consular Offices in Turkey.
With the despatch of twelve additional destroyers to Constantinople, the naval
forces of the United States there will be augmented to twenty destroyers, the small station ship Scorpion, and some supply ships and tenders.
Vice-Admiral Long on the cruiser Pittsburg, his flagship, will be in command of the entire United States naval forces operating in European waters. Admiral Long will make an inspection trip to Turkey to look over the situation and determine the disposition of the forces under his command. The immediate handling of the vessels at Turkey will remain with Rear-Admiral Bristol.
To set down in detail all the matters which must of necessity claim Admiral Bristol's attention in such unsettled times as these would take too much space. But one fact should not be forgotten-that, first of all, relief work carried on and the protection given to Americans constitute the bulk of his affairs.
Destroyers have steamed from port to port, carrying stores, transporting members of the Near East Relief Committee, assisting in every way the efforts of the Red Cross and other relief organizations, evacuating Americans, non-combatants, and wounded from Black Sea ports, and helping American business keep on its feet.
When in 1920 communication lines in Turkey, Bulgaria, Russia, and Rumania were badly shattered, and at times even totally destroyed, Admiral Bristol was able, through stationing his destroyers advantageously, to keep up communications with London and from there to the United States by means of their
radio equipment. But for the naval communication office which he established ashore it is difficult to imagine what our Near East Relief, Food Administration, Red Cross, and commercial men would have done. The last were
IN AMERICAN GIRL IN CONSTANTINOPLE, "the only unmarried American woman, outside of the relief organizations," wrote some intimate letters home about the life there during the past year, and about some of the outstanding figures in that Near East storm center. Notable among the figures she describes is
But she does not stop with these high personages. She describes also the "soft-eyed Turkish doll," the prize beauty, Little Baala; the Princess Sabaiheddin, a "Turkish princess with blond bobbed hair;" the Spanish Jew, "who scurries in and out like a rabbit ;" and others who do not get into the papers. Best of all, she tells how Americans and Europeans pass their time "where every meal is a party" and where "it's a delirious life for a British or American girl."
She writes with zest of her experiences and observations, which she characterizes as "Turkish Delight."
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especially handicapped by the military control of cable lines and the frequent total paralysis of mail facilities. All messages sent out via commercial cable were more or less open to the scrutiny of foreign competitors, and the saving of American trade became almost completely a question of communications.. At one time the Navy handled as many as two thousand incoming and outgoing messages a day.
In the transacting of official duties a sharp line was drawn between state and naval matters. When Admiral Bristol took over the Embassy and established the headquarters of the High Commission there, two files were begun-one known as the Navy file, and the other as the State Department file. In this way it was arranged that whenever the time came for the Navy to withdraw the Embassy files would be left complete.
Now, with the eyes of the entire world focused on Turkey, it may be apropos to quote a despatch recently sent to one of our metropolitan dailies by its staff correspondent:
"The humanitarian work done by Admiral Bristol and his small naval force," he says, "cannot be overrated. He has demonstrated that the American Navy is not only a fighting machine in time of war, nor a mere ornament in time of peace. While other naval forces are chiefly concerned with evacuating their own nationals, American destroyers are practically the only forces devoting themselves wholly to the unfortunate Greeks as well as to the Americans."
THE NAVY-IN PEACE
BY CAPTAIN L. M. OVERSTREET, U. S. N.
HE Navy is a constructive and a humanitarian as well as a fighting organization. The general impression that the men of the Navy are idle in time of peace, save for necessary war drills, and that money appropriated for the Navy is expended entirely in preparing for future battles, is incorrect.
The men of the Navy are so active in time of peace governing certain of our island possessions; protecting our citizens abroad; promoting and safeguarding our foreign trade; assisting all merchantmen in approaching our coasts; and in developing shipbuilding and engineering industries, that money appropriated for the Navy is well invested.
NAVY GOVERNS OUR ISLAND POSSESSIONS
Virgin Islands. These islands, which we obtained from the Danes in 1917, are governed by an American Admiral, assisted by a staff of some twenty other naval officers, of whom fourteen are doctors. In the early days St. Thomas was Here exists the a pirate stronghold. famous "Bluebeard's Castle," built in 1700. The native guides point out the many black crosses on the inner walls of the Castle, which indicate the number of wives the old pirate killed. At one time St. Thomas was the most important transshipping port in the West Indies, where slaves and cargoes were redistributed and where steamers were coaled. In the good old days our men-of-war were prone to drop in at St. Thomas to fill up their wine lockers.
The islands have an area of 142 square miles, a population of 26,000 (largely Negroes), and a trade valued at $4,000,000 annually. The largest island, St. Croix, exported nearly $2,000,000 worth of sugar in 1921, with small amounts of molasses, cotton, and cattle. Two other islands, St. John and St. Thomas, used to make valuable exports of bay rum, but prohibition has now crippled this as well as the real rum industry.
The Naval Governor has given education an impetus by revising the school laws; by raising from thirteen to fifteen years the age limit for compulsory education; by requiring parents and guardians to keep the children in school; by increasing the number, salary, and quality of the teachers; by introducing nurses and dentists into the schools; by increasing night school facilities; by establishing libraries; and by organizing schools for nurses. In February, 1921, the first native girl graduates in the history of the islands were given diplomas as nurses. Daby shows are held monthly, at which a Navy band plays, pink lemonade is served, and the overnor awards prizes to the proud
mothers of the islands' finest infants.
The Navy allots $340,000 of its money
Samoa. A naval captain, assisted by some twelve other naval officers, governs American Samoa. We took over this group of South Sea Islands from the natives in 1899 by an agreement with England and Germany. The rest of the Samoan group went to Germany, but it is now governed by New Zealand. The group has an area of 77 square miles, and a population of 8,000 people. These natives belong to a fine type of the Polynesian race. These islands have a great strategic value to the Navy. Pago Pago is the best harbor in this region of the South Seas, is en route from San Francisco to Australia, about 4,200 miles from the former and 2,400 from the latter, and 2,300 miles to the southward of Honolulu.
The laws have been revised and issued in both English and Samoan. For the first time in history the natives have laws in their own language. school districts have been established, and schools increased from two to six. Nine more will be started when capable teachers can be obtained.
Public health has been improved by issuing sanitary regulations in Samoan to each family and by using copies in English in the schools. Navy doctors and nurses are training native girls for nursing, while Navy pharmacists have been put in charge of dispensaries which have been established on two outlying islands and in a distant part of the main island of Tutuila. A free dental clinic is run for the natives. An excellent native female nurse, a graduate of a naval hospital in America, delivers lectures continually in the native villages. A sanitary inspector travels from village to village to lecture and give instruction.
The chief export is copra. The crop is valued at about $175,000 annually. The natives used to pay their taxes in copra. This method required the collection of an excess amount in order to allow for shrinkage and to realize a definite sum of money. Excess cash was returned to the chiefs of districts, and trouble followed. The Governor has therefore changed this to an exact cash
taxation, based on the annual budget, with satisfactory results. Good roads are being cheaply built by sending out prisoners daily to work on them.
A naval captain, assisted by some twenty naval officers and a force of marines, governs Guam. This island is a small one (area 225 square miles, population 1,500, mostly Chamorros of the Malay type), which we obtained in 1898 from Spain. Guam has great strategic value. Guam is en route from San Francisco to the Philippines. It is 5,000 miles from the former, 1,500 miles from Manila, and some 2,300 miles to the westward of Honolulu.
The balance of trade is against Guam, as the copra exported annually is valued at some $40,000, while the imports, mostly foodstuffs and cotton goods, are valued at over $400,000. The island revenues amounted to over $112,000 in 1921.
As in the Virgin Islands and Samoa, great attention is given to education, sanitation, and health. In addition to regular academic schools, there is an industrial school and an experimental farm. Two new schools are being built, while two native students are kept in the United States in agricultural schools. Improved sanitation has reduced disease. The birth rate now is more than double the death rate. There were no cases of leprosy last year. There are no local doctors or dentists, so the Navy medical force, consisting of nine doctors, two dentists, forty hospital corps men, and eleven female nurses, assisted by a few native nurses and midwives (whom our doctors have trained), must care for the health of the entire island population. There are numerous outlying medical stations, with additional dressing sta tions, while all school teachers and patrolmen are given first-aid training. Due to the native habit of betel-nut chewing, a Navy dentist spends two afternoons a week in schools; toothbrush drills have been introduced in the schools in order to combat the betel-nut chewing evil. All schoolboys are given physical training for four hours a week, including Swedish setting-up exercises to music. The boys join the militia from the age of sixteen to twenty-three, are then transferred to the first reserve with monthly drills, and finally to the second reserve, with semi-annual drills. The result of this training has been very satisfactory and has improved the health and strength of the male population.
The Navy allots $20,000 outright to the care of lepers, who are sent from Guam to the leper colony at Culion in the Philippines. In addition, many thousands of dollars are expended in maintaining the naval force and in im
proving education, sanitation, and health throughout the island.
The Navy is proud of the results of its work in these island possessions. Some stress has been laid upon these nava! activities since they are not generally known. Naval officers, during their forty years of active service, are constantly caring for the education, health, and recreation of their men in order to provide happy, healthy, and efficient crews for their men-of-war. They are, therefore, well qualified to govern these islands, where questions of health and sanitation are of the greatest importance.
NAVY PROTECTS COMMERCE
In order to protect our citizens abroad and our foreign interests, the whole world is divided into sea areas. An admiral is held responsible for the area allotted to him. In the Asiatic area the admiral must keep a force of gunboats on constant patrol on the Yangtze River. This patrol extends nearly 2,000 miles up the river into the very heart of China. At least one gunboat is kept in the river between Hongkong and Canton. The present war at Canton has made it necessary to reinforce this gunboat by a destroyer. A cruiser is kept in Vladi vostok. The rest of the Asiatic fleet, consisting largely of destroyers and submarines, is generally in the Philippines.
These small cruisers and gunboats doing patrol duty have little value in time of war, but they protect American interests and even save the lives of Chinese merchants from their own brigands. Our exports to China in 1920 were val ued at over $145,000,000, and this trade, together with the Americans handling it and our missionaries, needs protection. This patrol work costs the Navy some $3,000,000 annually. During the recent crisis in the vicinity of Peking cruisers and gunboats were rushed to North China and extra Navy men landed to reinforce the Marine Guard which the Navy keeps at all times on duty in the Chinese capital. By international agreement, we are pledged, during internal Chinese wars, to co-operate with the other Powers in keeping the railway lines open from Peking to the sea.
The Navy also keeps a patrol force on duty throughout the Caribbean Sea to protect our interests. The fruit alone we import annually from this region is valued at over $50,000,000. This trade, as well as our citizens, must be protected throughout these troublesome West Indian countries. It costs the Navy some $3,000,000 annually to maintain this patrol. This amount does not include the cost of maintaining the force of sailors and marines who are temporarily on duty in Haiti, San Domingo, and Nicaragua.
The Navy maintains a considerable force of ships throughout the eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Americans have important oil and tobacco interests in the Near East; in
fact, the annual shipments of tobacco from the single port of Samsun in the Black Sea to America are valued at over $15,000,000. Due to the present GrecoTurkish war, a destroyer is constantly on duty at Samsun to protect our interests. After the collapse of General Wrangel's Russian army our destroyers helped to bring the remnants out of Sebastopol. One destroyer, in fact, picked up in the Black Sea a brokendown merchant ship which was crowded with Russian refugees and towed it into Constantinople.
An American admiral is our High Commissioner in Constantinople, as we have no ambassador there. With a force of eight destroyers he has been able to protect our trade in the Near East to the extent that it has increased over 1,000 per cent in the past two years. It costs the Navy about $4,000,000 annually to do this work in the Near East.
During a revolution in South America, some years ago, a rebel gunboat fired on an American merchant ship while it was proceeding to land a cargo of our products. An American cruiser at once fired a single shot, and our merchant ship was not again molested. There have been many special instances of commerce protection similar to this one. In 1920 our oversea imports were valued at nearly five billion and our oversea exports at over seven billion of dollars. When we have abolished our city police, our State constabularies, and our National Guard, and are living peacefully among ourselves; when we are safely shipping our own mail and freight across the United States without protection; then (if other nations have done the same) we can consider eliminating the men-of-war now needed to protect our twelve-billion-dollar sea-borne trade.
Our very first men-of-war were built in 1794 in order to protect our commerce. When the pirates on the Barbary Coast seized the wheat we were sending into the Mediterranean, we paid tribute until these ships were completed. Payment of tribute stopped as soon as our newly built men-of-war reached the Mediterranean. Two of these first famous ships, the Constellation and the Constitution, still exist.
Some may exclaim: "But we do not have pirates to-day." Is not China forced to pay huge sums in futile efforts to buy back her own territory? This huge nation of 400,000,000 peace-loving people does not have an efficient navy, and it cannot drive off its aggressors.
The State Department is constantly calling upon the Navy as a strong right arm to assist in carrying out its foreign policies and to protect our citizens and our commercial interests. One of our ablest Secretaries of State, John Hay, said in 1902, after some troublesome revolutionary events in the Caribbean: "I have always felt relieved when a naval officer had arrived on the scene, because he always kept within the situation." Later, in 1904, John Hay said: "We have had a number of difficult in
ternational situations in the West Indies in the last two years, and they have all been handled by naval officers very well. They have not made one single mistake."
NAVY OPENS PORTS TO TRADE
Commodore Perry opened Japan to the trade of the world in 1854. This is so generally known that it seems superfluous to give the details.
In 1811 the Navy took steps to open Turkey to our trade. At that time we were sending exports valued at $1,000,000 annually to Turkey, but as it was not generally open, our products had to be landed in Smyrna. The commanders of our squadrons worked with the Turkish Government until a treaty was consummated which opened Turkey fully to our trade, and an ex-Naval officer was made our first Minister to Constantinople.
After the opium war in China in 1842 the British forced the Chinese to make the "Treaty of Nanking," whereby the five Chinese ports of Canton, Amoy, Fuchau, Ningpo, and Shanghai were opened to British merchants. The alert naval commander of our Chinese squadron at once secured a copy of this treaty, and arranged with the Chinese Viceroy at Canton to give our merchants all the privileges accorded to the British.
NAVY BUILDS UP INDUSTRY
The late Andrew Carnegie said that the great steel industry of America was built up by the United States Navy, whose contracts, specifications, and inspection work made steel what it is today. In the Act of August 5, 1882, Congress wisely provided for the construction of two men-of-war to be built of steel of domestic manufacture. There was no steel industry in our country at this time, and the shipbuilders opposed this project vigorously. However, the Navy insisted, and experiments were made, with the result that the great American steel industry was founded. The price of steel ship plates dropped from 81⁄2 to 42 cents a pound.
On board ship it is necessary to save weight as much as possible, and with this end in view, the Navy has constantly drawn up specifications substituting lighter materials for heavier. Large Navy orders have put the Monel metal industry on its feet. The manufacture of armor plate has caused exhaustive research in treating and alloying steel. A large order for light-weight Navy pumps to be made of naval brass, of tensile strength of 30,000 pounds, resulted in tests which produced a highgrade material having a tensile strength of 50,000 pounds. The Navy has been able to increase steam pressures, to produce turbine engines, internal combustion engines, reduction gear drives, and even electric drives for our ships. The merchant marine, many shore industries, and the people at large have had the benefit of the Navy's engineering work. The Navy operates two ships for