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BY CARL G. LEWIS
People in general of the nation do not understand the importance which those of Latter Day Saint faith attach to the conversion of the American Indian.
In the earliest days of the church, in 1830, the same year in which it was organized, revelations were given commanding some of the most prominent and gifted of its men-Oliver Cowdery, a councilor of Joseph Smith and second to him alone; Parley P. Pratt, one of the twelve apostles; and Peter Whitmer, one of the eight who witnessed the gold plates from which the Book of Mormon was translated-to go and establish the church among the Lamanites. We read in the Doctrine and Covenants 27:3:
“And now, behold, I say unto you" (Oliver Cowdery) "that you shall go unto the Lamanites, and preach my gospel unto them; and inasmuch as they receive thy teachings, thou shalt cause my church to be established among them."
Doctrine and Covenants 31:1:
"And now concerning my servant Parley P. Pratt, behold, I say unto him, that as I live I will that he declare my gospel and learn of me, and be meek and lowly of heart and that which I have appointed unto him, is that he shall go with my servants, Oliver Cowdery and Peter Whitmer, jr., into the wilderness, among the Lamanites; and Ziba Peterson, also, shall go with them."
However, after the Saints were driven from the centra! states because of their refusal to be fully obedient to the words of the Lord, and numerical inferiority, the work among the Indians of this locality largely ceased, but in recent years the work among these wealthy tribes has been greatly revived. Frederic M. Smith, president of the church, has visited them personally, adding his efforts to the efforts of such prominent men as E. E. Long and H. Case to convert the Indian to the Book of Mormon, which is a history of his forefathers and contains prophecies which are great and wonderful promises to be fulfilled in the very near future. One of these promises, given in the Doctrine and Covenants 49:5, is:
“But before the great day of the Lord shall come, Jacob" (the Jacobites are also Lamanites, Jacob, of Abraham's time, having been their first forefather, followed some generations later by King Laman) “shall flourish in the wilderness; and the Lamanites shall blossom as the rose."
The efforts of the Indian to gain the rights of citizenship, and thereby gain possession of property held in trust for him by the Government, are considered with great interest and approval by the church, as much of the great wealth which the Indian claims shall ultimately come into its possession for the final building up of Zion (Independence, Mo.), in which the Lamanites are to have the principal part, assisted by the gentiles who are willing to be converted. In the Book of Mormon, chapter ten, verses one and two of the last book of Nephi, which is separated from First and Second Nephi and located near the back of the book, we read:
"1. But if they" (the Gentiles) "will repent, and hearken unto my words, and harden not their hearts, I will establish my church among them, and they shall come in unto the covenant, and be numbered among this the remnant of Jacob, unto whom I have given this land for their inheritance, and they shall assist my people the remnant of Jacob.
2. And also, as many of the house of Israel as shall come" (however, there is nothing written to show that participation by a large number of Jews should be expected), "that they may build a city, which shall be called the New Jerusalem."
We see that the hopes and expectations of Latter Day Saints the future of the American Indian are entwined. As is d in the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants,
they cannot be separated. The two peoples combined will be the staunch and finally undefeatable defenders of Zion, of whom the Gentiles who are not willing to repent shall stand in great fear. Doctrine and Covenants 45:12, 13:
"12. Wherefore, I the Lord have said, Gather ye out from the eastern lands, assemble ye yourselves together ye elders of my church; go ye forth unto the western countries, call upon the inhabitants to repent, and inasmuch as they do repent, build up churches unto me; and with one heart and with one mind, gather up your riches that ye may purchase an inheritance which shall hereafter be appointed unto you, and it shall be called the New Jerusalem, a land of peace, a city of refuge, a place of safety for the Saints of the most high God and the glory of the Lord shall be there, and the terror of the Lord also shall be there, insomuch that the wicked will not come unto it; and it shall be called Zion.
13. And it shall come to pass, among the wicked, that every man that will not take his sword against his neighbor, must needs flee unto Zion for safety. And there shall be gathered unto it out of every nation under heaven; and it shall be the only people that shall not be at war one with another. And it shall be said among the wicked, let us not go up to battle against Zion, for the inhabitants of Zion are terrible, wherefore we cannot stand."
The Indian is also to have an additional, exclusive, and prominent part in the bringing down and punishing of the unconvertible Gentiles. The Book of Mormon, Nephi 9:98-100,
"98. Therefore it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not believe in my words, who am Jesus Christ, whom the Father shall cause him to bring forth unto the Gentiles, and shall give unto him power that he shall bring forth unto the Gentiles (it shall be done even as Moses said), they shall be cut off from among, my people who are of the covenant;
99. And my people who are a remnant of Jacob, shall be among the Gentiles, yea, in the midst of them, as a lion among the beasts of the forests, as a young lion among the flocks of sheep, who, if he go through both treadeth down and teareth in pieces, and none can deliver.
100. Their hand shall be lifted up upon their adversaries and all their enemies shall be cut off."
Book of Mormon, Nephi 7:38-41:
"38. But if the Gentiles will repent, and return unto me, saith the Father, behold, they shall be numbered among my people, O house of Isreal;
39. And I will not suffer my people, who are of the house of Israel, to go through among them, and tread them down, saith the Father.
40. But if they will not turn unto me, and hearken unto my voice, I will suffer them, yea, I will suffer my people, O house of Israel, that they shall go through among them, and shall tread them down,
41. And they shall be as salt that has lost its savor, which is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of my people, O house of Israel.”
My reference books, consisting of the Book of Mormon and the Doctrine and Covenants, are those of the Reorganized faction of the Latter Day Saints, or Mormon Church, with headquarters located at Independence, Mo., yet the quotations produced here are parts of those communications which, coming through Joseph Smith, the first prophet, seer and revelator of Latter Day Saintism and its founder, have been accepted as revelations from God by the general vote of not only the Reorganized faction, but the Brighamite, or Utah faction, as well; the sections, etc., of the Brighamite books being numbered somewhat differently than the Reorganized.
OCTOBER 11, 1922
A LULL IN THE NEAR EAST
EPRESENTATIVES of Great Brit
ain, France, and Italy are, as we write, entering into conference with Mustapha Kemal at Mudania, an unimportant port on the Sea of Marmora. This conference is nominally of a military nature and aims to frame an armistice between Greece and the Nationalist forces of Turkey. The plan is that it should be followed by a full peace conference at Venice or elsewhere, at which the political and international questions involved should be taken up for final decision. It is, however, probable that at Mudania other than purely military points will be taken up, for the reason that Kemal is still insistent on committal by the Powers to his demands, including his proposal that his army should at once occupy Eastern Thrace up to the Maritza River, and therefore including Adrianople.
In the week ending October 3, Kémal withdrew his troops from some important points in the neutral zone, and in other ways showed that he did not intend to attack the British position at Chanak. It seems obvious that if he ever intended to yield to the pressure of his soldiers to begin war at that point he would have done so at the first possible minute and before reinforcements in troops and naval ships strengthened the position as they have now done. His demonstrations in the neutral zone were largely intended to emphasize his declaration that he does not recognize the existence of such a zone on the Asian side, as his Nationalist Government has never had any part in establishing such a zone. The occupation by Kemal's forces of Erenkeui looked like a serious threat because of its advantageous position for an attack on the little foothold of the British on the Asian coast.
Even now, however, Kemal's reported statements are extreme in their demands. For instance, M. Bouillon, who has been trying to get reasonable terms from Kemal, reported on October 2 that Kemal would not even agree to suspend military movements during the armistice conference except on condition of receiving formal guaranties for the evacuation of Thrace, the establishment of Allied garrisons in the cities of Thrace, the occupation of the line of the Maritza River by Allied troops, the admission of Turkish Nationalist gendarmes into Thrace, the transfer of the civil administration of Thrace to Kemalist officials,
and the evacuation of Thrace in eight days by the Greek army. These are matters that ought to be fixed by an armistice rather than conditions for it, and it seems overbearing in Kemal to make such conditions a prerequisite.
GREECE AND THRACE
HE abdication of Constantine was the natural and inevitable consequence of the collapse of his weak and incompetent administration, which brought about the defeat of the Greek armies in Asia Minor. His son has been accepted, at least temporarily, as ruler by the revolutionary committees and is to be known as King George II. His accession has been informally recognized by Great Britain. Meanwhile, those who have hopes for Greece in the future are still trusting that the wisdom of Mr. Venizelos will be utilized by his country. It is understood that Venizelos has been authorized by the new Government of Athens to act as a sort of special Greek ambassador to all the European capitals to aid the cause of his country.
Thrace seems now to be the center of danger. The Turks declare that the withdrawal of the Greek forces in Thrace is being accompanied by deplorable incidents and massacres, just as the withdrawal of the Greeks in their retreat on Smyrna was accompanied by atrocities and destruction directed against the Mohammedan population. On the other hand, bearing in mind what happened in Smyrna, the danger of evil-doing by the Turks, if they are
allowed to take possession of Thrace, is far from negligible.
AMERICA AND THE NEAR EAST ECRETARY HUGHES has taken a firm and positive position as to the relations of the United States to the new Near Eastern problem. He declares that there is nothing to justify this country in any effort to pacify the Near East by armed force, or to attempt to bring political influence to bear on the international questions involved in which we have not been and are not concerned. On the other hand, our Government proposes to exert all influence possible for humanity, peace, and the protection of American interests. American warships have already aided effectively in the rescue work in Smyrna.
There has been an earnest but not altogether well-balanced effort by those interested in American benevolent and religious effort in the Near East urging our Government to take action. Dr. James Cannon, a Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, urged the United States to use its Army and Navy, One newspaper statement, probably exaggerated, says that there have been demands from "hundreds of church organizations that this country fight, if necessary, to protect Christians from the Turk."
The statement by Secretary Hughes was largely in answer to Bishop Cannon's representations. Mr. Hughes declared that we have already done everything possible for relief and in aid to refugees and have exerted influenc
against cruelty and oppression and in aid of "the protection of the Christian minorities and the freedom of the Straits." He says: "These points of the proposal are clearly in accordance with American sentiment." A moderate statement from Dr. Barton, Secretary of the American Board, expresses his belief that, while conditions are serious, they are not alarming, that the Turks are on the whole favorable to American activities in Turkey, and that he does not think that there is reason to fear for the personal safety of our missionaries in Turkey.
QUIET DAYS IN IRELAND
N the six weeks following Michael Collins's death there have been in Southern Ireland less of fighting and disturbance than in any such period since De Valera and his supporters defied the authority of the Free State. One reason is found in the wide sweep of dismay and indignation at Collins's death; another, in the previous defeat of the Republican forces at important points; another, in the serious, businesslike way in which the Free State Government is proceeding with the work of organization. It has already made progress with framing the Constitution on the lines of the London agreement, has refused positively to negotiate peace with the insurgents, has demanded surrender rather than an armistice, and has organized a Civil Guard to protect life and property in localities from which the Republican forces have been driven out. The Government has a majority of 65 to 23 in the Provisional Parliament.
One welcome result of all this firm action by the Free State has been the report that Ulster is showing signs of conciliation with Southern Ireland. Its own Parliament is full of dissension; two counties are Catholic and four have a strong Labor representation, so that the old-time Carson Unionist and separatist fervor is no longer what it was. Under the London "Treaty" Ulster has a month after the Free State is formally established in complete form to decide whether she will come in or stay out. Three months ago the Ulster leaders all but raved at a suggestion that little Ireland could get on as one Dominion; now there are signs that it may not be impossible, after all.
FEW weeks ago one of the foremost
A pub Wets of one made a mate
ment to a member of the Outlook staff that Germany had received in gold as the result of the sale of the Government's paper marks abroad more than
Germany had paid out in reparations. In other words, Germany was engaged in a very profitable transaction as a result of the war, for she had sold worthless money for more than she had been willing or forced to pay in repair of the wanton damage she had done in her neighbor's territory. Such an allegation coming from a French source might be answered by the argument that it was an ex-parte statement. Now the New York "World" in a copyright article gives figures based on information from German banks and confirmed by records in America, "checked by a canvass of the big cities of the United States and the scrutiny of eminent, thoroughly experienced banking and foreign exchange specialists" (to use the "World's" own phrase), which thoroughly uphold that statement of the French publicist.
According to the "World's" article, all the German paper marks in the world are worth to-day, at the current price, about $175,000,000; and yet for the paper marks that have been sold in this country alone Americans have paid $960,000,000 in gold.
In the end of course such business as this can only bring distress to the German peoples as well as loss to the "investors;" but it is highly profitable to the German Government and to those speculators who have been getting their rake-off on the multitudinous transactions that have constituted this commerce in virtually worthless paper. So great was the business carried on at one time that the German Government printing-presses were unable to print marks fast enough to supply the demand. On an average, the marks were bought in America at $12 a thousand. Now they are worth less than 70 cents a thousand. The deluded American buyers have got the paper and Germany has received the gold.
Most of those who bought these marks were Germans in America or Americans of German descent. This is the way that Germany has got the gold to pay her reparations. In fact, as the "World" article states, in this way the buyers of German marks "have given to Germany more than twice as much gold as Germany has paid in gold in war reparation payments to date, $365,637,000."
All this does not lessen the suspicion that the German Government has been quite willing to find itself in what to a private business concern would be insolvency.
struction of China (printed in this issue) most encouraging progress has been made in accommodating the divergent views of these leaders. The compromising of position has been facilitated by the insistence of President Li Yuan-hung, acting as the chief executive in Peking, that a settlement be reached securing the support of Sun Yat-sen.
The attempted betrayal of Sun by his chief General, which sent Sun from Canton in midsummer, has reacted in Sun's favor and has left him, as the leader of revolutionary republicanism, in a pivotal position. From Shanghai headquarters he has become a veritable clearing-house of opposing factions. To the present moment there has been no settlement of China's internal political difficulties, however, as the followers of the erstwhile South China Government are sticking by Sun Yat-sen. It appears that a fusion of North and South in the Peking Cabinet is in the wind. Its success depends upon how far Sun Yat-sen is insistent upon a house-cleaning in China's capital, to what extent Wu Pei-fu and other moderate military leaders will support it, and whether or not the "father of the Chinese revolution" will consent to a compromise settlement.
At this time there looms in the Manchurian offing Chang Tso-lin, the defeated but far from vanquished rival of Wu Pei-fu in last spring's North China hostilities. In Peking Li Yuan-hung, temporary President in China's emergency, holds forth as an old friend of Sun Yat-sen and his fellow-workers bent on securing the co-operation of all factions in the troubled Republic or resigning in an admission of defeat. Dominating the military situation in the eighteen provinces, Wu Pei-fu stands as a censor of the politicians and a patriot seeking unification on the best terms possible. In Shanghai there is Sun Yatsen, perhaps the key to China's future, holding relentlessly to what he would make the realities of Chinese democracy in Peking.
KATO, THE LIBERAL
HEN Admiral Baron Kato became Prime Minister of Japan last June, it was natural for Americans unacquainted with the details of Japan's politics to assume that, with a naval officer at the head of the Government, the military party of Japan would be strengthened. As a matter of fact, however, Admiral Baron Kato, as we pointed out at the time, is of liberal mind and believes in civilian control and party responsibility. The task of such a man in the Government of Japan is not easy; for traditionally, both the
army and the navy are under the control of Ministers who are responsible directly to the Emperor. To change that control without affronting the people's regard for the sacredness of the Emperor's person and authority requires statesmanship, and the fact that a great change was brought about by the late Mr. Hara, who was assassinated for his liberal tendencies, was proof of the statesmanship of that eminent Prime Minister. Now Admiral Baron Kato, according to a despatch from the well-known publicist B. W. Fleisher to the Philadelphia "Public Ledger," is facing a very acute situation in which the militarists and the anti-militarists are ranged against each other, and, as a consequence, the Prime Minister is threatening to resign.
The issue has arisen out of the withdrawal of the Japanese forces from Siberia. The presence of those forces in Siberia long after the war and after the American forces which went in at the same time were withdrawn was one of the obstacles to the belief on the part of many Americans in Japanese good faith. When the Washington Naval Conference was adjourned last February, Japan had given promises to withdraw from Siberia as soon as possible consistently with the protection of Japanese civilians there. The cynical were inclined to regard such a promise as worthless, inasmuch as there would always be a good excuse for keeping troops to protect civilians under the circumstances. Nevertheless, Japan has been taking measures to fulfill her promise, and Japanese troops have been evacuating the region. Indeed, so far as the evacuation goes, it was reported that Russian Communists and Russian AntiCommunists have troops concentrated ready to dispute with each other the right to take the place which the Japanese troops are leaving. The crisis in the Japanese Government has arisen, not over the withdrawal of the troops themselves, but over the disposal of arms and ammunition, which include some of the material left by the Czechoslovakian army which evacuated Siberia two years ago. It is now reported that, contrary to Japan's promise to keep out of factional fights in China, a large quantity of these munitions have been sold to the Manchurian military despot, Chang Tsolin. The disposal of these munitions in this way puts Japan in a position of ally to one of the most disturbing factors in the Far East. It had been repeatedly charged that Japan has been secretly abetting Chang's aggressive tactics, and this sale of arms seems to confirm that allegation. According to the "Public Ledger" despatch, this sale was made under the authority of the Japanese military chief of staff without eonulting with the Japanese Government.
It is such action on the part of military authorities without the consent of the civilian Government of Japan that has repeatedly put Japan in an embarrassing position in her relations with other Governments. Admiral Baron Kato is evidently undertaking to make this a test case. On the one side, there are the Japanese army officers who want to be accountable to nobody but the Emperor, and on the other side are Admiral Baron Kato, his War Minister, General Yamashina, and the former War Minister, General Tanaka, who wish to have the military party subordinate to the authority of the civilian government. "If the chief of staff is unyielding," says the special despatch from the correspondent of the "Public Ledger," "Baron Kato will offer to quit the Cabinet as an alternative."
It is evident that Japan is passing through a period of development in which political decisions will be of the utmost moment and consequence. Not only will Japan's own prosperity and progress depend upon these decisions, but also good relations between Japan and other nations. All the evidence which has come to us indicates that Admiral Baron Kato is on the side of progress in Japan and international justice and peace. The very fact that he is making a fight on this issue is reassuring to the best friends that Japan has in other countries, and it confirms their faith in her.
HOW FRANCE AND AMERICA ARE HELPING EACH OTHER
N the steamer Chicago, from Havre, France, on September 19, sailed a large number of American students returning from a summer abroad to their respective colleges and universities.
But there also sailed forty-two young French men and women who attracted equal notice. They had been selected for the scholarships offered by our colleges and universities. These students will join about a dozen others, also scholarship-holders, who are remaining in America for a second or third year of study.
The French Government furnishes transportation to and from the American institutions. A large number of the students will remain in the East because of the expense involved in traveling to
ber-maintained by the American Field Service Fellowships Society, and also to those privately founded. The last named were in large measure established to commemorate the heroism of Americans who died in France during the war.
Further information concerning the scholarships in French universities may be obtained by writing to the American University Union, 1 Rue de Fleurus, Paris.
OXFORD DEBATES IN AMERICA s readers of The Outlook know,
A there is at present in this country
a debating team from the University of Oxford. Already Oxford has met Bates on its home grounds. The decision in favor of Bates was rendered both by judges, according to the American plan, and the audience, according to the British method. An editorial discussion of Anglo-American methods of college debating has already appeared in The Outlook, and in a forthcoming issue there will be an article by Ralph M. Carson, the American Rhodes Scholar who was President of the Oxford Union last year.
Concerning the Oxford-Bates debate the New York "Evening Post" says:
The three Bates debaters regarded themselves as a team, they carefully divided their "points," they shunned repetition, and they filled their speeches with a maximum of unassailable "evidence." The British debaters, on the other hand, spoke as individuals, did not mind contradicting one another slightly, were intent on thought rather than facts, and gave no attention to rebuttal.
The Oxford team is to speak at several Eastern universities before its return to England. At Harvard, at any rate, the debate is to be carried on according to the English system, as the audience will give the only decision which will be rendered. At Harvard each speaker will have the floor for fifteen minutes and there will be no rebuttal. The Harvard debate will be held before this issue is published, and the subject defended and attacked will be: "Resolved, that the United States should immediately join the League of Nations."
A NEW UNIVERSITY
ALE, Princeton, and Harvard have
our Western colleges and universities; formulated an athletic agreement
perhaps most of the students will be attracted to our institutions of the Middle West.
As to scholarships and fellowships in French universities for our college men and women, it is gratifying to note that the number of them has been increased from 50 to 62. These fellowships are in addition to those-some thirty in num
which is admirable. Of course this agreement does not indicate any radical departure from present practices, as some commentators would have it, but is very largely merely a codification of the public opinion of these three universities. It puts in explicit terms ideals which have been generally held by