« AnteriorContinuar »
A RIGHTEOUS WAR
By Carl G. Lewis
THE LATTER DAY SAINT CHURCH
The Latter Day Saint or Mormon Church, as it is often called, is divided into two principal factions. One of these factions under the leadership of F. M. Smith has headquarters ocated at Independence, Missouri, which place was appointed Zion or principal and permanent gathering place of the Saints by Joseph Smith, the first prophet, seer, and revelator of the Latter Day Saint church, and the man through whom Mormonism originated. The other faction is called the Brighamite or Utah Mormon church, and has its present headquarters located at Salt, Lake City. My reference books, however, consisting of the Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants and Corrected Bible, are those of the Reorganized faction, with headquarters located at Independence, Mo., yet the quotations produced here are parts of those communications which, coming through Joseph Smith, the first prophet, have been accepted as revelations from God by the general vote of not only the Reorganized faction, but the Brighamite faction, as well; the sections, etc., of the Brighamite books being numbered somewhat differently than the Reorganized.
GOD APPROVES OF WAR
The question of the legality of war making has been much discussed in all parts of the country and I am anxious that God's law concerning it, given through the grandfather of the present President F. M. Smith, be given to people who are not of the Latter Day Saint faith. I am doing something unusual in directing those not of the Latter Day Saint faith, or the Gentiles as they are called, in how to find those parts of the Reorganized books which so far have been withheld from them, but I feel that I am justified because of the great need of all people for Godly laws to govern them in their actions toward each other. First, I will reproduce paragraph six, of the revelation composing section ninety-five of the Doctrine and Covenants, to show that a command from God is always necessary before war can be engaged in legitimately. It reads as follows: "Behold, this is the law I gave unto my servant, Nephi; and thy father Joseph, and Jacob, and Isaac, and Abraham, and all mine ancient prophets and apostles. And again, this is the law that I gave unto mine ancients, that they should not go out unto battle against any nation, kindred, tongue, or people, save I, the Lord, commanded them. And if any nation, tongue, or people should proclaim war against them, they should first lift a standard of peace unto that people, nation, or tongue, and if that people did not accept the offering of peace, neither the second nor the third time, they should bring these testimonies before the Lord; then, I, the Lord, would give unto them a commandment, and justify them in going out to battle against that nation, tongue or people, and I, the Lord, would fight their battles, and their children's battles and their children's children" (this means that God would do the fighting but would exercise his power through them as is shown by the following four words given special emphasis) "until they had avenged themselves on all their enemies, to the third and fourth generation behold, this is an ensample unto all people, saith the Lord, your God, for justification before me." Nephi, of Book of Mormon fame, Joseph, Jacob, Isaac, and Abraham, the men
referred to above, were all great prophets of the Lord through whom the Lord communicated his will to the people, and as President Fred M. Smith is the leading prophet of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints today, it would be through him that a commandment to make war would of necessity have to come to the Reorganized people. I now wish to reproduce paragraphs eight and nine of the revelation composing section one hundred two of the Doctrine and Covenants, in connection with the paragraph quoted above. Paragraph 8: "Now, behold, I say unto you my friends, in this way you may find favor in the eyes of the people, until the army of Israel becomes very great; and I will soften the hearts of the people, as I did the heart of Pharaoh, from time to time, until my servant Baurak Ale, and Baneemy, whom I have appointed, shall have time to gather up the strength of my house, and to have sent wise men, to fulfill that which I have commanded concerning the purchasing of all lands in Jackson county (Missouri) that can be purchased, and in the adjoining counties round about; for it is my will that these lands should be purchased, and after they are purchased that my Saints may possess them according to the laws of consecration which I have given; and after these lands are purchased, I will hold the ARMIES of Israel guiltless in taking possession of their own lands, which they have previously purchased with their moneys, and of throwing down the towers of mine enemies, that may be upon them, and scattering their watchmen, and avenging me of mine enemies, unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me. 9. But firstly let my ARMY become very GREAT, and let it be sanctified before me, that it may become fair as the sun, and clear as the moon, and that her banners may be terrible unto ALL NATIONS;" (please notice that this nation is included also) "that the kingdoms of this world may be constrained to acknowledge that the kingdom of Zion is in very deed the kingdom of our God and his Christ; therefore let us become subject unto her laws."
After reading these revelations we can understand why it was that the Saints maintained an army. An army is not formed, trained, and equipped with arms of war without a reason. It is intended for the prosecution of war providing war should become necessary. However, this army, due to lack of obedience to the revelations of Joseph Smith, and to a lack of numbers, failed to meet the emergency, and when the crisis came some of the Saints were killed and the rest driven out of the country by armed mobs.
But a belief that this reverse to the Latter Day Saint cause could have any permanent results, has never been entertained by the followers of Joseph Smith, who are justified in their firm belief of ultimate success by this revelation, composing paragraph eight of section sixty-four, of the Doctrine and Covenants. "And even the bishop, who is a judge, and his counselors, if they are not faithful in their stewardships, shal! be condemned, and others shall be planted in their stead; for, behold, I say unto you that Zion shall flourish, and the glory of the Lord shall be upon her, and she shall be an ensign unto the people, and there shall come unto her out of every nation under heaven. And the day shall come, when the nations of the earth shall tremble because of her, and shall fear because of her terrible ones. The Lord hath spoken it."
An article of equal interest is to follow in the next number of The Outlook. Do not fail to read it.
TURKEY AGAIN A
HATEVER else may be the result of the concessions by Great Britain, France, and Italy to Mustapha Kemal's demands, it is certain that Turkish power will be re-established in Europe on an extent not dreamed of at the close of the Great War. Even if it is granted that liberal concessions were necessary after the complete victory of the armies of the Turkish Nationalist Government, it is certainly humiliating to the Great Powers of Europe, and demoralizing especially to British prestige, that so complete and far-reaching submission has been made to their former enemy, the ally of Germany. When Kemal was asked to meet the representatives of the Powers in conference, he refused to do so unless in advance of such a conference assurances were given him that his principal demands would be granted. Now that he has been given that assurance, he has shown no hurry to accept the offers made him. The note of the Allies to Kemal was dated on September 23, and up to September 26 no reply had been made.
and of Japan, Rumania, Jugoslavia, and Greece to be held at Venice or elsewhere. They "take this opportunity to declare that they view with favor" Turkey's demand to be put in power again in eastern Thrace along the line of the River Maritza, which includes Adrianople and territory that most of us supposed had been lost to Turkey forever. The note does not even mention the willingness of the great nations to let Turkey keep all of her former territory in Asia Minor; she holds that, or most of it, by force of victory, and it is tacitly agreed that she shall retain what she has. As.to the other points of real importance such as the freedom of the Dardanelles and the Sea of Marmora and the Bosphorus and the protection of nonMohammedan peoples, the note of the Allies proposes to leave the matter under the guidance of the League of Nations and offers to support the admission of Turkey to the League. They confirm their former assurance that Allied troops will be withdrawn from Constantinople as soon as the final treaty of peace has been settled. In return, they warn the Turks under Kemal from entering into the zone of neutrality on the The terms of the joint note were Asian side. This seems to be about all almost submissive in tone. Poincaré that the Powers still urgently insist for France, Curzon for Great Britain, upon, and Kemal has at least twice since and Sforza for Italy asked the Turks negotiations have begun allowed his "to be good enough to let them know" troops to violate the neutrality of the whether Turkish representatives would zone, with constant danger whenever be sent to a conference of those nations this happens that fighting may begin
between the Turks and the British forces near Chanak.
THE NEAR EAST STILL A
ESPITE Lloyd George's optimistic view of the situation that followed his first alarm, the situation in the Near East is still dangerous in the extreme. As we write, reports both from Smyrna and Constantinople say that there is imminent danger of a renewal of the massacres in Smyrna and of an attack upon non-Turks in Constantinople. The Earl of Balfour, for instance, is reported on September 26 as saying that he had information that showed "danger of a great calamity in Smyrna," and one despatch from Constantinople even names the exact day upon which it is believed that the Christian section of the city may be attacked by the worst element of the Constantinople Turks. Such outbreaks, if they occur, would complicate the general danger of disorder and might simply demand military intervention from the Powers.
The result of the conference indicated by the note of the Allies would, of course, be to destroy completely whatever may be left of the Sévres Treaty, which was signed but never ratified. The occupation by Turkey of eastern Thrace would make a new and always threatening situation in the Balkans, and the attempt to draw new lines for the neutral zone as it exists and to guar
antee the freedom of the Straits presents many difficulties.
Lloyd George said only a few days before the note was signed, "It would be a peril of the darkest kind if we permitted the army which has left Smyrna a heap of blackened ruins to cross over into Europe until permanent peace has been established, and until the conditions of that peace are clearly defined." Yet Kemal, as we write, is reported to be insistent upon the immediate entrance of his army into Thrace to drive out the Greeks from territory assigned to them by the Powers after the Great War.
Features of the situation as it strikes an American observer in London are shown in the following cablegram, dated September 22, from a special correspondent of The Outlook, Mr. W. C. Gregg:
The safety of Europe at present seems to lie in its physical weakness rather than in the strength of its diplomacy. The British Government announced its programme of armed resistance to certain Turkish advances and afterwards consulted its allies. To an American observer this looks like a mistake. They also seem quicker to appreciate a Turkish threat against their commercial use of the Dardanelles than to appreciate the emotions of France at delayed German reparations. The London press is almost unanimous in condemning the Turkish bungling of the Lloyd George Government, and there is more talk about a general election. Winston Churchill's prominence in the present crisis reminds the people of his Gallipoli campaign. One paper prints a picture of a vast British cemetery in Turkey with a heading, "No more of this." There is much clamor for calling Parliament. As yet the Prime Minister has made no sign of compliance. If this were America's tire-trouble, our President as well as our people would be looking for Congress to put on its overalls. It will all blow over shortly, unless the Turks get brash and try to cross the Dardanelles. We must not forget the two other sore spots in Europe, Austria's imminent financial collapse and Germany's ugly mood. Germany carries a pistol in her overcoat pocket; her fingers feel for the trigger as her mind dwells on the success of the Turks.
Another interesting view of the situation will be found in the London correspondence from General Sir George Aston on another page.
THE HERRIN GRAND JURY
HE country has followed with keen
Tinterest the progress of the investi
gation into the horrible murders committed near the Herrin mines last June. The local spirit of apathy and indifference as regards the punishment of the minals was marked. But the spirit
of the people of the State of Illinois, once thoroughly aroused, insisted through its State officials that the arm of justice should not remain inert. Now the special Grand Jury which has been hearing evidence at Marion has returned a long list of indictments. It not only finds indictments against individuals for crime, but it charges the authorities with failure to protect life and property and even criticises the mine owners as "woefully ignorant of the danger or blindly determined to risk strife and conflict if profit could be made."
The number of indictments found indicates that the Grand Jury was fully convinced that this was a group crime, not a spontaneous outbreak of rage among
individuals. The total number of indictments was 214; 44 of these indictments were for murder, 58 for conspiracy to murder, 58 for rioting, and 54 for assault with intent to murder. Among the men indicted for murder are two important officials of labor unions.
The report of the Grand Jury which accompanied the indictments was a full and graphic account of all the circumstances that led up to the crime and all the terrible barbarity of the crime itself. The Grand Jury declared forcefully that the attack of June 21 was the result of a conspiracy which had been gathering and organizing for several days; it quotes the telegram from John L. Lewis, the President of the United Mine Workers of America, which states that members of the organization "are justified in treating this crowd as an outlaw organization"-the posting of this telegram in the neighborhood of the mine has been
regarded as one of the inciting causes of what happened. After describing the cold-blooded murder of the employees after safe conduct had been promised them, the finding of the Grand Jury remarks: "The atrocities and cruelties of the murders are beyond the power of words to describe. A mob is always cowardly, but the savagery of this mob in its relentless brutality is almost unbelievable. The indignities heaped upon the dead did not end until the bodies were interred in unknown graves."
The Grand Jury of the county in which this crime took place has now faithfully and thoroughly done its duty. The country will continue to follow with the utmost intentness the progress of these criminal cases as they come before trial juries.
THE LABOR INJUNCTION
was generally expected, Judge Wilkerson, of the Federal District Court at Chicago, has sustained the sweeping injunction recently issued by himself as a temporary measure. It is now binding as a preliminary injunction, which may be made permanent or may be passed upon by the United States Supreme Court.
In statements made by Judge Wilkerson he sustains broadly the contentions made by Attorney-General Daugherty. His main point is that the evidence of illegal and criminal activities by the striking shopmen, their unions or their supporters, is such that there was proof of a criminal conspiracy to interfere with inter-State commerce. Judge Wilkerson declines to admit as valid the contention of the defendants that participation by them in any illegal act had not been shown. The Judge says that the acts committed were "on such a large scale and in point of time and place so connected with the admitted conduct of the strike that it is impossible on the record here to view them in any other light than as done in furtherance of a common purpose and as part of a common plan." He cannot, therefore, he says, reach the conclusion that "those who were at the head of this combination did not actually know that these things were being done."
The injunction order as it stands forbids any participation in acts tending to interfere with railway operation by officers or members of the shop crafts belonging to the Railway Employees' Department of the American Federation of Labor.
The weak point in this kind of dealing with labor matters is that, when the question is as to the actual decision whether a given individual has in fact committed an illegal act or has com
bined with others to commit acts amounting to a conspiracy, the truth or falseness of the allegation must be decided by a judge without a jury and that the person arrested is dealt with for contempt of court in disobeying the court's orders and not for having committed acts against the statute criminal law.
Meanwhile the strike of the railway shopmen is growing feebler, and it is quite probable that actual prosecution under the injunction will not take place.
THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
operation of the Federal Reserve Law than Senator Glass; no man has a greater interest in its continued success as a public institution; and no one man had more to do with the successful If legislation which established it. Senator Glass believes that W. P. G. Harding is the best possible nominee for Governor of the Federal Reserve Board, we do not much care to consider the arguments or criticisms of the opponents of the appointment.
A LIVING CHURCH
T will be a disaster if political parti- A I wish he is permitted political pe tr
destroy the Federal Reserve System. If the Federal Reserve Board had not been in existence during the great European war, we should unquestionably have had a currency panic and a financial crisis in this country more disastrous than the three or four which struck the country down during the life of the National Banking Act.
In spite of the fact that the richest manufacturer in the United States is reported to have said that "history is all bunk," it is a good plan occasionally to recall history in discussing current political questions. The Federal Reserve System works so well, so smoothly, and seems so well established, that the man who fears its destruction by political partisanship is called an alarmist. But the United States Bank, which a hundred years ago saved the country from the same kind of economic disaster from which we have been saved in the last eight years by the Federal Reserve Bank, was destroyed by political partisanship. History shows over and over again that what has been done once can be done a second time. Perhaps a National banking system might be devised which would be more efficient, more just, and more uniform in its social benefits than the Federal Reserve System, but so far it has proved itself to be the best system that this country has ever had, and better than those of many other civilized countries. Nevertheless, it is being attacked and the center of attack is the Governor of the Federal Reserve Board, Mr. W. P. G. Harding. His term has expired, and the President has not yet made an appointment to fill the vacancy. Governor Harding is at present holding the office until his successor is appointed. We think it may be said that the soundest and wisest financial advisers of the Presicent are urging his reappointment. Indeed, the name of one alone of his sponsors is enough to carry the confidence of country. We refer to Senator Carter
No man knows more about the
MONG the more important communions in America, the Protestant Episcopal Church is by no means the largest, but it exerts an influence out of proportion to its size. Its triennial Convention which recently had its session in Portland, Oregon, was an event of wide public interest. The proceedings of that Convention were reported in the daily press as news of importance to readers not affiliated with that Church or any Church.
One reason for this is the strategic position which the Protestant Episcopal Church holds in certain centers of population. Another reason is its place in Perthe early history of the Nation. haps the chief reason, however, is the fact that it is what may be called a root communion.
It is the same reason that explains the influence of such relatively small countries as Ireland and Scotland. Numerically, the Irish of Ireland almost negligible in the total mass of humanity; but they constitute a root nationality, they are a parent stock. Millions of people, therefore, who are not Irish at all are concerned with what is happening in Ireland as they would not be with the doings of four or five million people without history or common origin who might happen to inhabit the same island.
Somewhat similarly, the Protestant Episcopal Church constitutes a parent stock in Christian faith and practice. The symbol of its ancestorhood is the Book of Common Prayer. Though it is the authoritative compendium of Episcopal liturgy, it is in practice the heritage of as many Protestant bodies as may wish to claim it. Its collects are the common possession of all churches. Its phraseology has entered into the language almost as definitely as that of the English Bible. The fact that the Protestant Episcopal Church is in a peculiar sense the trustee for this treasury of worship and literature is an indication of the special responsibility that rests upon that Church and the public concern in its actions.
action of the recent Convention at Portland was the revision which it made of the Book of Common Prayer. In The Outlook for September 6 the Rev. Dr. E. C. Chorley, Historiographer of the Protestant Episcopal Church, in special correspondence gave an account of some of the more important changes recommended by the commission appointed nine years ago for that purpose. It is not practicable here to refer to all these revisions. A number of the changes which were adopted merely record a change in point of view of the Church as a whole toward certain customs and in certain human relationships. For example, it is no longer contrary to the rubrics of the Church to read the burial service over the body of an unbaptized person or of a suicide. This is not to be interpreted as a change in the conscience of the Church, but rather a greater charity and sympathy. The new prayers that have been added are also a record of a new understanding of fraternity, as is indicated by the prayers for social justice and for missions. It is
significant of a changing view of the marriage relation that simultaneously with the removal of the word "obey" from the vow of the wife there is added a prayer for fruitfulness in marriage.
In a despatch from Portland to the New York "Tribune" Dr. Chorley emphasizes the action of the Church in reference to modern social problems, and he quotes from the pastoral address of the bishops to the members of the Church which lays upon corporations and labor unions alike the duty of public service. The pastoral indicates also an understanding of what is commonly regarded as the modern revolt of young people and a sympathy with certain objectives of that revolt-the "readiness and determination to level social distinctions and forego social privilege, a larger freedom of social habits and a real democracy of thought and activity." and with this expression of sympathy and understanding the pastoral later couples a warning against the lack of parental control and leadership.
THE EPISCOPAL CHURCH AND
THE Episcopal Church has not relaxed
its rule against authorizing the Episcopal clergy to perform a marriage ceremony for a person divorced except for the innocent party in case of infidelity. On the contrary, it has made that rule more stringent by making it now a cause for excommunication for persons so remarried.
The Church also recognizes the prin ciple of spiritual healing; but safeOn this account, the most important guards it by providing that such work