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a long wait at the station, and didn't I keep ye out o' Dublin Castle?"

We parted on good terms.

Breakfast over, I wandered down Dame Street into College Green, on my way to Trinity College. Reports had crossed the Irish Sea that old Trinity had gone the way of the Four Courts. Visions of wreckage were imaged in my mind.

My old Alma Mater, founded in 1590, with its massive buildings and classic walls, stood out in noble, bold proportions, complete and beautiful. I stood at the entrance, as the names of worldknown men, who did honor to her memory, floated before my vision. Dean Swift and Berkeley, Burke and Goldsmith, Lecky and-but why continue? Their names are legion. Pride and gratitude filled my heart. I doffed my hat to the statue of Edmund Burke and bowed my head before that of Oliver Goldsmith, and crossed the entrance.

Old Williams, porter of the generations, dread of tardy freshmen, was at his post. After the first word was over, I asked, "How are things in the city?" His answer was unique, forceful, true. "They call it civil war, sir, but the name is too respectable. A small army of highwaymen, brigands, under De Valera and Childers are trying to outdo the Germans in wanton destruction, but the end is in sight."

That sentence told the story in its bare truth. No truer statement was made to me in Ireland.

After two hours of sacred wanderings within old Trinity I walked down Westmoreland Street, over O'Connell Bridge, and entered the finest boulevard in Ireland.

Sackville Street was filled with soldiers. Reserves of the British army in their khaki, soldiers of the Free State in their dark-green uniform, numerous bodies of young men in civilian clothes-"Irregulars" in disguise-armed lorries rushing by, bristling with rifles ready for action, men of the Constabulary moving slowly


But the strangest thing of all was the attitude of the people. Peaceful London was over-serious, gloomy. Warlike Dublin was gay. And this in the very face of wholesale destruction.

Sackville Street is in ruins. In the very center of the boulevard, the invincible Admiral Nelson, lifted high on his monument, stands, one-armed, commanding, as if in the throes of Trafalgar. The man and the pillar are covered with bullet marks. The beautiful buildings below Nelson's Pillar, once as graceful as the best in the Champs Elysées in Paris, are in ashes. The General Post Office, greatest of them all, is in ruins. Between the Post Office and Gilbey's wine store stands the gutted Y. M. C. A. building.

In big, golden letters were the words, "Seek ye first the Kingdom of God," and every letter was mutilated with shot.

The lamentations of Tim, my driver, ame home to me.

The Gresham, the Hammam, the Metropole hotels were in ashes, mined by the forces of De Valera.

From Nelson's Pillar to Parnell's Monument was pile upon pile of ashes. The Huns took revenge upon a hated enemy on their soil. The Irish "Irregulars" wantonly destroyed their own.

Hailing a jaunting-car, I drove towards the North Wall to view what was left of the Custom House. Then, turning in our tracks, we drove along the banks of the Liffey to study the most wanton destruction of all in this cataclysm of blind hate.

The great law buildings, known to the


Soldiers of the A. E. F. are finding their way back to France to revisit the battlefields upon which they and their comrades made history. Mr. Thatcher T. P. Luquer, of the 306th Engineers and the 81st Division, which wore on its shoulders the insignia of the wildcat, tells the story of the change in the devastated regions of France since the A. E. F. came home, in a forthcoming issue of The Outlook.

world as the Four Courts, are blotted out. Its Library, precious as that of Louvain, was burnt with fiendish design. Thus records of priceless value in the history of justice in Ireland were turned into ashes.

This was enough for a day. I envied the light-heartedness of the people.

For five busy days I moved about Dublin, renewing old friendships. My business was to find out the sentiment of the people. How was all this idiotic destruction viewed by the "man in the street"? I met clergymen, of Catholic and Protestant Churches, physicians, attorneys-atlaw, and the verdict was unanimous. "The Free State movement has come to stay. Childers and De Valera doomed."


My friends were not in favor of my entering the interior. Bridges were blown up. Tracks were destroyed. There was no train schedule. Frequent ambushes, raiding parties.

The outlook was not encouraging; but I determined to visit my relatives in the south.

The Southwestern train to Waterford was impossible, as a bridge at a town called Ballyhale had been mined. After a weary day of it I reached Waterford by way of New Ross.

That historic city of some 25,000 peo

ple is known as the "Urbs Intacta" (city untouched). When Oliver Cromwell threatened to destroy it, the Mayor of the city handed him the keys of the city, and it was saved; hence the name.

In the strange paradox of history it was saved by Cromwell and wrecked by De Valera.

Dublin was repeated. Hotels, post office, destroyed or gutted. Wanton destruction on all sides.

In Hearn's dry goods store on the Quay there was a cheap sale. Bulletriddled blankets were offered at reduced prices. There were "Fire Sales" along the water front. This beautiful city, the joy of tourists, looked like a wateringplace "out of season." The "Irregulars" left behind them the chaos of brigandage.

For seven days I was the guest of my relatives. We visited the home where Lord Roberts, once Commander-in-Chief of the British forces, was born and reared, passed by the residence of the Redmond brothers, once high in the ranks of the Nationals in the British House of Commons. Strange memories were ushered in.

Chums of my childhood, fellow-scholars of old Trinity, were rounded up. Olden days revived. Everywhere, without exception, the yearning of the people was for the Free State Government.

"If an election took place to-morrow," said a prominent attorney-at-law, "ninety per cent of the electors would vote Free State."

Bernard Shaw was in Waterford, awaiting a train for the Fishguard steamer en route to London. Interviewed, he had this to say of De Valera:

"Of course he can enjoy the luxury of dying for Ireland after doing all the damage he can. 'What matter if for Ireland dear we fall?' is still the idiot's battle song. The idiocy is sanctified by the memories of a time when there was nothing to be done for Ireland's freedom but to die for it; but the time has now come for Irishmen to learn to live for their country-instead of which they start runaway engines down the lines, blow up bridges, burn homesteads and factories, and gain nothing by it except such amusements as making my train from Waterford to Rosslare several hours late. Ireland would be just as free at this moment if I had arrived punctually. You see, the cause of Ireland is always dogged by the ridicule which we have such a fatal gift of provoking and such a futile gift of expressing.

"I suppose it will have to be settled, as usual, by another massacre of Irishmen by Irishmen."

The words were scarcely uttered when, at a point not far from where they were spoken, the idol of the common people, the man who won the respect of Lloyd George, the romantic figure of the whole tragedy, Michael Collins, fell by the bullet of a fellowcountryman, with the prayer "Forgive them!" on his dying lips.




ND now that I had been received

and entertained by about everybody in Constantinople, it was time for my audience with the Sultan, who came last, like the prima donna. The official functions at the palace under Abdul Hamid were always dignified and punctilious. Royal carriages were sent with escorts for myself and staff. At the entrance of the palace I was met by the Introducer of Ambassadors, and we proceeded to the salon of the Grand Master of Ceremonies. I was then joined by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and conducted into the presence of the Sultan by the distinguished soldier Osman Pasha, famed as the hero of Plevna, who was then the Grand Marshal of the Palace.

The Sultan, standing, received me in the audience room. He was small, spare in frame, with a short, full black beard. A few years later, when his beard turned gray, he dyed it henna. He wore a plain black frock coat, buttoned to the neck. His complexion was sallow, his nose prominent and aquiline, and his eyes dark, sparkling, animated.

The formalities, presentation of credentials, and brief set addresses on both sides were soon over. His Majesty sat down and invited me to do likewise. Turkish coffee and cigarettes were served the coffee in egg-shaped cups resting in jewel-studded holders. The conversation was interpreted by my dragoman (the Turkish name for an interpreter). The audience concluded, we returned to the Legation in the same stately manner. Then we gave a reception to the American colony, almost exclusively composed of the missionaries resident at Constantinople, the President and Faculty of Robert College, and the Home School, which was then located across the Bosphorus at Scutari.

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Sedans in America roll on wheels. But the originals are carried by camels in Cairo. The autobiographer visited Cairo in 1888, in connection with a series of conferences with the governors-general of various Turkish provinces brated with pomp and splendor. The Ministers and Ambassadors were expected, as a matter of good will, to attend this ceremonial occasionally.

A description of this ceremonial which I jotted down a long time ago is as follows:

The Sultan's residence is known as Yildiz Palace, Yildiz signifying star. The mosque he usually attends is in the vicinity of the palace grounds, distant about four hundred yards. The visitors

are received in a small house or kiosk beside the mosque, where a special suite of rooms is reserved for the diplomatic corps. Ten or more regiments on horse and foot are stationed around the elevation stretching from the palace grounds encircling the mosque.

On the day preceding my audience I presided at the Commencement of Rob ert College, located at Roumeli-Hissar, of which the venerable Dr. George Washburn was President. The Commencement was similar to commencements at home, excepting that the orations of the graduates were spoken in the various languages of the East, besides English o'clock the gates of the palace inclosure

and French. The Turks at that time could not understand the benevolent purposes which inspired, on the part of the Americans, the establishment of colleges and schools throughout the Empire. Their experience with the various institutions of other nations made them extremely suspicious.

THE SULTAN SAYS HIS PRAYERS Friday in the Turkish Court was Selamlik, when the Sultan attended the mosque for prayers. It was always cele

All is in readiness. At about eleven

are thrown open. The Sultan is seen in an open barouche, Osman Pasha sitting opposite him. Following the barouche are usually the leading officials of the Government and army officers. The regiments are drawn from different parts of the Empire, and are dressed in glittering uniforms denoting the section from which they come. The most resplendent are the Nubian and Arabian regiments. As the Sultan passes, troops and officials, as from one throat, cry thrice, in Turkish equivalent, "Long live the Sultan!"

He then enters the mosque, and all is still while the prayers are being read. This occupies about thirty minutes. The Sultan then stations himself at a window in the mosque, and the troops file by, the band playing the national march. The Sultan is known to be constantly in fear of assassination, and seldom appears in public except on these occasions. He shows timidity in his expression.

One of his aides-de-camp reports to him the diplomatic representatives and other distinguished persons who are present, and thereafter returns with some gracious message for each. While the prayers are going on in the mosque coffee and cigarettes are served to the guests in the little kiosk. Several carriages, open and closed, together with several saddle horses from the royal stables, are brought down to the mosque. The Sultan chooses which shall be his conveyance for the return to the palace. He usually selects a two-horse top-phaeton, and, himself taking the reins, he drives back to the palace, accompanied again by Osman Pasha.


The decorative things are what many people think of exclusively when considering the career of a diplomat. These


The Sultan's private mosque in Constantinople, where Turkey's ruler said his prayers amid pomp and splendor

are necessary enough in the promotion of good relations, but diplomats do not get their work done at functions.

There were a number of important diplomatic questions between the United States which gave rise to recurring vexatious differences.

Like China, Turkey had treaties with various European nations granting extra-territorial rights to their nationals. Foreigners were to be judged by their own ambassadors and consuls in both civil and criminal suits between one another. In crimes or offenses committed by foreigners against natives Jurisdiction, by long usage, was exercised by the consular court of the person accused. Foreigners were to be exempt from all taxes except on exports and customs.

Such a juridical anomaly is necessary where foreigners have no confidence in the administration of the government under which they reside. These rights of foreigners were very irksome to the Turkish Government and derogatory to

its sovereignty. Some countries, especially Russia, in return for other advantages were not insisting upon their claims under the capitulations, and this encouraged the Ottoman Government under various pleas to resist claims, especially as to criminal jurisdiction over the nationals of other countries, including our own.

We had had a series of treaties with the Sublime Porte since 1830, but there had been many disputes as to the interpretation of the various articles. The treaty of amity and commerce of 1862 was abrogated upon expiration at Turkey's request, which left various controversies subject to the discrepancies of the earlier treaty of 1830, about which was a dispute as to translation-an irritating condition.

Similar troubles arose from the treaty of 1874 of naturalization and extradition. This treaty, after conclusion, was amended by the Senate to provide for a requisite of two years' residence in the country of naturalization after issuance

of naturalization papers. The amendment was accepted by the Sublime Porte with a declaration of interpretations. The United States Government, however, did not accept the interpretations, and the treaty remained in abeyance.

During this time a number of Christian subjects of the Porte, principally Armenians, Greeks, and Syrians, came to the United States and remained just long enough to become citizens. Thus freed from Turkish jurisdiction, they returned to Turkey. Many were arrested on charges of being involved in alleged conspiracies against the Ottoman Government. These frequently recurring cases produced considerable irritation. At many times there was a severe strain upon the relations of the two countries.

It was felt that the treaty of naturalization and extradition, with the twoyear clause, the same as we have with other nations, would prevent subjects from seeking naturalization in America for no other purpose than to escape liability as Turkish subjects on their return.

One of my first diplomatic efforts was to effect an adjustment of these difficulties either by a new treaty or acceptance of the treaty of 1874 as amended by the Senate. After long and tedious negotiations by an exchange of notes, the Ottoman Government accepted the treaty as amended. I received a flattering cable of congratulations from Secretary Bayard and a letter from Assistant Secretary Adee, in which he wrote:

Whatever may be the outcome of this negotiation, you are to be congratulated without stint on having achieved a decided diplomatic success by causing the Government of the Porte to recede from the position which it took in 1875, with respect to the Senate amendments, and to which it has so pertinaciously adhered ever since, until you wrought a change of heart and induced it to take a more rational view of the subject. This makes it far easier for us to deal with the question now as justice and equity and due respect for the rights and privileges attaching to American nationality may demand.

As fourteen years had elapsed since the negotiation of the original treaty, it was thought best that the matter should be again submitted to the Senate. Some of our leading missionaries, instigated by prominent Armenians who had become naturalized and returned to Turkey, opposed ratification. No action was taken by the Senate. It was a discouraging situation and difficult to explain to the authorities of the Porte, as by instructions I had assured them that by their acceptance of the amendments negotiations would be concluded.

In the meantime many cases arose, some of a very serious nature, regarding the protection of American citizens of Turkish origin who, upon return to Turkey, became involved in political agitation or who were accused of crimes. Ten years later, on my second mission


to Turkey, I was instructed to renew the negotiations, but the Ottoman authorities were unwilling. We were left without a treaty of naturalization.



Governmental hostility to the four hundred American missionary schools in Turkey was stimulated by Russia and by the priests of the French Jesuit and Catholic institutions. The Turks were accustomed, besides, to look for sinister motives underlying the spending of so much money. The Greeks and other nations had fostered political designs there under the cover of scientific and benevolent organizations.

Before my arrival, beginning with the winter of 1885, thirty American schools were closed by the authorities. The pretexts were flimsy. Schools, it was alleged, had not submitted study programmes, text-books, and teachers' certificates to the Government. This was quite contrary to the facts.

At the same time the Sublime Porte used another method to hamper the schools. A new law was proposed by the Sublime Porte for the governing of foreign schools in the Empire. Schools, according to this law, must have the Sultan's irade or sanction. Such schools as did not receive this sanction within six months were to be closed by the authorities.

It was no easy matter to have this proposed law modified so as not to disturb existing schools or further development of these schools.

Though I argued the matter again and again with the Minister of Foreign Affairs and got him to permit the reopening of the schools, it remained an unexecuted promise. In order to take the promise out of the nebulous atmosphere of officialdom and make an actuality of it, I decided to visit the various consulates and confer with the missionaries on the spot. In the middle of February, 1888, I visited Cairo, Jaffa, Jerusalem, Beirût, Mersina, and Smyrna and conferred with the valis or governors-general of the respective provinces. I instructed the missionaries to prepare for the opening of the schools, and under my directions such schools as had been closed were immediately opened. The progressive closing of these schools since 1885 seriously threatened the existence of all the American schools, and therefore it was important to reverse the Government's policy. Secretary Bayard on May 24, 1888, wrote me as follows:

The ability, tact, and energy displayed by you in the prosecution of this delicate and important question is deserving of the greatest credit, while the success which has finally crowned your efforts is exceedingly gratifying and entitles you to the Department's special acknowledgment.


At the same time that the Turkish authorities made their drive against the

(C) Raphael Tuck & Sons, Ltd.

The smoking hour in a cafe in Cairo. At the time of Mr. Straus's visit, Egypt was still under Turkish suzerainty

missionary schools they arrested the agents of the American Bible Society and the British Bible Society who went about selling Bible tracts. These agents were known as colporteurs.

I protested against these arrests and secured the release of the agents one after the other. Then I argued for the rights of these colporteurs before the Grand Vizier, the venerable Kiamil Pasha, the most enlightened statesman of the Turkish Empire. I based the right to dispose of these tracts upon the general principles of commerce, arguing that, once the authorization of the censors for printing and publishing a book had been obtained, a prohibition of its sale

was in restraint of commerce. There was no reason why different regulations should be made for book hawkers than for hawkers of any other article.

The subject being presented in this matter-of-fact way, the Grand Vizier agreed with my conclusions. Orders that no further arrests be made were issued. Those already arrested were ordered released. The British Bible Society, which benefited equally by this decision, conveyed its thanks and appreciation through my colleague, Sir

William A. White, the British Ambassador.


As I have stated, I obtained permission from the Secretary of State in March, 1888, to visit some of our principal consulates to bring to a conclusion on the spot various matters about which I had negotiated with the Porte.

My wife and my little five-year-old daughter, Aline, with her nurse, accompanied me. We took a steamer to Alexandria, and from there went to Cairo. At that time Egypt was still under Turkish suzerainty. Our Consul-General and diplomatic agent there was John Cardwell. We also had the pleasure of frequently meeting Anthony M. Keiley, to whom I referred earlier in this account. After his unfortunate experiences with the appointments to Italy and AustriaHungary, President Cleveland appointed him one of the American judges of the Mixed or Reform Tribunal at Cairo. We saw much of him and his charming wife. He was a learned jurist and was highly respected as one of the ablest judges of the international tribunal.

I had also a pleasant conference with Sir Evelyn Baring, afterwards T


27 September

self were invited to lunch with the Khedive. It was an unusual menu. The names of the dishes had been devised for the occasion, and included such oddities as "crevettes à l'Américaine," "bombe à la Lincoln," etc. I recall the Egyptian quail as specially delicious. It is larger and plumper than our quail. In season, when they migrate from the north, they are trapped in great numbers, and they can be bought in the markets for a piaster (less than five cents) each.

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Paul Thompson

Yildiz Palace, Constantinople-"The official functions at the palace under Abdul Hamid were always dignified and punctilious"

Cromer, the British agent and ConsulGeneral in Egypt, who was then at the height of his career in the reconstruction of Egypt. I also came in contact with Major-General Sir Francis Grenfell, Sirdar or Commanding General of the Egyptian army.


Nubar Pasha was the foremost statesman of Egypt. He was an Armenian, educated by the Jesuits in France. His general knowledge was extensive. had the wide outlook of the European statesman of the first rank with all the subtlety of an Oriental. It was he who conceived the plan of introducing a legal system and good government into Egypt and of creating the mixed tribunals or international law courts. He acted in sympathy with Lord Dufferin's programme for the reorganization of Egypt. Consequently, he was highly regarded by the British.

The Khedive, Mohammed Tewfik, son and successor of the extravagant Ismail, of Suez Canal fame, entertained us. He was about thirty-six years of age. Without his fez he might have been taken for an Englishman. He spoke English perfectly, and his conversation showed he was well informed about the governments and peoples of Europe.

He desired to bestow a decoration upon me, but I informed his aide-decamp that under our system our diplomatic representatives were not permitted to accept such distinction. Within an hour after my first call upon him, which was made by appointment, he, accompanied by his aide-de-camp, called upon me at the Hotel Shepheard. Next day he decorated the manager of the hotel, which, it was stated, was done in my honor.

A few days later Mrs. Straus and my



The inside stories of a number of dramatic episodes in Mr. Straus's diplomatic career are related in next week's installment of the Autobiography. Mr. Straus describes his journey to Jerusalem, where he found under arrest by the Ottoman authorities hundreds of Jewish pilgrims to the Holy City. He at once demanded the release of these immigrants, holding that they were imprisoned contrary to treaties with the United States, Great Britain, France, and other Powers, and secured their release. The distinguished autobiographer tells how he secured the Sultan's permission for American scholars to undertake important Babylonian excavations. He describes Baron de Hirsch at odds with the Turkish Government regarding railway and other concessions, and tells of the invitation extended to him by both parties to arbitrate the dispute in return for an honorarium of 1,000,000 francs, and his declination for diplomatic reasons of the astounding offer, but his willingness to sit as a mediator should the negotiations at any time require it. The story of the Sultan's farewell to America's Minister on the latter's return home is included in next week s installment.

A CARGO OF MISSIONARIES AND RUM From Cairo we went direct to Beirût, where, in connection with the opening of the schools, I came in close relationship with our leading missionaries.


The missionaries at Beirût of the Presbyterian Board of Missions and the members of the Faculty of the Syrian Protestant College were an exceptionally fine lot of able and devoted men. nature of their work was not, as generally supposed, to convert Mohammedans to Christianity; the number of such converts was few and far between. Mohammedans are sincere and intense upholders of their faith, which they look upon as the one faith. They regard Christianity as inferior and less rational.

The converts were almost exclusively among native Christians, Armenians, Syrians, Greeks, and Maronites. The chief result of their work has been educational, carried forward by a religious spirit among people who have a less enlightened form of religion and among those whose form of Christianity is of a semi-pagan character. At the time of my visit, the Presbyterian Board alone had over one hundred schools throughout Syria, mostly located in places where previously there had been no schools of any sort.

Chief among the missionaries who consecrated their lives to their work I recall. the venerable patriarch, the Rev. Dr. Henry H. Jessup, a man of learning, energy, and wisdom. In 1910, near the close of his career of service, his book "Fifty-three Years in Syria" was published. He gives in much detail a description of his departure from Boston in December, 1856, on the Sultana, á bark sailing for Smyrna, which had on board besides himself nine other missionaries and a cargo of New England rum. Truly it may be said the cargo was spirited as well as spiritual.

One of the missionaries aboard that interesting vessel was the Rev. Daniel Bliss, who became President of the Syrian Protestant College. I found him to be a minister and educator of the finest type. The first President of the College, he was succeeded in 1902 by his already distinguished son, the Rev. Howard S. Bliss, who continued with renewed vigor the work of his father, enlarging the scope and curriculum of the College, so that it became through its thousands of graduates in arts, science, and medicine a potent force

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