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SEPTEMBER 27, 1922

THE DESTRUCTION OF SMYRNA

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T

HE unresisted entrance of Kemal's Nationalist army into Smyrna was followed, as has so often been the case in Turkish victories, by rapine, slaughter, and fire. Smyrna, a city of some 300,000 inhabitants, is little but a heap of ashes and ruins; only a part of the Turkish residence quarter remains untouched; for three days the fires burned practically unchecked. No one knows how many Greeks and Armenians perished. A terror-stricken mob of people sought refuge on the waterfront and overcrowded the foreign ships in the harbor. The American war vessels there, we are glad to report, rendered efficient and humane assistance within their limited power. Foreign schools and institutions, some of them American, went down in the general combustion, but so far as is known American teachers and workers (except perhaps a few naturalized American citizens) escaped alive and are actively engaged in relief work.

There is danger that, in the centering

of interest in the grave international issues raised by Greece's overwhelming defeat, attention may be diverted from the humanitarian side of the problem. Whatever else is done, the Powers should take steps to prevent the recurrence of massacre and devastation in the Near East. In this America has a right and duty to be heard, both because of the extent of our benevolent and commercial interests and because American lives are involved. We shall unquestionably join also in the needed relief work.

We should also let our National protest be heard as to the crimes committed against civilization and humanity under the guise of warfare. From time immemorial Turkish victories have meant massacre, cruelty, and slavery, and Kemal's triumph is no exception to the historical record. It is reported that the Assembly of the League of Nations, after listening to an earnest plea from Dr. Nansen, indicated that it could only by resolution express "an ardent desire" that something be done. In some way the world must put a stop to barbaric slaughter in the Near East, and our responsibility and duty did not lapse because we do not take a part in the political and territorial questions involved. The Kemalist Parliament is reported as asking that the League of Nations and a neutral commission investigate the atrocity charges.

(C) Underwood

THE CITY AND HARBOR OF SMYRNA BEFORE THE CONFLAGRATION

WHAT WILL TURKEY GAIN?

Owen in the New York "Times” that three hundred years ago, after a disastrous war, the Sultan of Turkey ordered to be recited in every mosque this prayer, "May the Angel of Discord, who has always been our ally, come again to our aid, and confound our enemies." Once again indecision and lack of a united purpose among the Powers have put the Turkish armies into a threatening position, and will almost certainly gain for Turkey important concessions. We hear very little now of the demand, so strong just after the Great War, that Turkey must be put out of Europe and kept out. Greece has been allowed, and by Great Britain encouraged, to occupy territory in Asia Minor; she has been driven out and disgracefully beaten; no one doubts that Turkey will hold on to Anatolia. There is a strong probability that she will receive concessions in Thrace, and she is clamorously demanding Adrianople and supremacy in Constantinople itself.

HE story is told by Mr. Cunliffe

If one thing is patent, it is that the old Entente Powers must cease their shifty indecision and secret promotion of individual ambitions and unite in a common policy. Russia openly favors Kemal and threatens to aid him; with the Russo-German treaty signed at Genoa in mind, there are future possibilities of a German, Russian, and Turkish combination in Near East affairs that may not be disregarded. "A rein

vigorated Entente is needed to face a reinvigorated Turkey," says one writer.

On one point the Entente Powers should join: that the Dardanelles and the passage to the Black Sea must be kept open, free, and neutralized. Alarmed by Kemal's threats made in the first flush of victory, Great Britain at once instituted a vigorous military policy, landing troops and guns at Chanak (on the Asian side of the Straits), sending large reinforcements to her already large naval force in the Straits, urging the Balkan countries to aid in the defense, and even inviting Australia and Canada to send military contingents. The attitude of some classes in Great Britain was less warlike, and for two reasons: one was the evident dislike of a large part of the British press and people to anything like a new war; the second was the expressed belief of France and Italy that a peaceable agreement might be reached around a council table.

General Townshend, of Kut-el-Amara fame, is reported as saying that England must "get out" of the Near East; he is one of those who fear the effect of a strong policy on Mohammedans in India and Egypt. On September 19 it was officially stated in London, after a Cabinet meeting, that Great Britain will defend the Dardanelles alone if the other Powers refuse to join, while Kemal has had the audacity to ask that his army occupy Thrace during peace negotiations.

The real danger point is the part of

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THE STRAITS, THE NEUTRALIZED ZONE, AND SMYRNA

Angora, the seat of Kemal's Nationalist Government, is about 150 miles east of Eskishehr

the neutral zone that lies in Asiaclearly shown on the map printed on this page.

Kemal's troops have in some instances overstepped the neutral line; if his army enters the zone in force on the plea that it should be part of Turkey's Asian possession, a difficult and dangerous situation may arise. The indication as we write is that the whole Near East question will be taken up quickly by a conference of the nations involved.

THE PEACE OF EUROPE

Is European war?

is there danger of another general This question has been anxiously asked since the present crisis arose. It seems unthinkable and is certainly highly improbable, but there are peculiar dangers in the situation; and the way to avoid serious complications is to recognize them and deal with them. A The special correspondent of Outlook now in Europe, Mr. W. C. Gregg, cables us as follows:

"England has done so much to thwart France in her expectations from the Versailles Treaty that she is fearful of the loyalty of France in the Turkish trouble. Almost frantic appeals appear in British newspapers for Allied unity. England and France make a poor double team. This fact more than anything else threatens the peace of Europe. Safety lies in the understanding which France has with Poland and the Little

Entente. If this is a real military combination under French leadership, the peace of Europe will probably not be disturbed by an attempted German comeback. Any reasons for further European wars are offset by political confusion, lack of preparedness, and by the French army, which at this moment is the principal safeguard of civilization."

POLITICAL HOPES: BLASTED AND BLOSSOMED

T

HE Democratic hope that Senator Lodge might fail of renomination in Massachusetts had little tangible basis. The result of the primary by which he was nominated by a three-to-one vote bore out the predictions of all observers familiar with conditions in Massachusetts. For Governor, Massachusetts chose to renominate the present holder of that office, Channing H. Cox. Governor Cox's opponent was Attorney General J. Weston Allen, who did such good work in securing the disbarment of District Attorneys Tufts and Pelletier for using the machinery of government for private extortion.

If the Democrats are disappointed in the renomination of Senator Lodge, they ought to be pleased over the defeat of Cole Blease for the Governorship of South Carolina. It is probably a tragic confession of editorial ignorance to admit that we know very little of the record of his victorious opponent, Mr. Thomas G. McLeod. To know that Cole

Blease has been defeated is, however, adequate ground for congratulating the State of South Carolina.

The present Governor of Georgia. Thomas W. Hardwick, has been beaten for renomination by Clifford L. Walker. Five years ago Governor Hardwick was Senator from Georgia and was beaten for re-election mainly because President Wilson threw his influence against him. In the present contest he apparently owes his defeat to his former ally, Thomas E. Watson, of vitriolic pen and the United States Senate. Governor Hardwick also incurred the hostility of the Ku Klux Klan by his praiseworthy attempt to make that organization of misguided nativists unmask.

AN ARMY, NOT AN
ASSOCIATION

HE Salvation Army is unique among

Tbenevolent associations in that it is

under the absolute rule of one man. As in every other army, the General commands; the officers and soldiers obey. That great genius, William Booth, built the organization on the army type because he saw the possibilities of discipline, obedience, the uniform, and the band-militancy, in short. In many ways the plan has worked marvelously well. The Salvation Army has fought a good fight; one does not have to agree with its theological tenets (few, perhaps, know or care precisely what they are) nor to find its methods always dignified; what matters is that it has been of vast helpfulness in seeking out those who are sick, poor, and hopeless-whether in body, mind, or soul-and bringing to them Christian brotherhood and aspiration.

Under the direction of Commander Evangeline Booth the Salvation Army in America has made remarkable advances in numbers, in efficiency, and in popular esteem. It is, we believe, the largest existing branch of the Army. Its war work was beyond praise. Literally it befriended the American soldier; and no American soldier who saw its work in France will ever fail to remember its While its capital and friendly spirit. property holdings are said to have increased by $22,000,000 under Commander Booth's direction, an astoundingly large percentage of the income received goes directly to the needy and to actual work; the officers, from Commander Booth down, receive, above actual expenses, what would be called pitifully small pay were it not that every one knows that they literally give themselves, and that their devotion is unbounded.

In view of what the Army has accomplished, it would be rash to say that hereditary supremacy has not been wise

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for this special form of activity. But it is natural for American laymen to wonder whether an infusion of democracy in government might not be desirable here.

When, the other day, Commander Evangeline Booth, head of the Salvation Army in America, received from her brother in London, Commander-in-Chief Bramwell Booth, polite and appreciative marching orders, she accepted them without a word of complaint; she is a good soldier; she knows how to obey. In due time she will return to England to accept any command or work assigned her. It is reputed that General Booth proposes himself to supervise from London the American organization through the co-operation here of three Commissioners, in New York, Chicago, and San Francisco. All this is quite correct legally and quite within the rules and methods of the organization. But again the American layman may express the hope that the head of the Army and his staff will give due emphasis to the fact that the great body of the Army on this side of the water is American and that practically all the money contributed is American and that care will be taken to assure the public that American ideals and wishes will be considered in the management of the Army. It was largely the feeling that this was not the case which led to the split in the organization about twenty-five years ago.

CHINA AND AMERICAN SECTARIANISM

A

IT the recent National Christian Conference in Shanghai it was reported that 120 different religious communions from the Occidental world are now working in the Oriental republic. Native Christians are tired of explaining to the people why Southern Methodists are found in Northern China. Translating such words as Baptist, Episcopal, and Presbyterian leads to results that rejoice the facetious but which do not contribute to edification. People who are critical of mission boards may understand a little better why denominationalism continues in China by a study of recent history among the Disciples of Christ. The reports issued at their convention at Winona Lake, Indiana, the first week in September, and the discussion of these reports, throw a great light upon the problem. From the face of the documents it seems that Disciples missionaries, who were immersionists at home, have not been very zealous in pushing the denominational dogma beyond the sea. Chinese Presbyterians and other pedobaptists moving into a district where only Disciples churches were found were received as Christian brethren and put to work. They became hurch officers and were even employed

(C) Underwood

DONALD B. MACMILLAN

as mission workers. So little account did the missionaries take of denominational distinction that they in some instances reported these unimmersed people as members. A conservative minister of America visited the mission fields last year with an interpreter, and these facts were brought to the attention of the American constituency in an unmistakable way, compelling the mission board to admit most of the allegations, and to try to explain them.

The Disciples of Christ at Winona Lake have answered the demand of the Shanghai Conference of native Christians with denial of their request for Christian union. The missionaries are warned that if they take pedobaptists into the native churches as full members they will be recalled, though as a compromise measure the board has replied to an inquiry from the Rev. E. K. Higdon in the Philippines that he may believe in "open membership" if he will agree not to practice it without the consent of his board. That the board is disposed to be as generous as its constituency will permit is seen in the indorsement of the practice of enrolling "guest members" from other communions. If the missionaries do their duty, they must make these "guest members" know that such members are deficient in the matter of baptism from the Disciples standpoint.

Very few Disciples missionaries who have been on the field in the face of naked paganism care much for the theological disputes at home. They see that the only hope of the infant Christian movement in China is co-operation and the erasure of all denominational labels. Chinese leaders have served notice that they will have none of our Occidental denominationalism when they are able

to support the Christian movement without foreign money. Christianity halts in China not because of narrow-minded native leadership in that land, nor because of bigoted missionaries, perhaps not very much on account of ignorant board members at home. It is the sectarian preacher in America who threatens to boycott the missionary task when it gets too liberal who is responsible. Only as broad-minded laymen in the churches are able to modify this noisy sectarianism will China win the chance to become Christian.

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NEW POLAR GEOGRAPHY

HE return of the Arctic explorer Donald MacMillan from his year's voyage in the Arctic seas is an interesting event in the world of science and exploration. As in his former expeditions, Dr. MacMillan has brought back valuable contributions to our knowledge of that portion of the ice-bound seas which has never been thoroughly explored. The value of such observations is not of a sensational character but it is no less serious and important.

The region just explored by Dr. MacMillan is on the upper and western coast of Baffin Bay. It now appears that the geography of this region has always been incorrectly charted on the maps. The MacMillan expedition succeeded in penetrating further into these unknown regions than anyone but the Eskimo has ever gone. It will be remembered that five years ago this explorer returned after four years spent in the Arctic the result of which was to disprove the existence of the supposed Crocker Land. It appeared that what was supposed by Admiral Peary to be a newly found stretch of land was in fact the effect of a mirage. Now Dr. MacMillan reports that the entire map of the coastline of Baffin Bay will have to be revised. It has been charted on maps in accordance with the reports of an explorer commonly known

as "Northwestern Fox." His dash in this vicinity was made three hundred years ago, and no one since that time has penetrated so far along that coast. Now MacMillan has followed Fox's road and gone considerably beyond it, and, as was almost to be expected, he finds that Fox's charts abound in error.

It is interesting to report that under the modern and scientific methods of exploration carried out by this expedition and recommended by Peary and Stefansson it was conducted with perfect safety and comparative comfort.

There are great possibilities of discoveries that may be of practical value in the far north. Even if this were not so, there is something in the nature of mankind which will never be satisfied

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