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enables them to detect important mistakes will be kind enough to point them out candidly and clearly, I will gladly correct such serious faults if another edition should ever be required by an indulgent public.

BRANTZ MAYER. BALTIMORE, AUGUST, 1850.

AUTHORITIES USED IN THE PREPARATION OF THIS WORK.

I. HISTORICAL.

Cartas de Cortéz ed. Lorenzana. Zavala-Revoluciones de Mejico Historia Verdadera de la Conquis desde 1808, hasta 1830.

ta de la Nueva Espana-Bernal Don Vicente Pazo's Letters on Diaz.

the United Provinces of South Peter Martyr.

America. Conquista de Mejico, by De Solis. Robinson's Memoirs of the MexiVeytia. Herrera.

can Revolution. Robertson's History of America. Ward's Mexico in 1827, &c. Clavigero—Historia Antigua de Foote's History of Texas. Mejico.

Tejas in 1836. Prescott's History of the Conquest Memorias para la Historia de la of Mexico.

Guerra de Tejas, por General Cavo y Bustamante-Tres Siglos Vicente Filisola. de Mejico.

Forbes's California. Alaman - Disertaciones sobre la Greenhow's Oregon and California. Historia de Mejico.

American State Papers. Father Gage's America.

Ranke-Fursten und Volker. Ternaux-Compans's History of the Dr. Dunham's History of Spain Conquest.

and Portugal. Recopilacion de las leyes de las General Waddy Thompson's ReIndias.

collections of Mexico. Mendez-Observaciones sobre las Apuntes para la historia de la leyes, &c., &c.

guerra entre Mejico y los EstaN. American Review, vol. XIX. dos Unidos. Transactions of the American Lectures on Mexican history, by

Ethnological Society, in the Ar José Maria Lacunza, Professor ticles on Mexico, by Mr. Gal in the College of San Juan de latin.

Letran. Researches, Philosophical and An- Constituciones de Mejico y de los tiquarian, concerning the Abo

Estados Mejicanos. riginal History of America, by Thirteen octavo volumes of docuJ. H. McCulloh.

ments published by the ConPesquisia contra Pedro de Alva

gress of the United States, relarado y Nuño de Guzman.

tive to our intercourse and war Lives of the Viceroys in the Liceo with Mexico, collected by myMejicano.

self. Notas y esclarecimientos à la his. Tributo à la Verdad, - Vera Cruz

toria de la Conquista de Mejico, 1847.
por José F. Ramirez.—2d vol. of
Mexican translation of Prescott.

4

PRE FACE.

II. DESCRIPTIVE.

Humboldt, Essai Politique sur la Isidro R. Gondra's Notes on MexiNouvelle Espagne.

can Antiquities, in the 3rd vol. Poinsett's Notes on Mexico.

(with plates) of the Mexican Bullock's Mexico.

translation of Prescott. Lieut. Hardy's Journey in Mexico. Nebel-Voyage Arquéologique et Ward's Mexico in 1827.

Pittoresque en Mexique. Folsom's Mexico in 1842.

Memoir of the Mexican Minister Mühlenpfordt-Die Republik Me of Foreign and Domestic Afjico.

fairs on the condition of the Mejico en 1842, por Luis Manuel country in

1846. de Rivero.

Idem in

1849. Mexico as it was and as it Is, 1844. Memoir of the Mexican Minister Ensayo sobre el verdadero estado

of War,

1844. de la cuestion social y politica Idem in

1846. que se agita en la Republica Idem in

1849. Mejicana, por Otero, 1842. Memoir of the Mexican Minister Madame Calderon de la Barca's of Finance on the condition of Life in Mexico.

the Treasury,

1841. Kennedy's Texas.

Idem in

1846. Emory, Abert, Cooke and John- Idem in

1848. ston-Journals in New Mexico Idem in

1849. and California—1848.

Memoir on the Agriculture and Frémont's Expeditions, 1842-'3-4. Manufactures of Mexico, by Don Frémont's California, 1848.

Lucas Alaman,

1843. T. Butler King's Report on Cali- Memoir on the Liquidation of the fornia, 1850.

National Debt, by Alaman, 1845. W. Carey Jones's do. do. 1850. Noticias Estadisticas del Estado Executive documents in relation de Chihuahua,

1834. to California, 1850.

Noticias Estadisticas sobre el DeForbes's California.

partamento de Queretaro, 1845. Bryant's do.

Nos. 1, 2, 3, Boletin del Instituto Kendall's Santa Fé Expedition. Nacional de Geografia y EstaWilkes's Exploring Expedition.

distica,

1839–1849. Wise-Los Gringos.

Collecion de documentos relativos Ruxton's Travels in Mexico, &c. al departamento de Californias, Norman's Rambles in Yucatan. 1846.

1 in Mexico. El Observador Judicial de Mejico. Gregg's Commerce of the Prairies. Semanario de la Industria MejiDr. Wislizenius's Memoir on New Mexico.

El Mosaico Mejicano. Stephens's Central America. Journal des Economistes. Yucatan.

Lyell's Geology. Gama-Piedras Antiguas de Me- Lerdo—Consideraciones sobre la jico.

condicion social y politica de la Es Museo Mejicano.

Republica Mejicana en 1847.

cana.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER 1.-Discoveries of Cordova and Grijalva-Cortêz appointed by Velas-

quez-Biographical notice of Cortéz-Cortéz Captain General of the Armada-

Equipment of the Expedition—Quarrel of Velasquez-Firmness of Cortéz-Ex-

pedition departs under Cortéz,

.. 13

CHAPTER 11.-Olmeda preaches to the Indians-Aguilar and Mariana-interpre-

ters-Cortéz lands-interview with the Aztecs—Diplomacy-Montezuma's pres-

ents-Montezuma refuses to receive Cortéz,

. . 22

CHAPTER III.-Cortéz founds La Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz-Fleet destroyed-

March to Mexico-Conquest of Tlascala—Cholula--Slaughter in Cholula--Valley

of Mexico-Cortéz enters the Valley-Gigantic Causeway–Lake of Tezcoco-

Reception by Montezuma-Spaniards enter the capital, .

CHAPTER IV.–Description of the City of Tenochtitlan--Montezuma's way of

life—Market-place-Cortéz at the Great Temple-Description of it—Place of Sa-

crifice—Sanctuaries—Huitzilopotchtli—Tezcatlipoca—Danger of Cortéz—Monte-

zuma seized-Montezuma a prisoner—his submissiveness—Arrival of Narvaez-

Cortéz's diplomacy-Cortéz overcomes Narvaez, and recruits his forces, 35

CHAPTER V.-Cortéz returns to the Capital—Causes of the revolt against the

Spaniards—Cortéz condemns Alvarado-his conduct to Montezuma-Battle in the

city—Montezuma mediates—Fight on the Great Temple or Teocalli-Retreat of

the Spaniards—Noche Triste-Flight of the Spaniards to Tacuba, .

44

CHAPTER VI.-Retreat to Otumba-Cortéz is encountered by a new army of Az.

tecs and auxiliaries–Victory of the Spaniards at Otumba--Proposed re-alliance of

Aztecs and Tlascalans—Forays of Cortéz-reduction of the eastern regions—Cor-

téz proposes the re-conquest-sends off the disaffected—Cortéz settles the Tlascalan

succession, .

50

CHAPTER VII.-Death of Cuitlahua—he is succeeded by Guatemozin-Aztecs

learn the proposed re-conquest—Cortéz's forces for this enterprise-Cortéz at Tez-

coco-his plans and acts-Military expeditions of Cortez in the Valley-Operations

at Chalco and Cuernavaca-Xochimilco-return to Tacuba-Cortéz returns to

Tezcoco and is reinforced,

.. 56

CHAPTER VIII.-Cortéz returns-conspiracy among his men detected—Execution

of Villafaña-Brigantines launched-Xicotencatl's treason and execution-Dispo-

sition of forces to attack the city-Siege and assaults on the city-Fight and re-

verses of the Spaniards—Sacrifice of captives—Flight of allies-Contest renewed

Starvation, .

62

CHAPTER IX.-Aztec prediction—it is not verified_Cortêz reinforced by fresh

arrivals-Famine in the city-Cortéz levels the city to its foundation-Condition

of the capital-Attack renewed-Capture of Guatemozin-Surrender of the city-

Frightful condition of the city,

.. 70

CHAPTER X.-Duty of a historian-Motives of the Conquest-Character and

deeds of Cortéz-Materials of the Conquest-Adventurers-Priests—Indian allies

-Historical aspects of the Conquest, . .

. 75

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CHAPTER XI.-Discontent at not finding goldTorture of Guatemozin-Results

of the fall of the capital-Mission from Michoacan-Rebuilding of the capital

Letters to the King-Intrigues against Cortéz – Fonseca - Narvaez— Tapia –

Charles V. protects Cortéz and confirms his acts,

80

CHAPTER XII.-Cortéz commissioned by the Emperor-Velasquez—his death-

Mexico rebuilt-Immigration-Repartimientos of Indians—Honduras–Guatemo-

zin-Mariana-Cortéz accused-ordered to Spain for trial—his reception, honors

and titles—he marries—his return to Mexico-resides at Tezcoco-Expeditions of

Cortéz—California-Quivara-returns to Spain--death-Where are his bones? 84

CHAPTER XIII.-Archbishop Zumarraga's destruction of Mexican monuments,

writings, documents—Mr. Gallatin's opinion of them— Traditions—two sources of

accurate knowledge-Speculations on antiquity-Aztecs—Toltecs—Nahuatlacs-

Acolhuans, &c.-Aztecs emigrate from Aztlan-settle in Anahuac— Tables of emi-

gration of the original tribes,Other tribes in the empire,

.92

CHAPTER XIV.—Difficulty of estimating the civilization of the Aztecs-Nations

in Yucatan—Value of contemporary history- The Aztec monarchy-elective-

Royal style in Tenochtitlan-Montezuma's way of life-Despotic power of the

Emperor over life and law–Theft-intemperance-marriage-slavery-war—Mili-

tary system and hospitals—Coin-Revenues-Aztec mythology-Image of Teo-

yaomiqu— Teocalli—Two kinds of sacrifice—Why the Aztecs sacrificed their

prisoners-Common Sacrifice-Gladitorial Sacrifice-Sacrificial Stone-Aztec Ca-

lendar-week, month, year, cycle--Procession of the New Fire-Astronomical

Science-Aztec Calendar_Tables, .

99

BOOK II.

CHAPTER I.-Colonial system-Early grants of power to rulers in Mexico by the

Emperor Charles V.-Abuse of it-Council of the Indies—Laws-Royal audiences

-Cabildos-Fueros—Relative positions of Spaniards and Creoles-Scheme of

Spanish colonial trade-Restrictions on trade-Alcabala—Taxes-Papal Bulls-

Bulls de Cruzada—de Defuntos—of Composition-Power of the Church-its pro-

perty-Inquisition-The acts of the Inquisition-Repartimientos-Indians-Agri-

culturists-Miners-Mita–Excuses for maladministration,

127

CHAPTER II.- Founding of the Viceroyalty of New Spain-New Audiencia-

Fuenleal—Mendoza-Early acts of the first Viceroy-Coinage—Rebellion in Ja-

lisco-Viceroy suppresses it-Council of the Indies on Repartimientos-Indian

Servitude-Quivara-Expeditions of Coronado and Alarcon-Pest in 1546—Revo-

lution-Council of Bishops-Mines-Zapotecs revolt-Mendoza removed to Peru,

Page 139.

CHAPTER III._Velasco endeavors to ameliorate the condition of the Indians

University of Mexico established-Inundation-Military colonization—Philip II-

Florida—Intrigues against Velasco-Philipine Isles_Death of Velasco—Marques

de Falces—Baptism of the grand-children of Cortéz—Conspiracy against the Mar-

ques del Valle—his arrest_execution of his friends-Marques de Falces-charges

against him—his fall—Errors of Philip II.-Fall of Muñoz and his return—Vm-

dication of the Viceroy, ..

148

CHAPTER IV.-Almanza Viceroy-Chichimecas revolt-Jesuits—Inquisition-

Pestilence—No Indian tribute exacted-Almanza departs-Xuares Viceroy-Weak

Administration—Increase of commerce-Pedro Moya de Contreras Viceroy--Re-

forms under a new Viceroy-His power as Viceroy and Inquisitor-Zuñiga Vice-

roy-Treasure-Piracy-Cavendish-Drake captures a galeon-Zuñiga and the

Audiencia of Guadalajara–His deposition from power,

160

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CHAPTER V.-Luis de Velasco II. becomes Viceroy-Delight of the Mexicans-

Factories reopened--Chichimecas--Colonization-Alameda—Indians taxed for

European wars-Composition-Fowls-Acebedo Viceroy-Expedition to New

Mexico-Indian ameliorations-Death of Philip II.-New scheme of hiring In-

dians--California–Montesclaros Viceroy-Inundation—Albarrada,

· · 170

CHAPTER VI.-Second administration of Don Luis Velasco-His great work for

the Drainage of the Valley-Lakes in the Valley-Danger of Inundation-History

of the Desague of Huehuetoca-Operations of the engineers Martinez and Boot-

The Franciscans—Completion of the Desague-La Obra del Consulado-Negro

revolt-Extension of Oriental trade-Guerra Viceroy—De Cordova Viceroy-

Indian revolt-Cordova founded,

178

CHAPTER VII.-Marques de Gelves Viceroy—his reforms—Narrative of Father

Gage-Gelves forestalls the market - The Archbishop excommunicates Mexia, his

agent-Quarrel between Gelves and the Archbishop-Viceroy excommunicated-

Archbishop at Guadalupe-he is arrested at the altar-sent to Spain-Mexia threa-

tened-Mob attacks the Palace—it is sacked—Viceroy escapes-Retribution, 187

CHAPTER VIII.-The Audiencia rules in the interregnum-Carillo Visitador-In-

quisitorial examination-Acapulco taken-Attacks by the Dutch-Removal of the

Capital proposed—Armendariz Viceroy-Escalona Viceroy—Palafox's conduct to

the Viceroy–Palafox Viceroy-His good and evil,

. 195

CHAPTER IX.—Sotomayor Viceroy-Escalona vindicated—Monastic property-

Bigotry of Palafox-Guzman Viceroy-Indian insurrection-Revolt of the Tara-

humares-Success of the Indians—Indian wars-Duke de Alburquerque Viceroy-

Attempt to assassinate him—Count de Baños Viceroy-Attempt to colonize-Es-

cobar y Llamas and De Toledo Viceroys—Depredations of British cruisers-Nuño

de Portugal Viceroy, ·

201

CHAPTER X.-Rivera Viceroy-La Cerda Viceroy–Revolt in New Mexico,

Success of the Indians—Colony destroyed-Efforts of the Spaniards to re-conquer

-Vera Cruz sacked-Count Monclova Viceroy-Count Galve Viceroy-Tarrahu-

maric revolı-Indians pacified— Texas-Hispaniola attacked—Insurrection-Burn-

ing of the Palace-Famine-Earthquake,

212

CHAPTER XI.-Montañez Viceroy—Spiritual Conquest of California—Valladares

Viceroy-Fair at Acapulco-Spanish monarchy-Austria—Bourbon-Montañez

Viceroy-Jesuits in California--La Cueva Viceroy-Duke de Linares Viceroy-

British slavery treaty-Colonization-Nuevo Leon-Texas-Operations in Texas

-Alarcon-Aguayo-Casa- Fuerte's virtuous administration-Louis I.-Oriental

trade-Spanish jealousy-The King's opinion of Casa-Fuerte--his acts, . . 221

CHAPTER XII.–Vizarron and Eguiarreta Viceroy-Eventless government–Sala-

zar Viceroy-Colonial fears-Fuen-Clara Viceroy-Galeon lost-Mexico under

Revilla-Gigedo 1.-Ferdinand VI.-Indians_Taxes-Colonies in the north-

Famine-Mines at Bolaños—Horcasitas-Character of Revilla-Gigedo_Villalon

Viceroy-Charles III.-Cagigal Viceroy, .

. 232

CHAPTER XIII.—Marques de Cruillas Viceroy-Charles III. proclaimed-Havana

taken by the British-Military preparations-Peace-Pestilence–Galvez Visitador

-Reforms—Tobacco monopoly_De Croix Viceroy—The Jesuits—their expulsion

from Spanish dominions—their arrival in Europe—banished—Causes of this con-

duct to the orderOrigin of the military character of Mexico,

. . 240

CHAPTER XIV.-Bucareli y Ursua Viceroy-Progress of New Spain--Gold

placers in Sonora-Mineral wealth at that period--Intellectual condition of the

country-Line of Presidios-Mayorga Viceroy-Policy of Spain to England and

her colonies-Operations on the Spanish Main, &c.—Matias Galvez Viceroy-his

acts, .

248

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