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The Vatican in International Affairs

Roman Curia, formed of the sacred congregations, the tribunals and the various other departments. Sometimes it designates the Pope in his role as visible head of the Church, possessing the apostolic primacy as successor of St. Peter. Finally, it sometimes indicates the spiritual organization of the papal government.'—H. E. Cardinale, The Holy See and the International Order, (Gerrards Cross, England: Colin Smythe Publishers, 1976)."

Cogdell, Church of Christ:

"The Holy See is simply the administrative center and governing apparatus of the Roman Catholic Church. (1) The Catholic Encyclopedia says that the Holy See' is synonymous with the term 'Roman Church,' in diplomatic usage. ...

Archbishop Cardinale in his monumental work, (2) The Holy See and the International Order, says, 'The Holy See is the juridical personification of the church in the same way the state is of the nation.'—Page 115. It is, he says, 'the supreme organ of the church universal in its contacts with other members of the international community.'-Page 85.

"Bishop Van Lierde in his book. The Holy See at Work, says that by the design of Divine Providence, The Apostolic See is the established center of the Catholic Church.-Page 43.

"References can be cited almost ad infinitum proving that the Holy See is in no sense a state, but is the world's largest church operating in its governing and administrative capacity-nothing more, nothing less.

"We submit to the honorable members of the Foreign Relations Committee that the official recognition by our government of the Papacy gives credibility to, and is a long step towards, legitimatizing these arrogant and despotic spiritual and temporal claims of the Pope."

Senator Lugar:

"The Holy See maintains a diplomatic presence and has wide influence and unique access in areas of great concern to the foreign policy of the United States. Eastem Europe, Central America, Africa, and the Philippines offer several excellent examples.

"Vatican officials and diplomats are not simply observers or moral guides, but play an active role in international affairs.

"Over the past two years the President, the Vice-President, the Secretary of State. and other cabinet officers have had audiences with the Pope to discuss a wide range of political and moral problems which confront the world. ...

“The fact is that in many ways the Vatican is a far more significant and wide-ranging actor than many of the other governments with which we maintain formal relations."

Draper, SBC:

"We are disturbed that this Administration apparently views the Roman Catholic Church only in political terms and ignores its essentially spiritual qualities. Does the administration see all churches in this light? Are we all potential "listening posts in the State Department's eyes?

“The Southern Baptist Foreign Mission Board, the largest missionary organization in the world, has passed a resolution opposing 'such a dangerous precedent that intertwines American self-interest and the higher priorities of the Kingdom of God.""

Dunn, BJC:

"(We hear that) this action will give the Pope more political leverage in his quest for peace and his struggle against Communism. Is this not the same Pope who directed his priests and nuns to avoid political involvement?"

Winning the Global Struggle Against Communism

Cogdell, Church of Christ:

"You are no doubt being told that sending of an ambassador to the Holy Seed the Roman Catholic Church es important our winning the global struggle again Communism. We ask you to look at Latin American and European cours including Italy itself, where Commons has gained the greatest influence, and that the Church of Rome is far from be bulwark against the inroads of Coes nism. Indeed. it seems in some cases to the way for a Communist takeover as this? We believe it is because the Roma Catholic Church seeks everywhere, as seeking right here and now, to link = entangle itself with secular power = authority and to receive special preferens privilege, and support from govern whatever government happens to be control, whether fascist, communist list, capitalistic, dictatorship. or dens racy. Discerning people soon lose respe for both the church and the state whuchese into such relationships, and finally choes. government which is hostile to religies preference to one which debases religon using it for political ends and purposes which in return allows itself to be used in

ecclesiastical objectives. “

Action Threatens Missionaries

We Did It Before and We Can Do It Again

Kelley, NCC:

“The contention that the present appointment restores a relationship that set the precedent in the 1800s (until broken off by Congress in 1867) is contrary to fact: Rufus King was minister-resident to the Papal States, an area of 16,000 square miles in central Italy, with over 3 million inhabitants, which the Pope actually governed as a civil ruler at that time. The Papal States are no longer in existence. The Vatican City today has an area of one sixth of a square mile and less than 1.000 inhabitants. It would be of no diplomatic interest if it were not also the headquarters of a great world church."

Of Entangling Alliances and Controlling the Bishops

Dunn, BJC:

**The stated purpose of the ambassador ship is to tap into the Church's a information network. This is patently en glement. ... The editors (of Americs : Jesuit magazine) expressed concern that ambassador to the Holy See would seek 3 exert pressure on the Church to control activities of the Church in America

"It has been suggested that United Sus foreign policy would be set forward and se some intelligence network would become available to our nation by establishing sed a formal relationship with the Roman Catholic Church. If any credence at all s * be given to these suggestions, they prapon precisely what we oppose. This entangling alliance would be the occasion for practical problems for all those engaged in to far-flung missionary venture in developing countries. Because of anti-American antireligious, and antidemocratic sentments in many of the developing counines. missionaries and other persons representing religious institutions would actually become symbols of Amencan governme cal interests. Should the United States

Draper, SBC:

We are disturbed by the threat this action poses to the 3.200 Southern Baptist missionaries in nearly 100 countries around the world. The implication that our government might use religious organizations for information, if not espionage, endangers not only the credibility of the message they deliver, but, in some war-torn countries. their very lives.

"Colorado's Rocky Mountain Buprisi feared the indirect consequences to our missionaries in Latin American countries. ... It is already too easy for leaders in those countries to identify all missionaries as involved in their political struggles as spies or revolutionaries."


Senate follow the unwise course of the the 'Free Exercise of Religion' was establishment of full diplomatic relations intended not only to prohibit direct goverwith any church, it would offer an occasion ment intervention, but also indirect overfor misunderstanding, an invitation to chaos tures through a foreign prelate to stifle or and confusion, and would place a burden- alter the free exercise of religion." some albatross upon every American who

Maddox, AU: represents religion overseas.

"Father Robert Graham, an American Kelley, NCC:

priest who works at the Vatican, expressed "The contention that the appointment of similar concerns in his book. Vatican an ambassador will provide a channel for Diplomacy: 'The presence of a representathe fow of valuable international intelli- tive of the White House at the Vatican. rence information not now available to the with direct access to the Holy Father, is U.S. does an injustice to the ability of Mr. almost a direct invitation to interference Wilson as the President's personal repre- in internal American (Catholic) Church sentative to the Pope, since it suggests that affairs'(Princeton University Press, 1959)." with the title of ambassador he could gain information that is not available to him now. Everybody's Doing It It also inpugns the commitment of the Vatican to the cause of freedom that is Dunn, BJC: ostensibly sught to be advanced by this "One hundred six states now have appointment since it implies that the relations with the Holy See at the ambassaVatican would withhold information dorial level. 'Everybody is doing it!' is an important to that cause from Mr. Wilson argument that never persuaded my mother unless he were a full ambassador. Further and probably not yours either. Even Presimore, it misconstrues the role of an dent Reagan, on November 4, 1983, said, ambassador, which is usually more sym- 'One hundred nations in the United Nations bolic, formal, and ceremonious than it is have not agreed with us on just about facilitative of close communications. The everything that's come before them where United States is not without numerous we're involved, and it didn't upset my channels for obtaining significant informa- breakfast at all.' The important point tion via the Vatican and otherwise; an is that the United States alone has a First ambassadorship is not the missing link in Amendment which forbids this action." intelligence transmission. And even if it were, that is not an adequate justification for No Union of Church flouting the First Amendment of the Con

and State stitution of the United States, as we believe any appointment of ambassador to the

Cogdell, Church of Christ: Vatican would."

*Honorable Senators, you are being Swomley, ACLU:

urged to violate your oath of office to uphold “It is a violation of the free exercise of the Constitution of this great free nation, religion by American Catholics in that an and to drive a dagger into the heart of the ambassador to the Pope will permit the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights. President regularly to interfere with state- "The divesting of the First Amendment ments or action of the Catholic bishops and of its strength and meaning by blatantly priests who publicly differ with Administra- violating its plainest implications will be tion policies. For example, President Rea- such a blow to this wonderful nation of ours gan sent General Rowney to see the Pope on as no alien power or ideology could inflict. two occasions to curb the pastoral expres- "It is the wall of separation between sion of the U.S. Catholic bishops in their church and state and that alone which Pastoral Letter on War and Peace. Unoffi- prevents the deep religious divisions of cial but reliable reports indicate that the society from extending themselves into the Pope did intervene with respect to that public and political domain, and prevents document along the lines of President the political divisions from being extended Reagan's request. ...

into the religious domain, to the detriment Quoting National Catholic Reporter of church, of state, and of felicitous human writer Peter Hebbethwaite:) 'In the future, a relationships on every level. ... quiet word between Wilson and Casaroli "The late Cardinal Cushing of Boston (Vatican secretary of state) in Rome, or said, 'I don't know of anywhere in the Laghi (papal nuncio) at the State Depart. history of Christianity where the Catholic ment in Washington, could cool the (Ameri- Church, the Protestant church, or any other can) bishops' radical ardor. All in all, and church has made greater progress than in the especially in an election year, it is a good United States of America; and, in my deal for President Reagan.'-National opinion, the chief reason is that there is no Catholic Reporter. Jan. 27, 1984, p. 5.... union of church and state.'-Boston

"The First Amendment clause protecting Globe, Jan. 26, 1964, D. A-7."


July 22, 1984

Senator Orrin Hatch, Chairman
Senate Subcommittee on the Constitution'
Washington, D. C. 20519

Dear Senator Hatch:

At the close of the Subcommittee Hearing on June 26th, you indicated that for thirty days, you would hold onen the record for additional testimony about other incidents of governmental interference in church affairs.

I am enclosing the attached copy of a newspaper article about a case in the II. S. Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals i in Richmond, Virginia, which describes government interference in church affairs. Please insert this into the record of the Hearing. I had hoped for a written testimony from the minister involved; but have not yet received a copy so I am forwarding the information contained in the news article. Since the case is a matter of record in the Federal court, the facts are easily available to your staff.


Please send me a complete transcript of the hearing. sincerely appreciate your efforts in behalf of religious : freedom in our country.

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Journal & Guide





Special. . . Special... Special. . .

One of the most important cases in the delense of Religious Liberty will be heard in the U.S. Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals, Main Street Post Office Building, Richmond. Va., on Tuesday, May 8 at 9:00 a.m. The hearing will be for one hour only before a three-judge panel. There will be no witnesses, and no one will take the stand. The attorneys will argue the case based upon briefs filed and answers already in the hands of the court. You are invited to attend this hearing and to encourage as many ministers and lay persons from your congregation as possible to attend.

What Is At Stake

The issue is whether the Commonwealth of Virginia has the constitutional or the judicial authority to interlere in the ecclesiastical affairs of a church. The Honorable Alfred W. Whitehurst, judge of the Circuit Court in Norfolk:

• Nullified duly called church meetings at New Calvary Baptist Church.

• Ordered the church not to install duly-elected of. ficers or ordain deacons elected by the congregation.

• Ordered the church to maintain the status quo.

• Delermined who could vote in the congregation and who could not.

• Invalidated the right hand of fellowship.

• Ordered a white man of the Jewish faith to conduct and oversee the annual meeting of New Calvary Baptist Church.

• Ordered the Pastor and four deacons to turn over the membership list of the church to Mr. Mazelle, the Jewish overseer and representative of the court, even at the objection of the church which voted overwhelmingly in two meetings that its membership list should not be turned over to a secular authority.

• Levied a fine of $1000 a day against the pastor and $25 a day against the deacons for not complying with his order and held the pastor and deacons in contempt of court.

• Nullified church disciplinary actions against dissident members who have filed suit alter suit against the pastor and officers of the church. The church first "silenced" 18 members. The church since Ion April 8 during the annual meeting) has dismissed 31 dissident members from the church. The Honorable Judge Whitehurst has ruled the church out of order on all of its activities.

• Ordered the church to meet and set up the agenda for the meeting. Determined how long members could speak and who could speak, in complete disregard for church policy and practice.

•Ruled invalid and out of order a constitution and

April 27, 1984

bylaws developed and adopted by the church. The bylaws and constitution were read belore the congregation each Sunday for a month. Members were given copies to read for themselves. Only two members out of 308 disapproved the constitution and bylaws. No member was prohibited from voting.

Hard To Believe I know you find this hard to believe. This is the kind of religious oppression that went on in the Soviet Union during the reign of Khruschev. We would expect it there, but not here in America where we have the Bible as our authority of faith and practice and love, protection of the 1st Amendment, the 13th and 14th Amendments to the Constitution.

It is important that a significant number of clergy and members of the black church in Virginia attend this session of the Court on Tuesday, May 8. This court, 4th Circuit, has already ruled in other cases that the Constitution prohibits the state from interfering in the er. clesiastical affairs of the Church. Will the court uphold its own ruling or will the court reverse itself? Your presence will be of significance in the court's decision.

You know that the Black Church is the last of the institutions completely owned and controlled by black people. If we lose our basic rights because of the paternalistic and racist desicions of a modern day Pilate, the black church will suffer greatly. Please do you very best to join with me and members of the New Calvary Baptist Church on May 8 in Richmond.

The Center for Constitutional Rights of New York has the case in charge under Attorneys William Kunstler and Betty Bailey of New York, and Attorney James Gay of Norfolk. Although the Center makes no charges for its services, the Church has spent over $10,000 in this twoyear-old battle with approximately $6000 in local attorney fees now due. Il you cannot attend this Court hearing, the officers and members of the New Calvary Baptist Church would appreciate any contribution that you could make by May 8. You may

mail your contributions to Deacon Dennis Perry, Treasurer, New Calvary Baptist Church. 800 E. Virginia Beach Boulevard, Norfolk, Virginia 23504. As much as we need your financial support, your presence would mean much more. If you would attend with a check we would consider that a double blessing.

For All Of Us

This case, the first of its kind in the history of the world, is not just for New Calvary, it is for every church in American in defense of Religious Liberty.


July 22, 1984

Honorable Orrin Hatch, Chairman
Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution
Washington, D. C. 20510

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Again I commend you for the excellent manner with which you conducted the subcommittee hearing on June 26th, regarding issues in Religious Liberty.

Prior to adjourning the hearing, you indicated that had thirty (30) days in which to submit additional testimony for consideration by the subcommittee. Therefore, I am forwarding the attached testimony of Col. Robert L. Grete, director of the ROCKY BAYOU CHRISTIAN SCHOOL, in Niceville, Florida. This is only one of several situations I am concerned about, several of which I have forwarded to you already. However, I asked Col Grete to allow me to submit his testimony because it points up the problem of an althernative school, performing an excellent educational function, but subjected to repressive legislation and beaureaucratic interference, without the benefit of any denominational sponsorship.

As an informed layperson, not representing any of the constituent groups identified at the hearing, I am nevertheless concerned about the extent to which congressional legislation is not aimed at precluding government animosity toward religious organizations or institutions. Neither the Supreme Court mor the Internal Revenue Service should be allowed the authority to foreclose the rights of individuals or instutions they were designed to protect. Nor should civil authority seek simultaneously to weild supreme authority to tailor religious destiny, whether the destiny of a church, or a religious organization, or a Christian school.

Please continue your efforts to pursue full knowledge in this issue, and to guide the legislative process preserving the structure of government that makes the very idea of religious freedom and rights meaningful.

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