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SYLLABUS.

[Erplanation of References.—The references in this Syllabus to the standard modern authors, are to the following editions of their works :

Bluntschli, 2d French Ed., translated by M. C. Lardy (1874); Calvo, 5th Ed. (1888); Creasey, “First Platform of International Laiv,” (1876); Hall, 3d Ed. (1890); IIalleck, Ed. by Sir S. Baker (1878); Heffter, 4th French Ed. by F. H. Geffcken, translated by J. Bergson (1883); Phillimore, 3d Ed. (1879- ); Walker, T. A. “ The Science of International Law” (1893); Wheaton, Ed. by Lawrence (1863), and by Dana (1866), referred to by title Wheaton (L) and (D); Woolsey, Ed. by T. S. Woolsey (1890); Wharton's “ Digest of International Law” will be referred to as “ Wharton's Digest."

This collection of Cases and Opinions will be cited as Cases and Op.]

INTRODUCTION.

1. Definitions of International Law, or the Law of Nations. (Hal

leck, I., 41 ; Wheaton (L), 26, (D), 23 ; Hall, 1 ; Woolsey, 2 ; Creasey, 1 ; Calvo, I., 139.)

2. Origin of the terms“ Law of Nations,” and “International Law.”

Compare with the terms Jus Gentium,Jus Naturale," “Droit des gens,” “ Droit international,” “Völkerrecht.” (Wheaton (L), 14-21 and notes, (D), 4-6, 16–21 and note 7; Woolsey, 10; Creasey, 17-21.)

3. Is International Law a branch of true Law? Objections by Aus

tin and his followers to the term “law” as used in “international law,” on the ground that there is no superior power to enforce it: it has no “sanction.” In accordance with this view see, (Austin's Jurisprudence, abridged Ed., pp. 5-18, 5963, 74, 85 ; Stephen's History of the Criminal Law, II., 32 et seq. ; Holland's “Jurisprudence,” 96-97, 291–293.)

Opposed to this view (Sir Henry Maine : “ International
Law," 26-53 ; T. J. Lawrence: “Essays on International
Law”, 1 ; Hall, 14-17; Bluntschli, 2-10; Woolsey, 26–29;
Walker, 1-40, 45-56 ; Creasey, 70–76.)

4. The Sources and Nature of International Law. (Wheaton,

chapter I. ; Halleck, I., chapter II. ; Hall, 1-14; Bluntschli, 1-19; Sir H. Maine, 1–25; Calvo, I., 139–167; Phillimore, I., chapter III.)

5. Historical sketch of International Law. (Halleck, chapter

I., Walker, 57–112; Calvo, I., 1-137. For extended works, see Ward's Law of Nations ; Wheaton's History of the Law of Nations ; Laurent : L'Histoire de l'Humanité, etc.)

6. International Law is a part of the law of States. (Cases and

Op., 1-4; Woolsey, $ 29.)

7. The leading writers on International Law. (Calvo, I., 27-32,

45–46, 51-55, 61-63, 70–73, 101-120; Halleck, I., chapter I.)

8. Private International Law, or the Conflict of Laws. (Hall, 54 ;

Woolsey, SS 73–74; Calvo, I., 120-125.)

PART 1.

INTERNATIONAL LAW IN TIME OF PEACE.
I. SOVEREIGN STATES—DE FACTO STATES.

(a) Sovereign States.

9. Sovereign States are the Subjects or Persons of International

Law. (Hall, 18-19; Bluntschli, Arts. 17–27; Phillimore,
I., 79 ; Heffter, 43; Wheat. (D), 3 16.)

10. Definition and Nature of Sovereign States. (Wheaton (L),

31-33, 58 (D), 29–31 ; Hall, 18-21, 24, 25; Bluntschli, Arts. 18-21, 64; Woolsey, 34–36; Halleck, I., 58-59 ; Phillimore, I., 81-85; Creasey, 6, 93; Calvo, I., 168– 170; Heffter, 45.)

11. Distinction between Internal Sovereignty and External Sov

ereignty of States. (Wheaton (D), 31 (L), 35 ; Bluntschli, Art. 64; Holland : Jurisprudence, 40, 276, 295.)

12.

Internal changes in a State do not affect its standing in International Law. (Hall, 22, 23; Wheaton (L), 39, (D), 33–34 ; Bluntschli, Arts. 39–40; Creasey, 99-109 ; Woolsey, 38, 39; Phillimore, I., 202–212.)

13. The fundamental Rights and Duties of States. (Hall, 45–47;

Halleck, I., 80-82; Wheaton (L), 115, (D), 89, 90.)

14. Classification of States: “Centralized States,” “Personal

Union,” “Real Union,” (Bunderstaat), “ Confederate Union,” (Staatenbund), Protected State, Neutralized State. (Hall, 25– 31 ; Bluntschli, Arts. 70-76 ; Wheaton (D), 40-41, 73, 78, 82, and note 32 (L), 71-76; Halleck, I., 62–66 ; Phillimore, I., 94-101 ; Calvo, I., 173–179; Creasey, 135-142.)

15. The Equality of States. (Wheaton (L), 58, (D), 52; Hal

leck, I., 99–123 ; Heffter, 65-70 ; Woolsey, $ 5+; Bluntschli, Art. 81; T. J. Lawrence, Essays, No. 5.)

16. Date of the commencement of States. (Hall, 87-90 ;

Wheaton (L), 46–47 ; (D), 41 ; Bluntschli, Art. 29 ;
Halleck, I., 74 and note 1.)

17. Effects of the recognition of a new State by the parent State,

and by third States. (Hall, 88-93; Bluntschli, Art. 30; Wheaton (D), 32 ; Halleck, I., 72 and note 1.)

18. When is the recognition by third States of a new State claiming

independence, proper ? (Cases and Op., 13; Hall, 90-93 ; Bluntschli, Arts. 31-35 ; Halleck, I., 72–74; Wheaton (L), 46–47; (D), 41-46 and note 16 ; Creasey, 677–681 ; Phillimore, II.)

19. Methods of Recognition-The Congo State. (Hall, 88, note

193, § 26.*)

20. The effect of a change of Sovereignty upon public rights and

obligations. (Case of the Texan Bonds, Cases and Op., 18, and 20, n.; Opinion of Kent, 16., 21; Hall, 102-103 ;

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