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accepted. Here he showed how active was true love of the Lord and his Saviour. It was by no means sufficient for him only to perform the duties of his office in the manner laid down, that is in preaching, confession and instruction of children. For the benefit of the Erfurt students he delivered Practical Lectures daily on the Bible; established with the members of the Church, the habit of repeating his sermons at their homes; he ordered and distributed copies of the New Testament, Arndt's True Christianity, and other edifying works. As life was aroused, so was enmity also to the Gospel—the Catholic inhabitants secured an electoral decree from Mayence, which compelled Francke to leave the city after a most blessed activity of one year and three months. But now again, his place had been prepared for him by the Lord. On the same day that the order to leave Erfurt in two days' time reached him, an invitation also reached him, through his friend Spener, who had been transferred to Berlin, to visit the country of the Elector of Brandenburg, and soon thereafter a call as Professor to the University of Halle, which had just been orgaganized.
In this city, the godly loving energy of the dear man found, from the year 1692 onward, increasing with the passage of time, a suitable theatre for its manifold activity, and established an enduring monument of the
As preacher, professor, educator, foster father of the orphans, as director of the Missionary and Bible establishments, his active love opened up new methods of work in all these departments. Appointed preacher to the city of Glaucha, which is annexed to Halle, he entered upon a field that had lain completely uncultivated. Where now, on the Orphan House Place, the front of a row of buildings is seen, which he founded with the inscription, "They that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles,”—there stood then only the most miserable huts, with a Beer House and Dancing Saloon, (one of them with the sign of the
eagle), frequented by crowds of people absolutely rude and uncultivated. To these crowds he preached repentance and the Gospel according to his own views; there was no sermon in which there was not sufficient of the way of salvation to lead to its source, although it might be the only one heard. But in sermons the seed is rather sown than watered and nurtured, although these may also be attended to. For watering and nurturing there is the inexpressibly valuable institution of private confessional, wherever this may exist; at the confessional the general nature of the sermon is adapted to the individual conscience. Francke en ployed the confessional as the pulpit for the individual conscience, and with this end in view, as many seemed to remain away from the sacrament on account of the confessor's fees, he gave up this part of his small income in the spirit of sacrificing self-denial, after brief reflection. Another channel for conducting the water of life through a congregation, along with preaching, is instruction of the children. About the time of Spener this channel had become again obstructed. The clergy esteemed themselves too highly to become teachers of little ones. The child-like mind of Francke, on the contrary, took pleasure in the little ones. And, as experience had taught him how little was understood of the contents of sermons even by adults, he was driven to the use of catechetical instruction and catechetical examination in the family and church. Prayer meetings were established, at first in his own house, and then, in spite of opposition, in the church.
As Academical teacher, at first from 1692, Professor of the Greek and Oriental languages, and from 1698 Professor Ordinarius of Theology, he made it a main object, since theological science would only be properly understood through living faith, to employ it as a means with the view of awakening and furthering a life of faith through it and other means of salvation. He never considered the science as having its end in itself, but as a means for obtaining a still higher end—the proper incorporation of his hearers in Christ, and the greatest possible fitness for leading the people to Him. Thus, he added to his lectures, which were already adapted for practical awakening, “parenetic lections” with the still more definite object of showing what obstacles prevent young theologians from attaining success in Christianity and in their studies, and how such obstacles may
be removed." These exercises were held on Thursdays, from 10 to 11 o'clock, in the large hall of the Faculty, when there was no other theological lecture, so that all the theological students could take part: in them the sainted man with frankness animadverted upon all the defects and sins of student life, and from them, as he says himself, he lived to see more fruit than from all the rest.
That, however, which gave his name more reputation than all else, was his Orphan House. Like every thing that is done in the spirit of the Lord, it is at first as a grain of mustard seed, and grows up from a small beginning, so this great undertaking of Christian philanthropy. It was the habit of beggars on fixed days, to ask alms at different houses. The man of God was not satisfied with breaking to them bread for their bodily wants, and he began to catechise them, old and young. So great was the ignorance of the means of salvation which he found among them, that the idea occurred to him to establish a School for the Poor. In a box, publicly placed for the purpose, he collected small contributions, and when once four dollars and sixteen groschen had been secured, he courageously commenced his small School for the Poor, first in his own study. In less
space became too small; he noticed, with pain, that their domestic life' destroyed what the School had built up. The idea then occurred to him (1695), to take the entire charge of the education of some. A house was purchased for the Charity School; twelve orphan childrenhis first thought had been only four-were received into this house. The next year a new house was needed, and the children who attended the Charity School for instruction were separated, and for those who desired instruction in the higher branches a separate department was created, to which, in 1699, the orphans fitted for such instruction were also admitted. Thus the Gymnasium of the Orphan House--the so-called Latin School—was developed, which in 1709 was attended by two hundred and fifty-six scholars
, of which sixty-four were orphans. Both the houses employed being found inadequate for the increasing numbers, the foundation of the new building of the present Orphan House was laid in 1698. There was no capital, other than faith, upon which the construction of this new work could be based, as Francke himself writes: “From week to week, from month to month, the Lord has given me the crumbs for my necessities
, just as one crumbles up bread in small pieces." Many others, since his day, have wished to imitate him, and it happened with them as it is written of him who intended to build a tower, but could not finish it, so that the people mocked him. Empty thyself and I will fill thee, is the
first lesson for him whom God will make rich. Where humility renounces every dependence on self, there is nothing so great that the courage of faith cannot secure.
As one good thought and plan begets another, so inventive love cannot rest after the Lord has granted it so much. Other charitable institutions were soon added to the Orphan House. Four thousand dollars were intrusted to the founder of the Orphan House by a wealthy benefactor, for creating a foundation for pious unmarried women of the nobility, or the burghers. One of the taverns—the Corsair-of Glaucha, was purchased in 1704, and converted into a cloister devoted to this purpose. Further, in the year 1698 the pious Baron Canstein purchased a house for pious widows in Glaucha, and placed it under the superintendence of the Orphan House. Along with the institutions of instruction for orphans, the children of the poor and the burghers, a Pedagogium was next established for the wealthy and noble. This also had a small and unlooked for beginning; a noble widow lady having requested Francke to send her a pious private tutor, he offered to superintend the instruction of the children of Halle. The number of these scholars so increased under the direction of the distinguished teacher, that in 1713 a large separate building was erected for this Institution. In connection with the University a Collegium Catecheticum was created, to practise the students in the so much neglected art of catechisation with the scholars of the Orphan House, and a Collegium Orientale Theologicum, in which men should be educated for the higher offices of the Church by thorough training in the Greek, Hebrew, and Eastera languages. The more the Pedagogium flourished, the wish grew to possess such an Institution for the daughters of noble and wealthy families; and one was established in 1709 with the express design of leading these youthful souls to the Lord.
All these Institutions required aid of many young teachers, and as, when faith has once begun to devote all its powers to the Lord, one hand always helps the other, so Francke's academic activity was most beautifully furthered in that so many young students seized the opportunity to exercise their powers of teaching under his oversight, and that of congenial friends. In 1690 he established a free table for twenty-four students, who gave instruction in the schools, and as the number increased, the table was enlarged so much as even to accommodate some needy students who took no part in the business of instruction. Francke reports in 1714, " that one hundred and fifty theological students ate at the ordinary table in payment for two hours of daily teachings; and that arrangements were had for one hundred and forty-four poor students at the second table at noon, for whom no special work was done in payment of the same.”
In the year 1705 the number of orphan children had increased to one hundred and twenty-five, that of the children attending the school to eight hundred and four, and this steadily increased from that time on to the middle of the century. Those opposed even contributed to their increase; for an investigation of these educational Institutions, ordered by the chamber of Deputies of Magdeburg in 1700, gave an additional credit to them. In May, 1714, one thousand and seventy-five boys and seven hundred and sixty girls were instructed by one hundred and eight teachers. This increase made many other establishments necessary, designed for the special supply of the personal wants of the Orphan House, which gradually ac
quired considerable importance. This was especially the case with the Orphan House Apothecary Shop. Certain arcana, which were intrusted in chemical manuscripts by God-fearing people to the founder of the Orphan House, were prepared, after some fruitless efforts, and employed with extraordinary results. This was the case with the essentia amara and dulcis, the composition of which is still kept secret. Under the direction of that most devout and learned physician, C. F. Richter, who gave the profits of his labors, as well as his whole paternal inheritance to Franckekis spiritual father--this Apothecary Shop with its medicines acquired such a reputation, especially through the confidence reposed in it by the children of God, that its remedies were sought after and sent for from beyond the borders of Germany, even from America and Africa, and the income from the same in later times covered a large portion of the expenses of the Institution. Partly on account of the need experienced by the Schools and the numerous writings of Francke himself, an Orphan House Printing Press was established, which grew up se rapidly under that eminent servant of God, H. J. E. Elers, who gave all his income to the Orphan House, and was content to receive his food and clothing from it, that branches were established in other cities, in Stettin, Berlin, &c.
In less immediate connection with the Orphan House, although in fact fostered by it, there were two other great undertakings. There was established a Bible Institution for the distribution of cheap Bibles among
the poor, which idea was first originated with Baron von Canstein; established in company with Francke, and founded through the employment of the presses of the Orphan House, it was undertaken by Francke alone after Canstein's death in 1719. In consequence of printing with stereotype plates, they succeeded in furnishing copies of the New Testament to the poor for 2 gute groschen, and of the Bible from 10 to 12, and the work of love extended even beyond Germany; Bibles and Testaments were printed through the assistance of charitable Christians, in the Esthonian, Bohemian and Polish tongues for the Evangelical Christians of those countries, and for this constantly increasing enterprise a massive structure was erected in 1727, and a second in 1734. And similarly the Danish East India Missionary Institution, in an unlooked for manner, arose with the co-operation of Francke. This was founded through the piety of King Frederick IV. of Denmark, but missionaries went forth from the Halle Orphan House, supported by contributions from pious Christians in Germany, and Francke devoted his heart with special zeal also to this work of philanthropy. In the year 1705 the first candidates from Halle, Ziegenbalg and Plütschau, were ordained in Copenhagen for this mission, and a large number of most worthy men—for the most part from the Teacher College of the Pedagogium, -followed them down to the first decade of this century. Finally the American-German Church in the United States owes also its special foundation to the Halle Institutions, which relations were first established under the son of the sainted founder, who sent thither Pastors Mühlberg and Brunnholz in answer to the supplicating requests of the Germans deprived of spiritual guides, and afterwards others followed, supported by German liberality:
We must add to this extensive practical activity of the indefatigable laborer, his numerous writings, partly scholastic, and partly edifying, many of which, for example, his—"Directions for profitable perusal of the Bi. ble,"-have attained the widest circulation, and have been continually multiplied through the press of the Orphan House in repeated new editions, and finally his many distant journeys, during which his restless activity was as little at rest as when at home, and his extensive correspondence with all parts of the world on the most diverse business. It seems to have been too much for one human life, but his faithfulness shows us how God may cause us, “having all sufficiency in all things, to abound to every good work.” When one asked his friend Elers, who had taught him every thing, he gave answer, “My mother-love." Love was also Francke's school mistress. Without helping and supporting hands he could not have done so much, but that makes him so much more worthy of notice, because, wherever a great light is kindled in the love of the Lord, a number of smaller lights begin to burn around. His shining and burning light enkindled around him such spirits as Richter, Elers, Canstein, Neubauer, Freylinghausen and many others. When Frederick William the First examined the Orphan House in 1713, and was carried through the Bookstore and their warehouses, he was struck with astonishment, so that he asked Elers the question: "What he received for all this?” “Your majesty," answered Elers, “my food and clothing." The king then tapped Francke on the shoulder and said, “Now I understand how he accomplishes it: I have no such people.”
The end of a life so indefatigably devoted to the service of the Lord, arrived in the year 1727, when this faithful servant of God went to his Lord at an age of sixty-four years, after he had manifested his faith in the most edifying manner on the bed of sickness. The year of his death the Pedagogium numbered 82 scholars, the Latin school 400, the German Burgher school 1724, the Orphan House 134 orphans. Independent of the orphans there were fed from the treasury of the Orphan House 255 students and 360 poor scholars. In addition, there were 15 unmarried women on the Female-foundation, 8 in the Boarding House for young women, and 6 in the Widow's House. The magnificent, grand foundation still stands as a living sermon for the city of Halle; its departments still enjoy a widely extended reputation and large attendance. The Pedagogium numbers 100 scholars and 18 teachers, the Latin school 389 scholars and 24 teachers, the Industrial Real-School 378 scholars, the German school in the Preparatory Department for Seminarians 10 scholars and 8 teachers, the Burgher School for Boys 700 scholars with 35 teachers, the Higher Female School 130 scholars with 12 male and 4 female teachers, the Burgher School for Girls 490 scholars with 17 male and 6 female teachers, the Free School 680 Boys and Girls, the Orphan House 130 orphan children. It is related of the sainted founder, that he prayed the Lord in a child-like spirit, that the institution might always have at least one man, who should be a witness for saving faith; and so much is certain, that even during the reign of Rationalism this petition was granted, and the number of teachers who work therein at present in the faith and love of Christ, is not small.
It must be admitted, that the influence of such activity has extended out far beyond the boundaries of Halle, over all Germany. To all portions of the world the seeds of piety, sown by Francke and his co-laborers, have been carried by the scholars of the Orphan House, and by students of the University of Halle. The theological students of Halle have been in re