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sylvania, bills introduced, 1,065; passed, 221. In Ken- committee, prepared, as I learn, by Mr. McCready, tucky, bills introduced, 2,390; passed, 1,400. In Ten-brought to the attention of the Legislature the existnessee, bills introduced, 1,183; passed, 158. In Ne- euce of the evil common to all the States. It appeared braska, bills introduced, 631; passed, 128. In New that the bulk of the legislation of South Carolina durYork, bills iutroduced, 2,093; of which only 681 became ing the past four years has related to private or local laws. Total of bills ivtroduced in the above Stater, interests, and but a fragment of it (256 measures out 12,449; of bills passed, 3,793.

of an aggregate of nearly 900) to matters of general The disproportion between local or private and gen- publio concern. Acts of incorporation, grants of ineral statutes is greatest in those States which have not beritance, changes of names and releases from indebtby constitutional provisions required corporations to edness bad consumed a large proportion of the time of be formed under general laws. Thus in Virginia the the Legislature at a great public expense and to the sestatutes creating or regulating corporations, or amend- rious detriment of the State. Many of these private ing their charters, form a great part of the entire leg- acts are never availed of, and the report states that islation of the last session.

there are on the statute books of the State more than In Mississippi the member of the General Coun- a hundred railrod charters under which no railroads cil, after reporting a few instances of important legis. have ever been built. The consequence of thus overlation, says: “The remainder of the volume of the loading the legislative dockets with private bills, or Session Laws is devoted to local and special acts. bills for corporate franchises, is to crowd into the conRailroads and cities are incorporated, and schools, col- cluding days of each legislative session a volume of leges and building associations. The local and special busiuess which cannot be properly attended to, and legislation," he continues, “is a vice, and can ouly be the report declares, in terms wbich would apply to alprevented by a constitutional inhibition."

most all, it not quite all, of the States, that the LegisEven where constitutional restraints exist, this vice lature “cannot go on longer in the reckless soramble of special and local legislation is still a crying evil. It which has characterized the last days of our session." is safe to say, that after exoluding the bills making A bill was passed, not as far-reaching as tbat reprovisiou for the expense of carrying on the govern- ported by the committee, but containing serviceable ment, those which are intended to cure the mistakes provisions against hasty and ill-advised legislative acof former Legislatures, and those which promote pri- tion, vate or corporate interests, the residuum of measures If the example thus set by South Carolina were fol. passed by any State, as well as by Congress, really pub- lowed by other States a greatly needed reform would lic in their character, is very insignificant, not to say be set in motion. ludicrous, in the comparison.

A few intelligent, unselfish and fearless men of our The expense involved in reaching these results va- profession in each State Legislature, could by promotries in different State. In South Carolina, where the ing judicious enactments which would commend session is limited by & constitutional provision to themselves to all good citizens, very soon 80 reduce thirty days, the cost is reported by the secretary the volume of legislation as to relieve the statute books of State to be only 852,000. In Pensylvania, with 158 from a mass of unnecessary laws, and the people from days of session, the amount of expenditure is returned the burdeus they impose. as $686,500. In Illinois the last session of 171 days cost

Coming now to the details of the legislation of the $361,000. In Connecticut the last session of ninety year, instead of taking up the list of the States in their days cost $98,100, while a session of corresponding order, I propose to group the most noteworthy statlength in Colorado cost $180,000; and the general ex

utes according to their subject-matter, beginning with penses of the legislation of California are $130,000 for a those which relate to the oversight and proteotion of session of sixty days.. The cost of printing, travelling children; passing next to laws affecting women and and other incidental expenses must be added in order

the domestio relations; then to those which provide to form any accurate estimate of the burden imposed for the public health, safety and morals; to the staton the tax payers of the States to carry on this badly- utes relating

to labor, trade and corporate organizamanaged business of law making, which varies from a

tions; thus reaching the legislation which concerns daily average cost of about $1,000 per diem for every | legal rights and procedure, and finally that which relegislative session to over $4,000 per diem, making an

lates to general political regulation and the wider aggregate in the total number of States and in Con- | Punctions of government. gress which it is impossible to ascertaiu with exact

CARE AND PROTECTION OF CHILDREN. ness, but which cannot, I think, be less than $10,000,- The care, protection and training of children are 110000__not as an exceptional outlay, but as the price paid ticeable features of the legislation of several of the for current legislation.

States. With a single exception, nothing seems to have been Connecticut has prohibited the employment of chilattempted in any state to cure or check this univer-dren under thirteen years of age in factories; has prosally admitted mischief. To the inquiry put by me to vided for discrimination in the disposition to be made the secretaries of State, “Is there any provision for by committing magistrates of dependent or neglected supervision or revision of bills except by committees children, so as not to subject innocent children to comof the Legislature?" the invariable answer has been mitment to places of coufiuement for offenders against "No."

the law or for the vagrant and vioious classes; and by I have not referred to, nor have I been able to dis- special statutes prohibits the playing of games in pool cover any statute passed during the year looking to re- or billiard rooms by minors under sixteen years of age, form in legislative methods, save the one already re- or their loitering in or about such rooms. ferred to as exceptional, that of South Carolina, which Georgia authorizes the boards of education or other I take pleasure in roporting, because its passage was

school authorities to maintain as als annex a departlargely promoted by one of our number, Mr. Mc- ment of industrial education for teaching the use of Cready, the member of the General Counoil from that tools for working in wood and metal; a serviceable State.

supplement to the ordinary courses of instruction, as The Legislature of South Carolina at its last session was well shown by the industrial exhibition held in the confided to a joint committee of both its houses the city of New York during the last spring, in which the consideration of the possible reduction and limitation results of the mechanical work of children in the pubof the number of subjects of legislation and of expe- lic schools of the city and its vicinity called forth dediting the legislative business. The able report of this served popular interest and approbation,

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Both Massachusetts and New Hampshire prohibit by fine-in the former State of $50 and in the latter State of $20--the selling of cigarettes or of tobacco in any form to minors under sixteen years of age, and in Massachusetts the gift by any person, except the parents or guardian of such minor, of the prohibited articles, subjects the donor to the same penalty as in case of sale. New Hampshire, after thus guarding against mischief to the pbysical organs of her citizens of tender age, shows even more solicitude for their external well-being by prohibiting under tine of $25 the putting up or maintaining on any land adjacent to school lots of any barbed wire fences, a humane provision which the youth of New Hampshire would probably be willing to have extended to all the orchards and melonpatches in the State. A further statute of New Hampshire prohibits, under penalty of fine and imprisonment, the hiring, using or permitting any minor to sell or give away books, magazines or newspapers devoted to the publication or illustration of stories of bloodshed, lust or crime, or principally made up of police or criminal news, a regulation, which if put in force in the city of New York, would soon relegate the newsboy to the lost tribes.

New Jersey, by heavy penalties, probibits the apprenticiug, employing, letting out or disposing of children under twelve years of age for singing, playing on musical instruments or any other like calling to be followed in the streets and highways.

Maryland has also enacted a "cigarette" statute similar to that of Massachusetts.

Ohio has enacted a stringent law for the prevention of cruelty to childrenjuuder sixteen years of age, or their neglect or abuse by pareuts or guardians. Another statute of the same State, entitled “An act to provide agaiust the adulteratiou of candy," and levelled with special severity against terra alba and other deleterious substances, wbile not in terms intended for the protection of children, may properly be classed among the most benign instances of preventive legislation in their behalf, while Maryland extends the prohibition as to adulteration to cakes as well as candy.

South Carolina and Maryland, by acts to suppress the publication and circulation of obscene books, papers and pictures, and the posting of indecent show bills, provide special legislation to prevent their corrupting influence on children and young persons.

Michigan, by an act regulating the employment of children, young persons and women, forbids factory employment as to children under ten years of age, and extends the prohibition to children under fourteen years of age unless they have attended school for at least four of the twelve months preceding the month of employment. It also requires the provision of seats for female employees in factories, work-shops, warebouses, stores and botels when not necessarily engaged in active duties.

By another act reformatory schools are established for juvenile disorderly persons, among whom are classed babitual truants from any school in which they are enrolled as pupils; children, who while attending any public school, are habitually and incorrigibly disobedient, and vicious and vagrant children. The act provides for due notice to parents or guardiaus before the enforcement of the law.

In New York the “Child-labor bill," so called, contaius kindred provisions to protect children from being over-worked.

divorce where the libellant has removed into the Com. monwealth for the purpose of obtaining a decree of divorce, within five years prior to the filing of the libel.

New Jersey extends the jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery to cases of absolute divorce where the cause of action arose out of the State, provided the complainant or defendant was or shall have been a resident of the State for three years next preceding the time of filing the bill.

Maryland requires a residence in the State by the applicant for two years precedingian application for di. vorce.

By chapter 150 of the Laws of Massachusetts of 1886 women are declared eligible to serve as overseers of the poor.

New York permits women to vote at school meetings.

Connecticut provides that no person shall be married until one of the parties shall under oath inform the registrar of the town of the name, age, color, occupation, birthplace, residence and condition, as to being single, widowed or divorced, of each contracting party.

Maryland requires parties contracting marriage to procure a license, or the publication of bans, as a prerequisite of the validity of the marriage.

South Carolina has adopted the rule prevailing in other States, that on the death of a married woman intestate her husband shall be entitled to the same share of her estate as is given by law to the widow out of the estate of her husband.

A statute of Mississippi adds to the catalogue of pun. ishable crimes and misdemeanors the teaching of polygamy, the inducing of any person to enibrace it, and the emigrating to other States or Territories for the purpose of embracing it.

By another statute of Mississippi husband and wife are made competent witnesses against each other in all controversies between them. This law would possibly be more satisfactory to the gentler sex if it contained a provision securing to the wife on the witness stand the last word; but it is in the line of the legislative policy of Mississippi, a State which, as our esteemed member of its General Council remarks, has made a complete removal of the common-law disabilities of married women, the Code of 1880 providing that as “to contracts and property she shall be as if she was not married;" the marriage contract itself, we must suppose, is excepted by implication.

PUBLIC HEALTH AND SAFETY. In legislation intended to protect the public health and safety, numerous laws appear on the State statute books of this year, establishing rules which are be. coming quite common as subjects of statutory police regulation.

In Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio and Virginia the sale of morphine or any of its salts is prohibited, unless in scarlet wrapping with prescribed label; while in New Jersey a general law regulating the prace tice of pharmacy includes similar and more comprebeusive regulations. Pharmacy and the practice of medicine are also made the subject of special statutes in Virginia and Michigan; while in Georgia, the regulations of a liko statute are extended to practitioners of dentistry.

In Iowa, careful provisions for the inspection of mines by qualified officials, to insure proper ventilation and safeguards against accident by explosioni, are embodied in a statute intended for the safety and protection of persons employed in the hazardous labor of mining.

Ohio, by an amendatory act, makes most minute and stringent regulations for safety apparatus and

WOMEN AND THE DOMESTIC RELATIONS. Noteworthy legislation concerning women and the domestic relations is comprised in a few enactments.

Massachusetts, by an amendment of the law relating to divorce suits, prohibits the filing of a libel for

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other precautions in the conduct of mining opera- of the traffic in intoxicating liquors. All of them contions.

our in the necessity of more rigorous measures of regIu New Jersey, statutes have been passed to regu. ulation, but none of them coincide in the methods of late the manufacture and sale of dynamite and other regulation. Public opinion on this subject is nowhere explosives. The distance of 1,000 feet from any pub- more clearly reflected than in the widely varying enlio road is prescribed as the limit within which it is actments by which the police power is brought to bear forbidden for the future to store or keep such explo- with differing degrees of force upon this ever.present sives, except in fire-proof magazines, and in quantity evil. not exceeding 2,000 pounds; and the carriage of giant In the legislation on this subject, which finds a place powder, dynamite and nitro-glycerine on any railroad in the statute books, some of the acts indicate a seltrain carrying passengers is absolutely prohibited as a tled policy of prohibition, while others are merely tenmisdemeanor.

tative. A statute of Michigan makes the keeping of the In Iowa, the existing prohibitory law, one of the same explosives for unlawful purposes a felony. New most sweeping in its provisions of any which has been Hampshire has passed a similar act.

enacted, is strengthened and made more stringent by That portion of the travelling public in the State of an amendatory statute specially intended to make the Mississippi who are not smokers is protected by a law more certain of enforcement in the prevention of statute providing that the payment of first-class fares the illegal shipment or carriage of intoxicating liquors, shall be furnished with first-class passage, which is de- and in the detection and punishment of contrivances fined to be in “any suitable car in which smoking is for evading its provisions. not allowed.”

In Georgia and Mississippi the prohibition sentiAutomatic car coupling is made obligatory by a ment manifests itself in the enactment of “local statute of Michigan, which requires that provision option' laws authorizing the determination of the shall be made by all railroad corporations to couple question of prohibition by the popular suffrage. In and uncouple all cars without the necessity of the the latter State the submission of the question to the brakeman or any other person passing between the people is to be on the petition of one-tenth of the

qualified voters, at an election not to be held within A like particular instance of statutory care for rail- sixty days of any general election, and if a majority of road employees, is the act of Massachusetts requiring the votes cast shall be against the sale, it shall be unevery railroad company, before January 1, 1887, to ad- lawful “to sell, barter or give away, or to induce trade just, fill or block the frogs, switches and guard-rails at any place of business, or furnish at any public place on its track, with the exception of guard-rails on any intoxicating liquors;” if the vote shall be in favor bridges, so as to prevent the feet of its omployees be- of a sale, a license to retail may be granted by the ing caught therein.

proper authorities under prescribed conditions. A statute of the same State requires that in every The manufacture and sale of domestic wines and manufacturing establishment, where steam machinery cider are permitted; also the sale of alcohol for is used, meaus of commuuication by speaking tubes, medicinal or scientific purposes, and physicians electric bells or other means of communication be- may dispense intoxicants for the use of their patween each room where the machinery is placed and tients. the room where the engineer is stationed shall be pro- Mr. Reynolds, the member of our General Council vided; and by another act, all accidents in such estab- in Mississippi, reports that in the counties in the State lishments causing death or bodily irrjury to an em- which bave voted under the law, those where the ployee while at work must be reported within four whites are in the majority vote for prohibition. This, days to the police authorities,

he remarks, is a “noteworthy change," not in the

"statute law," but in the tone and morals of the peoute to post on bulletins, at every station, the time that passonger trains are delayed beyond half an sides this general local option law, as if the legislator hour, and the wreckiug of railroad trains is made a was unwilliug to trust bis constituency on the quesfelony.

tion, there are a number of acts prohibiting the sale In Michigan, an act to protect all citizens in their in certain localities and under severe pains and pencivil rights requires full and equal accommodations, alties; all contain the saving clause, that physicians facilities and privileges for all citizens alike, of every may dispense the article for the use of their patients. race and color, in public conveyances, inns, restau- How many patients have been beuefited we are not rants, barber shops and places of accommodation or able to note, but venture the opinion that the artiamusement.

cle is freely dispensed and the patients numerous.' PUBLIO MORALS.

In Maryland, local option is provided for in respect Under this head the legislation of the several States to several couuties and local municipalities, and in exhibits a growing disposition to adopt regulatious for other places regulated by special act. A statute on the correction of prevalent social evils.

this subject, relating to Anne Arundel county, recites Some of these have already been mentioned as relat- in its preamble that doubt and uncertainty exist in ing specially to the oversight of children. Laws against the minds of a large portion of the voter whether the circulation of obscene literature have been enacted

local option, as existing in that county, produces in Connecticut, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, beneficial results, and a new election is therefore orNew Hampshire and South Carolina. Statutes against

dered. gaming, gaming-houses and instruments form a part Nowhere is the struggle between experimental legof the enactments of Connecticut, Georgia and Ken- islation against the evils of intemperance and the irtucky. In the last named State the setting up of any

repressible vigor of those who promote the traffic in keno or faro bank, or couducting, for hire or compen- intoxicating liquors more active than in the State of satiou, any game of cards, for money,

is made pun.

Ohio. The Constitution of 1851 prohibited the grantishable by fine or imprisonment, and the offender is ing of any license to traffic in intoxicating liquors, but to be deemed infamous, after conviction, and be dis- authorized the Legislature to provide against evils requalified from exercising the right of suffrage or hold- sultivg from the traffic. This was prohibitory against irg office.

licensing the trade, but permissive as to its existence, Several of the States in which legislative sessions

and the Legislature and the courts of Ohio have ever have been held this year have dealt with the subject since been wrestling with the problem how to regulato

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the traffic without, by implication, licensing it. Con- Legislation ou labor of a more practical character is flicting opinions of judges and coutradictory decisions found in a statute of Massachusetts, providing for the of the courts have led to varying legislative enact- weekly paymeut of wages by corporations; another of ments, resulting at the last session, in the passage of a Rhode Island, requiring a like uotice of intention ou law levying a direct tax on the proceeds of sales of the part of an employer to discbarge an employee, as liquor, to defeat which, as a last resort, its opponents the employer quires of the employee in respect to an in the Senate absented themselves from the balls of intention to quit work, as a condition in either case legislation and left the body of which they were mem- of forfeiture of wages. The intermeddling by strikers bers without a quorum. The act was however passed with other laborers is probibited in New Hampshire and approved and has been upheld by a recent decis- by a very stringent law, and to the catalogue of offenion of the Supreme Court of Ohio.

ses is added the speaking of offensive or derisive words Rhode Island, by an act for the suppression of in- addressed to any person passing along any street to, temperance, which took effect on the 1st day of July, from or about his lawful business or oocupation, or 1886, prohibits, in the most sweeping terms, the manu- "the making any noise or exclamation in the presence facture or sale, except for artistic, mechanical or or hearing of such person, so passing, with intent to medicinal purposes, and then under stringent regu. deride, offend or annoy such person, or to prevent lations, of all intoxicating liquors, including malt him from pursuing and engaging in his lawful busiliquors.

Kindred in their nature to the laws aimed at the vice of intemperance, and very significant as indicating an enlightened public sentiment as to the best

In the subjects with which legislation in respect to methods of its gradual repression, are the provisions

trade has occupied itself, oleomargarine outranks the in the statutes of Convecticut and Iowa, requiring

rest. It has given a new word to our vocabulary, a that instruction in physiology and hygiene, relating problem of constitutional law to the courts, while to

new term to the nomenclature of science, and a new specially to the effects on the human system of alcoholic liquors, shall be taught as branches of study in the

the legislators of our agricultural States it has, in the public schools, whose teachers must be examined

sphere of statutory regulation, opened “fresh fields as to their qualifications to give such instruction.

aud pastures new.” It is certainly a pleasing indica

tion of our national prosperity, that while in so many Congress has also provided, by a similar act, that

old-world communities the scanty supply of bread is the same special instruction shall be included in the

not infrequently a source of distress and disturbance, brauches of study in the common and public schools in the Territories and in the District of Columbia and

the only question concerning the staff of life which in the military and waval schools, and taught by the

disquiets the American citizen is how to prevent bis

bread and butter from becoming surreptitiously conuse of text-books as thoroughly and in the same man

verted into bread and oleomargarine. And it is esper as other like required branches are taught in such schools. After January 1, 1888, no certificate to teach

pecially gratifying in this period of crimination and

recrimination as to the sincerity of our political parin the public schools shall be granted to any person

ties and partisans in the matter of reform in governwho has not passed a satisfactory examination in phys. ment and its administration, and in the midst of coniology and hygiene with special reference to the na

stantly recurring instances of malfeasance and corrupture and effects of alcoholic drinks aud other narcotics

tion in public officials, to note the spontaneous zeal of upon the human system,

our political leaders and legislators, without distinc-
tion of party, in the interestlof pure butter!

New York, after passing, in 1884, an act which the
Labor legislation has received a new impulse from

Court of Appeals condemned as unconstitutional, bethe disturbances in railroad and other industries, set on foot and maintained during the past months by

cause so sweepiug in its provisions as to be in restraint

of lawful trade and industry by prohibiting the sale organizations ostensibly in the interest of the working

of any article, even by its true name, which might be people, but in their practical effects at war with the

used as a substitute for butter, corrected its error at good order of society. The lawlessness and violence

the last session and evacted a statute which probibits, which were the sequel if not the fruit of the labor agi

under heavy penalties, the sale, under the name of tation and of the strikes, found their limit when they

butter and cheese, of any substance or article not the sought to assert a tyranny, foreign to our soil and our

product of unadulterated milk or cream. ideas, and when they came into conflict with the penal

Ohio, by an act of seventeen sections, to prevent law and the supremacy of justice. But public opin

adulteration and deception in the sale of dairy proion, which is sufficieutly self-asserting and sufficiently

ducts, amendatory of and supplementary to former discriminating when great wrong, a great peril, or a

legislation on the same subject, seems to have surgreat crime are suddenly in sight, while swift to stamp

rounded her dairies with a cordon of regulations inout the first venomous uprising of anarchy, was also

tended not ouly to protect the most innocent of her not slow to discern whatever of justice and reason

citizens against spurious butter and cheese, but even there might be in some of the demands of labor, how.

the worst criminal in the State, as section 14 provides ever badly championed. Hence arose a body of state

that no butter or cheese not made wholly from pure ute law which, like Jonah's gourd, grew up in a night.

milk or cream and harmless coloring matter shall be Statutes of Connecticut, Iowa, Kansas, New York and

used in any of the charitable or penal institutions of of Congress provide for tribunals of arbitration to

the State. Cows are put on a higher plane of protecsettle disputes between the employer and employed,

tion and security than many boarding-bouse lodgers jurisdiction depending of course upon the voluntary action of both parties, a method ukuowu and alien

by a section making it an offense punishable by fine or

imprisonment, or both, “to feed cows on unhealthy to the common law, and little noteworthy except as a

food." A further provision requires every person new illustration at once of the Anglo-Saxon passion

dealing in any substance resembling butter or cheese, for remedial legislation as a panacea for evils which

and not made of the permitted ingredients, to keep in can best work their own extinction, and of the truth

a conspicuous place a card, not less than eight by ten conveyed in Goldsmith's philosophic couplet

inches in size, on which shall be printed in plain, bold “ How small, of all that human hearts endure, black letters, pot less in size than eight-line pica, the That part which laws or kings can cause or cure." true name of such substance, and also the words "im


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itation butter," or "imitation cheese, sold here," and is the work of some injured statesman who has fallen and when butter or cheese is asked for the placarded a victim to the arts of an enterprising tree agent. But substance shall not be sold or furnished.

if this be so, he found a sympathizer in the LegislaMaryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey and Iowa ture of New Jersey, which has just passed a similar have passed acts in the same direction dissimilar in statute to protect persons in buying fruit trees and their terms from each other and from the New York fruit briers, by which any misrepresentation of the and Ohio statutes. In fact this recent oleomargarine name or nature of fruit trees or briers is made a mislegislation, called for by an exigency arising in part demeanor, punishable by a fine not exceeding $100 from the inventive fertility of our scientific age and imprisonment in the county jail not exceedand in part from the ineradicable passion of our ing three months, or both, at the discretion of the fallen human nature to palm off as a genuine article court. its cunningly devised counterfeit, presents a striking Statutes of this kind will find adyocates for their illustration of the diversified methods of our State enactment in many States of the Union, especially legislatures, which while aiming at a single, well-as- among suburban proprietors who on their change certained and conspicuous mischief, which could from city pavements to green fields too often fall an easily have been dealt with in every State by statutes easy prey to the wiles of the horticultural agent, who almost identical in their terms and provisions, instead possesses the immense advantage of trading in an unof seeking for similar forms of enactment, struck out known tongue, and candignify the sale of a few shoots at it wildly, and in some instances blindly, but with a of that vulgar creeper and the Dutchman's pipe into a kind of consentaneous vigor quite remarkable in de- transaction in Sipho Aristolochia. liberative bodies. Iu Congress, the House of Representatives passed an

CORPORATIONS. act imposing special license taxes on manufacturers of Under this head a noteworthy statute of New oleomargarine and levying a direct tax of five cents Hampshire prohibits all corporations not created by per pound upon the article; the amount of tax was re- the laws of the State from entering into any compact duced by the Senate to two cents a pound, and the for regulating rates of insurance, and provides that in bill thus amended and providing that all packages con- all cases of total loss by fire, the amount of damage retaining the article shall be stamped and branded, re- coverable by the insured shall be the amount expressed ceived the approval of the executive, after some in the policy. hesitation, accompanied by suggestions of doubt This statute is described by the member of our Genas to the constitutionality ef certain provisions of the eral Council for New Hampshire as the “famous act," aot.

on account of which the foreign insurance companies State legislation stopped at the poivt of protecting left the State. It proved as effectunl an act of expulthe public against being imposed upon by sham butter sion for all the leading foreign companies as that by and cheese. Oleomargarine and its compounds were which the Orleans Princes were driven out of France. left to stand or fall on their own demerits when dealt Fifty-eight of these corporations, representing an agin under their owu names. Congress, under its dele

gregate capital of $120,000,000, withdrew from the gated power, levies a direct tax on the traffio in the State, leaving the insurable property within its boundarticles theinselves, and thus the offending substance aries with no means of protection against fire except comes, in any event, under the pains and penalties of the policies of home companies, having altogether a the law. As an imitation it is prohibited, and as a capital of only $2,000,000, and those of a class of foreign genuine article it is taxed, a case in which the double companies designated by the insurance commissioner dealiug is almost as conspicuous in the remedy as in of New Hampshire in terms doubtless sufficiently inthe mischief.

telligible in the vernacular of insurance as “irrespon-
Other uoteworthy instances of legislation affecting | sible buzzards and wild cats ranging through the State
trade and commerce, are statutes of New Hampshire on a hunt for premiums." Other acts impose strin-
regulating the sale of veal; of Iowa, probibiting traffic gent regulations on foreign surety companies and
in diseased hogs; of Ohio, to prevent deception in agents and officers of local companies. It has been a
dealings in grain; of Michigan, to guard against the bad year for corporations in New Hampshire. Foreign
adulteration of honey,and of the same State requiring insurance companies are also placed under special dis-
the inspection of fertilizers and regulating their sale, abilities by a statute of Iowa.
and like statutes of Maryland and Kentucky. The Michigan, by an act passed over the governor's veto,
last-uamed State imposes a heavy license fee on ven- provides for minority representation in boards of di-
ders of lightning-rods, and the inhabitants of the rectors of corporations by cumulative voting, each
rural districts of Kentucky will have the satislaction stockholder being authorized to vote for as many di-
of knowing that their premises cannot be lawfully in- rectors as be holds shares of stock, multiplied by the
vaded by the lightning-rod man until a payment of number of directors, and to distribute his votes on
$250 into the State treasury has first been made. the same principle among as many candidates as he

A statute of Maryland, beneficent in its intention as shall see fit. This mode of securing minority repre-
to the publio but somewhat invidious in its applica-sentation the Legislature of New York made appli-
tion, is entitled “An act to prevent incompetent per- cable to municipal elections in the city of New York
song from conducting the busineg of plumbing in the by a bill, which after passing both houses, failed to
city of Baltimore,' and confines the practice of that receive the executive approval.
useful industry to skilled persons to be licensed after Telegraph companies are made liable by a statute of
examination by a “State board of commissioners of Mississippi to fine in addition to damages recoverable
practical plumbing."

by law, for failing to transmit and deliver messages
Kansas punishes as a misdemeanor, and by fine and within a reasonable time and without reasonable ex-
treble damages, any person who shall misrepresent,
deceive or defraud any other person in the sale of any By a statute of Massachusetts, corporations employ-
fruit, shade or ornamental tree, vine, shrub, plant, ing labor are authorized to issue special stock, to be
bulb or root, by substituting inferior or different va- beld only by their employees, at the par value of $10
rieties, or who shall falsely represent the name, age or per sbare, to be paid for in monthly installments of $1
class of any such natural object.

on each share and to be entitled to dividends, when Our esteemed member of the General Council in declared, in the proportion which the par value of Kansas suggests to me in reporting this statute that it such special shares bears to the par value of the general

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