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P. 454. For I will fetch thy rym out of thy throat In drops of crimson blood-] Rym, I am told, is a part in the throat. Was a monofyllable wanted in the room of it, I would offer rbeum, and then the expreffion, in Piftol diction, would mean no more than, I will make thee Spit blood. Mr. STEEVENS.

P. 454. French Soldier. Eft il impoffible d'efchapper la force de ton bras.

Pittol. Brafs, cur?] Either Shakespeare had very little knowledge in the French language, or his over-fondness for punning led him in this place, contrary to his judgment, into an error, Almost any one knows that the French word bras is pronounced brau; and what refemblance of found does this bear to brass, that Piñol fhould reply, Brafs, cur? The joke may appear to a reader, but would fcarce be difcovered in the performance of the play. Mr. HAWKINS. If the pronunciation of the French language be not changed ince Shakespeare's time, which

P. 4. With you mine alderliefeft fovereign.] Alderliefeft, molt dear.

Adi levift in Chaucer.

is not unlikely, it may be fufpected fome other man wrote the French scenes.

Mine aldirlevift lorde, and "brothir dere." Troilus and Creffeide, lib. iii. 240. Dr. GRAY, P. 39. A cup of charneco.]

P. 465- -his payment into plows.] The Revifal reads, very reasonably, in two plows. P. 476. Like prifoners wildly

overgrown with hair.] The. incongruity of the comparison I continue to cenfure, but the expreffion, wildly overgrown with hair, is juftifiable; the hair may be wild, though the prisoner be confined.

P. 505. I'll canvass thee in

the broad cardinal's hat.] This means, I believe, I'll tumble thee into thy great hat, and fake thee as bran and meal are haken in a fieve. P. 5c8. The English Went through a fecret grate of iron bars,


In yonder tower, to overpeér

the city.] That is, the English went, not through a secret grate, but went to overpeer the city through a fecret grate which is in yonder tower. ` I did not know till of late that this paffage had been thought difficult.

The vulgar name for this liquor was charingo. I meet with it in an old catch fet to mufic by Lawes. Mr. HAWKINS. P. 39. Darraign your battle-] But flint I woll of Thefeus

alite, "And fpeke of Palamon, and "of Arcite,


Kk 3

"The day approacheth of ther returning,



"That everich fhould a hun"dred knights bring, "The battaile to darrein, as I Chaucer. you told." Skelton ufes the word in the fame fenfe. Speaking of the duke of dbany, Works, p. 83. Thou durit not felde derayne,


"Nor a battayle mayntaine, With our ftronge Captayne. "For you ran home agayne." D. GRAY. P. 107. Ay. Clifford, be lam, and ambitious humour, Makes him o fofe kimflf against

the king] The word bed lam not ufed in the reign of king Henry VI. nor was Bethlehem bpiral (vulgarly called Bedlam) converted into a houfe, or hofpital. for lunat c's, till the reign of king Henry VIII. who gave it to the city of London for that purpose. Dr. GRAY.

P. 143. Is by the fern rd Clifford done to death.] Done to death, for killed, was a common expreffion long before Shakefieare's time.

Thus Chaucer

P. 151. To make this fhameless callat know herfeif.] ShakeSpeare ules the word callat likewife in the Winter's Tale, a&t ij. (c. iii. Leonatus of Paulina. " A'cal"lat

"Of boundless tongue, who "late hath beat

"Her husband, and now beats



me." Callat, a lewd woman, a drab, perhaps fo called from the French calete, which was a fort of headdrefs, worn by country girls. See Glossary to Urry's Chaucer. "A cold old knave cuckolde "himself winyng,

P. 107. Bears.] The Nevils, earls of Warwick, had a bear and ragged flaff for their nifance; but the Tulkots, who were formerly earls of Sal foury, had a lion, and the prefent earl of Talbor, a defendant of that family, has the fame. Collins's Peerage. Mr. HWKINS. P. 128. In the note, for tier, read tirer.




"And of calot of lewd demenyng." Chaucer's Prologue to the Remedy of Love, 308.

So Skelton, in his Elinour Rumming, works, p. 133. "Then Elinour faid, ye cal "lettes,

"I fhall break your palettes." And again, p. 136,



She was a cumlye callet." Gammar. Vengeance on "thole callets, whofe confcience fo large," Gammar Gur ton's Needle, act iii, fc. i. Ola Plays, published 1744, vol. i. p. 154.

"A cart for a caller." Id. ib. Why the callet you told me of here,



"I have tane difguis'd." Pen Johnson's Veljone, act iv, fc. ii. Dr. GRAY. P. 204.-Meed.] This word fignifies merit, both as a verb and fubitentive; that it is ufed as a verb is clear from the following foolish couplet, which I re

"And feide, that if ye done member to have read.

66 us both to dier."

Deem if I meed
Dear madam Read.


A fpecimen of verfes that read the fame backward and forward. Mr. HAWKINS. P. 253. Queen Margaret to the marquis of Dorfet.

Q Marg. Peace, mafter mar
quis, you are malapert ;
Your fire-new ftamp of honour

is fearce current.] ShakeSpeare may either allude to the late creation of the marquis of Dorfet, or to the inftitution of the title of marquis here in England, as a fpecial dignity; which was no older than Richard II. Robert Vere, earl of Oxford, was the first, who, as a diftin&t dig. nity, received the title of marguis, ft December, anno Ricardi Secundi. See Ashmole's Hiftory of the Order of the Garter, p. 456.


P. 320. Because that like a jack thou keep the ftroke between thy begging and my meditation.] An image like thofe at St., Dunfan's church in Fleet-ftreet, and at the market-houfes of feveral towns in this kingdom, was ufually called a jack of the clockboufe. See Cowleys Difcourfe on the Government of Oliver Cromwel. Richard resembles Buckingham to one of these automatons, and bids him not fufpend the stroke on the clock bed, but ftrike, that the hour may be paft, and himfelf be at liberty to pursue his meditations, Mr. HAWKINS. P. 324. Puefellow is a word yet in ufe. Mr. HAWKINS. P. 331. demife.] I think it fhould be devife; but not in the fenfe you fuppofe. Devife, as a mode of conveyance, is appropriated to wills, but take it as a fynonime, to imagine, contrive, or

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P. 335. Whom now two tender bedfellows.] Read rather, too tender. REVISAL. P. 356. Sound drums and trumpets, boldly, chearfully, God, and St. George, &c.] St. George was the common cry of the English foldiers, when they charged the enemy. The author of the old Arte of Warre, cited above, printed in the latter end of queen Elizabeth's reign, formally enjoins the use of this cry among his military laws. ,84. Item, that all fouldiers entring into battaile, affault, “skirmish, or other faction of armes, fhall have for their, common cry and word, St. George, St. George, forward, or upon them, St. George, "whereby the fouldier is much "comforted, and the enemy "difmaid by calling to minde "the antient valour of England, "which with that name has fo " often been victorious: and





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invent, and it fuggefts a new idea, and fuch a one as the text feems to warrant.

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therefore, he that upon any "finifter zeale, fball maliciously "omit fo fortunate a name, fhall "be feverely punished for his ob"ftinate erroneous heart, and perverfe mind." P. 47. Mr. WARTON.

P. 357. This and St. George to boot, is to help;] As I conceive not over and above.

Mr. HAWKINS. P. 368. The life and death of king Kichard the Third.] The oldest known edition of this tragedy is printed for Andrew Wife, 1597: but Harrington, in his K k 4 Apo

Apologie of Poetrie, written 1590, and prefixed to the tranflation of Ariofio, fays, that a tragedy of Richard the Third had been acted at Cambridge. His words are, "For tragedies, to omit other famous tragedies, that which was played at St. John's in Cambridge, of Richard the "Third, wou'd move, I think, "Phalaris the tyrant, and ter"rifie all tyrannous minded


men, &c." He most probably means Shakespeare's; and if fo, we may argue, that there is fome more antient edition of this play than what I have mentioned; at leaft this fhews us how early Shakespeare's play appear ed: or if fome other Richard the

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NOTES to the


.P. 18. For the plague of cuftom, we may read by a very eafy change, the place of cuftom. The place which cuftom, and only cuftom, not nature, has allotted, J. SIMPSON, Efq; P. 18. Thou, nature, art my goddefs;] Dr. Warburton (for the fake of introducing an oftentatious note) fays, that Shakespeare has made his baftard an Atheift; when it is very plain that Edmund only speaks of nature in oppofition to cuftem, and not (as he fuppofes) to the exiftence of a God.

Mr. STEEVENS. P. 41. Like an engine wren b'd my frame of nature.] Mr. Edawards conjectures that an engine is the rack, He is right. To

Third is here alluded to by Har rington, that a play on this fubject preceded our author's. Mr. WARTON. P. 386. I am the fhadow, &c.] There may another explana tion be given fomewhat harsh, but the beft that occurs to me, I am the shadow of poor Buckingham, whofe figure even this inftant it puts on, whofe port and dignity is affumed by this cardi nal that overclouds and oppreffes me, and who gains my place, by darkening my clear fun.

P. 421. Sennet was an inftrument of mufick, as appears from other places of this authour, but of what kind I know not.

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been informed (as it should feem) of the exprefs number without, What! fifty of my followers at a clap? This renders all change needlefs, and away, away, being reftored, prevents the repetition of go, go, my people; which, as the text now ftands, concludes both that and the foregoing fpeech. Goneril with great art avoids to mention the limited number, and leaves him to be informed of it by accident, which the knew would be the cafe as foon as he left her prefence. Mr. STEEVENS. P. 6z. He wears cruel garters.] I believe a quibble was here intended. Crewel fignifies worsted, of which ftockings, garters, night caps,&c. are made, and is ufed in that fenfe in Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornful Lady, act ii.

For who that had but half
"his wits about him,
"Would, commit the counfel
" of a serious fin

"To fuch a crewel night-cap."
P. 92.
Mice and rats and fuch
jmall deare

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Have been my food for Seven long year-Warburton, inftead of deare, proposes geare; but I have discovered that thefe two lines are taken from an old black letter'd romance of St. Beyʊys of Hampton, 4to. printed for William Copland, in which occurs this paffage, ftated within ratts, &c. Mr. PERCY. P. 102. By the kind Gods.-] Dr. Warburton is of opinion that Shakespeare, by the kind Gods, means the dii hofpitales. I agree with him, that the Poet "never

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"makes his people fwear at ran, "dom," nor has he done fo here; though I cannot believe he received any affiftance from mythology, to furnish out a proper oath for Glofter. People al ways addrefs the Gods as they would have them fhew themfelves at that time in their favour; and he accordingly calls thofe kind Gods, whom he would wish to find fo in this inftance. Our own liturgy will fufficiently evince the truth of this fuppofition. Mr, STEEVENS. As flies to wanton boys, are we to th' Gods; may not be unentertaining to the They kill us for their sport.-] It reader to have an opportunity of feeing how differently this idea. has been expreffed by three great poets of different ages.

P, 110,

Dii nos quafi pilas homines habent.

Plaut. Captiv. Prol. L. 22.
Ludit in humanis divina poten-
tia rebus.
Ovid. Lib. de Ponto Eleg. 3.


Mr. STEEVENS. P. 122. Therefore I do advise you take this note

My lord is dead; Edmund and
I have talk'd,

And more convenient is he for
my band,

Than for your lady's; you may
gather more.

If you do find him, pray you give
him this;

And when your mifirefs bears
thus much from you,
I pray defire ber call her axif-

by a word's being left out, and a
dom to her.] This paffage,
word misplaced, and a full ftop
put where there should be but a

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