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sident of the United States, to the senate, shall be by the members thereof kept secret; and all treaties which may be laid before the senate shall also be kept secret, until the senate shall, by their resolution, take off the injunc tion of secrecy.

37. All information or remarks, touching or concerning the character or qualifications of any person nominated by the president to office, shall be kept secret.

33. When acting on confidential or executive business, the senate shall be cleared of all persons, except the secretary, the sergeant-at-arms, and door-keeper, or in his absence, the assistant door-keeper.

39. Extracts from the executive record are not to be furnished but by special order.

40. Every vote of the senate shall be entered on the journal, and a brief statement of the contents of each petition, memorial, or paper, presented to the senate, be also inserted on the journal.

41. No paper or document shall be printed for the use of the senate, without special order.

42. The proceedings of the senate, when they shall act in their executive capacity, shall be kept in separate and distinct books.

43. The proceedings of the senate, when not acting as in a committee of the whole, shall be entered on the journal as concisely as possible, care being taken to detail a true and accurate account of the proceedings.

44. Messages shall be sent to the house of representatives by the secretary, who shall previously indorse the final determination of the senate thereon.

45. Messengers are introduced in any state of business, except while a question is putting, while the yeas and nays are calling, or while the ballots are counting.

46. When the yeas and nays shall be taken upon any question, in pursuance of the 16th rule for conducting business in the senate, no member shall be permitted, under any circumstances whatever, to vote after the division is pronounced from the chair.

47. The presiding officer of the senate shall examine and correct the journals before they are read, and shall have the regulation of such parts of the capitol and its passages as are or may be set apart for the use of the senate and its officers.






Touching the Duty of the Speaker.

1. He shall take the chair every day precisely at the hour to which the house shall have adjourned on the preceding day; shall immediately call the members to order, and, on the appearance of a quorum, shall cause the journal of the preceding day to be read.

2. He shall preserve decorum and order; may speak to points of order in preference to other members, rising from his seat for that purpose, and shall decide questions of order, subject to an appeal to the house by any two members; on which appeal no member shall speak more than once unless by leave of the house.



3. He shall rise to put a question, but may state it sitting. 4. Questions shall be distinctly put in this form, to wit: "As many as are of opinion that (as the question may be) say aye;" and, after the affirmative voice is expressed, as many as are of the contrary opinion say If the speaker doubts, or a division be called for, the house shall divide: those in the affirmative of the question shall first rise from their seats, and afterwards those in the negative. If the speaker still doubts, or a count be required, the speaker shall name two members, one from each side, to tell the members in the affirmative, which being reported, he shall then name two others, one from each side, to tell those in the negative, which being also reported, he shall rise and state the decision to the house.

5. When any motion or proposition is made, the question, "Will the house now consider it ?" shall not be put,"


unless it is demanded by some member, or is deemed necessary by the speaker.

6. The speaker shall examine and correct the journal before it is read. He shall have a general direction of the hall. He shall have the right to name any member to perform the duties of the chair, but such substitution shall not extend beyond an adjournment.

7. All committees shall be appointed by the speaker, unless otherwise specially directed by the house, in which case they shall be appointed by ballot; and if, upon such ballot, the number required shall not be elected by a majority of the votes given, the house shall proceed to a second ballot, in which a plurality of votes shall prevail; and, in case a greater number than is required to compose or complete a committee shall have an equal number of votes, the house shall proceed to a further ballot or ballots.

8. In all other cases of ballot than for committees, a majority of the votes given shall be necessary to an election; and when there shall not be such a majority on the first ballot, the ballot shall be repeated until a majority be obtained.

9. In all cases of ballot by the house, the speaker shall vote; in other cases he shall not vote, unless the house be equally divided, or unless his vote, if given to the minority, will make the division equal: and, in case of such equal division, the question shall be lost.

10. In all cases where other than members of the house may be eligible to any office by the election of the house, there shall be a previous nomination.

11. All acts, addresses, and joint resolutions, shall be signed by the speaker; and all writs, warrants, and subpœnas, issued by order of the house, shall be under his hand and seal, attested by the clerk.

12. In case of any disturbance, or disorderly conduct in the galleries or lobby, the speaker, (or chairman of the committee of the whole house,) shall have power to order the same to be cleared.

13. No person, except members of the senate, their secretary, heads of departments, the treasurer, comptroller, register, auditor, post master-general, president's secretary, chaplains to congress, judges of the United

States, foreign ministers and their secretaries, officers who, by name, have received, or shall hereafter receive, the thanks of congress for their gallantry and good conduct displayed in the service of their country, the commissioners of the navy board, governor, for the time being, of any state or territory in the Union, who may attend at the seat of the general government during the sessions of congress, and who may choose to avail himself of such privilege, such gentlemen as have been heads of departments, or members of either branch of the legislature, and, at the discretion of the speaker, persons who belong to such legislatures of foreign governments as are in amity with the United States, shall be admitted within the hall of the house of representatives.

14. Stenographers wishing to take down the debates, may be admitted by the speaker, who shall assign such places to them, on the floor or elsewhere, to effect their object, as shall not interfere with the covenience of the house.

Order of business of the Session.

15. After six days from the commencement of a second or subsequent session of any congress, all bills, resolutions, and reports which originated in this house, and at the close of the next preceding session remained undetermined, shall be resumed and acted on in the same manner as if an adjournment had not taken place.

Order of business of the day.

16. As soon as the journal is read, the speaker shall call for petitions from the members of each state, and delegates from each territory, beginning with Maine; and if, on any day, the whole of the states and territories shall not be called, the speaker shall begin on the next day where he left off the previous day. Provided, that, after the first thirty days of the session, petitions shall not be received except on the first day of the meeting of the house in each week.

17. The petitions having been presented and disposed of, reports, first from the standing, and then from the

select committees, shall be called for, and disposed of. And not more than one hour in each day shall be devoted to the subject of reports from committees, and resolutions; after which the speaker shall dispose of the bills, messages, and communications, on his table, and then proceed to call the orders of the day.

The above business shall be done at no other part of the day, except by permission of the house.

Of Decorum and Debate.

18. When any member is about to speak in debate, or deliver any matter to the house, he shall rise from his seat, and respectfully address himself to Mr. Speaker, and shall confine himself to the question under debate, and avoid personality.

19. If any member, in speaking, or otherwise, transgress the rules of the house, the speaker shall or any member may, call to order; in which case the member so called to order shall immediately sit down, unless permitted to explain, and the house shall, if appealed to, decide on the case, but without debate; if there be no appeal, the decision of the chair shall be submitted to. If the decision be in favor of the member called to order, he shall be at liberty to proceed; if otherwise, he shall not be permitted to proceed without leave of the house and, if the case require it, he shall be liable to the censure of the house.

20. When two or more members happen to rise at once, the speaker shall name the member who is first to speak.

21. No member shall speak more than twice to the same question, without leave of the house, nor more than once, until every member choosing to speak shall have spoken.

22. Whilst the speaker is putting any question, or addressing the house, none shall walk out of, or across, the house; nor in such case, or when a member is speaking, shall entertain private discourse; nor, whilst a member is speaking, shall pass between him and the chair.

23. No member shall vote on any question in the event of which he is immediately and particularly interested;

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