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CONTENTS

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LIST OF WITNESSES

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Wednesday, September 22, 1971 :

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Flood, Hon. Daniel J., a Representative in Congress from the State of

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Pennsylvania -----

Rarick, Hon. John R., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Louisiana ------

----

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Scott, Hon. William L., a Representative in Congress from the State

of Virginia----

Sullivan, Hon. Leonor K., a Representative in Congress from the State

of Missouri.

Thursday, September 23, 1971 :

Dennis, Hon. David W., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Indiana --------

Hall, Hon. Durward G., a Representative in Congress from the State

of Missouri.-.

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Williams, Hon. Lawrence G., a Representative in Congress from the

State of Pennsylvania------

STATEMENTS AND MEMORANDUMS SUPPLIED

FOR THE RECORD

Memorial to the Congress—Panama Canal, sovereignty and moderniza-

tion, Committee for Continued U.S. Control of the Panama Canal, 1971,

submitted by Mr. Flood..

Background on Panama Canal treaty negotiations, submitted by Mr.

Flood

------

ts Memorandum on 53rd annual national convention of the American Legion,

Houston, Tex., August 31, September 1, 2, 1971, submitted by Mr.

rania

Flood -------

---------

bort Jerse Headlines from the Panama American referred to by Mr. Flood.-------

Letter to Hon. Dante B. Fascell from Hon. Daniel J. Flood on question of

whether new major canal modernization requires a new treaty, sub-

mitted by Mr. Flood---

Paper entitled Panama Canal in Great Danger, by Ira C. Eaker, Lt. Gen.,

U.S. Air Force, Retired, submitted by Mr. Rarick-------

Article from Alert entitled "Providing Aid and Comfort to the Enemy

is Treason,” submitted by Mr. Rarick-

Paper by the Office of Interoceanic Canal Negotiations, on background

of U.S. decision to resume Panama Canal treaty negotiations, sub-

mitted by Mr. Rarick-----

Telegram regarding violent demonstrations in the Panama Canal to the

U.S. House of Representatives, submitted by Mr. Rarick-------------

Letter to Hon. Dante B. Fascell from Hon. Leonor K. Sullivan regarding

the attached letter to Mrs. Sullivan from John C. Mundt concerning a

statement made by Mrs. Sullivan on September 22d on the Panama Canal

which she would like to clarify-----

Letter of May 20, 1971, from Hon. Leonor K. Sullivan to the President of

the United States, respectfully urging that the administration not begin

new treaty negotiations.----

Speech made by Hon. Leonor K. Sullivan on the floor of the House on April

1, 1971.

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Speech to the House dated July 14, 1971 by Hon. Leonor K. Sullivan on

certain news stories related to the speeches and promises of General

Omar Torrijos and other officials of the Panamanian Government to the

people of Panama-------

STATEMENTS SUBMITTED FOR THE RECORD BY

MEMBERS OF CONGRESS

Abernethy, Hon. Thomas G., a Representative in Congress from the State

of Mississippi-----

Baring Hon. Walter S., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Nevada ------

Buchanan, Hon. John H., Jr., a Representative in Congress from the State

of Alabama-----

Burke, Hon. J. Herbert, a Representative in Congress from the State of

Florida -----

Byrne, Hon. James A., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Pennsylvania -

Cabell, Hon. Earle, a Representative in Congress from the State of Texas

Clawson, Hon. Del, a Representative in Congress from the State of

California

Collier, Hon. Harold R., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Illinois ------

Cranston, Hon. Alan, a U.S. Senator from the State of California--------

Dowdy, Hon. John, a Representative in Congress from the State of Texas--

Eilberg, Hon. Joshua, a Representative in Congress from the State of

Pennsylvania --

Fountain, Hon. L. H., a Representative in Congress from the State of North

Carolina ----------

Griffin, Hon. Charles H., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Mississippi ------

Haley, Hon. James A., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Florida -----

Halpern, Hon. Seymour, a Representative in Congress from the State of

New York..

Hull, Hon. W. R., Jr., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Missouri ------

Hunt, Hon. John E., a Representative in Congress from the State of New

Jersey ---

McCollister, Hon. John Y., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Nebraska

Mann, Hon. James R., a Representative in Congress from the State of

South Carolina----

Mathis, Hon. Dawson, a Representative in Congress from the State of

Georgia -------

Myers, Hon. John T., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Indiana -----

O'Neill, Hon. Thomas P., Jr., a Representative in Congress from the State

of Massachusetts.-

Robinson, Hon. J. Kenneth, a Representative in Congress from the State

of Virginia -----

Rousselot, Hon. John H., a Representative in Congress from the State of

California -

Scherle, Hon. William J., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Teague, Hon. Charles M., a Representative in Congress from the State of

California ----

Waggonner, Hon. Joe D., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Louisiana

Whalley, Hon. J. Irving, a Representative in Congress from the State of

Pennsylvania

Young, Hon. C. W. Bill, a Representative in Congress from the State of

Florida

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APPENDIX

Page

131

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139 149

A. Convention for the Construction of a Ship Canal, 1903_
B. General Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation Between the United

States of America and Panama-------
C. Treaty of Mutual Understanding and Cooperation -----
D. Comparison of the rights and obligations of the United States under the

terms of the three basic treaties with Panama---
E. Commentary by Hon. Daniel J. Flood, a Member in Congress from

the State of Pennsylvania, on excerpts from Senator Alan Cranston's statement submitted for the record------

162

170

PANAMA CANAL, 1971

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 22, 1971

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HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,

COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON INTER-AMERICAN AFFAIRS,

Washington, D.C.
The subcommittee met at 2 p.m., in room 2200, Rayburn House Office
Building, Hon. Dante B. Fascell (chairman of the subcommittee)
presiding.
Mr. FASCELL. The subcommittee will please come to order.

The United States is presently negotiating a new treaty governing the control and operation of one of the world's most important waterways—the Panama Canal.

For 57 years, the canal has provided immense economic benefits to the United States, Panama, and the entire world. In times of war and crisis, it has also given us important military flexibility.

Over the years since the original treaty between the United States and Panama for construction of the canal, the United States, in response to Panamanian requests, has modified the original treaty two times by treaty. While relations between our two countries are necessarily close and generally friendly, there remains a good deal of conflict and controversy over the canal. In the belief that these problems, if left unresolved, might permanently embitter relations between our two countries and in order to provide for needed new canal capacity, President Johnson agreed to negotiate a new treaty with Panama. While draft agreements were signed, they were never submitted for ratification in either country.

Last December, the Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Canal Study Commission recommended that the United States construct a new sea level canal in Panama 10 miles west of the present canal site. Following this recommendation, President Nixon decided to reopen talks with Panama on a new basic treaty governing U.S. canal rights.

While the House of Representatives does not have a direct voice in approval of treaties, many Members of Congress feel that the canal is so vital to U.S. interests that we should not give up a single right in the Canal Zone. The breadth and depth of this concern is evidenced by the fact that 88 Members have introduced 42 House resolutions to express the sense of the House of Representatives that the U.S. maintain its sovereignty and jurisdiction over the Panama Canal Zone.

The subcommittee is meeting today to consider the resolutions and to hear from our distinguished colleagues on this subject.

The greatest exponent of all is our great and distinguished colleague from Pennsylvania who has made a lifelong study of this matter,

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