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CONTENTS

LIST OF WITNESSES

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Memorial to the Congress—Panama Canal, sovereignty and moderniza-

tion, Committee for Continued U.S. Control of the Panama Canal, 1971,

submitted by Mr. Flood -

Background on Panama Canal treaty negotiations, submitted by Mr.

Flood

Memorandum on 53rd annual national convention of the American Legion,

Houston, Tex., August 31, September 1, 2, 1971, submitted by Mr.

Flood

Headlines from the Panama American referred to by Mr. Flood---
Letter to Hon. Dante B. Fascell from Hon. Daniel J. Flood on question of

whether new m or canal modernization requires a new treaty, sub

mitted by Mr. Flood_-
Paper entitled Panama Canal in Great Danger, by Ira C. Eaker, Lt. Gen.,

U.S. Air Force, Retired, submitted by Mr. Rarick--
Article from Alert entitled “Providing Aid and Comfort to the Enemy

is Treason,” submitted by Mr. Rarick---
Paper by the Office of Interoceanic Canal Negotiations, on background

of U.S. decision to resume Panama Canal treaty negotiations, sub-

mitted by Mr. Rarick..
Telegram regarding violent demonstrations in the Panama Canal to the

U.S. House of Representatives, submitted by Mr. Rarick---
Letter to Hon. Dante B. Fascell from Hon. Leonor K. Sullivan regarding

the attached letter to Mrs. Sullivan from John C. M concerning a
statement made by Mrs. Sullivan on September 22d on the Panama Canal

which she would like to clarify-
Letter of May 20, 1971, from Hon. Leonor K. Sullivan to the President of

the United States, respectfully urging that the administration not begin

new treaty negotiations.-

Speech made by Hon. Leonor K. Sullivan on the floor of the House on April

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1, 1971

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Abernethy, Hon. Thomas G., a Representative in Congress from the State

of Mississippi.-

Baring Hon. Walter S., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Nevada

Buchanan, Hon. John H., Jr., a Representative in Congress from the State

of Alabama -

Burke, Hon. J. Herbert, a Representative in Congress from the State of

Florida

Byrne, Hon. James A., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Pennsylvania

Cabell, Hon. Earle, a Representative in Congress from the State of Texas

Clawson, Hon. Del, a Representative in Congress from the State of

California

Collier, Hon. Harold R., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Illinois

Cranston, Hon. Alan, a U.S. Senator from the State of California --

Dowdy, Hon. John, a Representative in Congress from the State of Texas.

Eilberg, Hon. Joshua, a Representative in Congress from the State of

Pennsylvania

Fountain, Hon. L. H., a Representative in Congress from the State of North

Carolina

Griffin, Hon. Charles H., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Mississippi

Haley, Hon. James A., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Florida

Halpern, Hon. Seymour, a Representative in Congress from the State of

New York,

Hull, Hon. W. R., Jr., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Missouri

Hunt, Hon. John E., a Representative in Congress from the State of New

Jersey

McCollister, Hon. John Y., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Nebraska

Mann, Hon. James R., a Representative in Congress from the State of

South Carolina -

Mathis, Hon. Dawson, a Representative in Congress from the State of

Georgia

Myers, Hon. John T., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Indiana

O'Neill, Hon. Thomas P., Jr., a Representative in Congress from the State

of Massachusetts..

Robinson, Hon. J. Kenneth, a Representative in Congress from the State

of Virginia---

Rousselot, Hon. John H., a Representative in Congress from the State of

California

Scherle, Hon. William J., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Iowa

Teague, Hon. Charles M., a Representative in Congress from the State of

California

Waggonner, Hon. Joe D., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Louisiana

Whalley, Hon. J. Irving, a Representative in Congress from the State of

Pennsylvania

Young, Hon. C. W. Bill, a Representative in Congress from the State of

Florida

PANAMA CANAL, 1971

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 22, 1971

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,

COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON INTER-AMERICAN AFFAIRS,

Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met at 2 p.m., in room 2200, Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Dante B. Fascell (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding

Mr. FASCELL. The subcommittee will please come to order.

The United States is presently negotiating a new treaty governing the control and operation of one of the world's most important waterways—the Panama Canal.

For 57 years, the canal has provided immense economic benefits to the United States, Panama, and the entire world. In times of war and crisis, it has also given us important military flexibility.

Over the years since the original treaty between the United States and Panama for construction of the canal, the United States, in response to Panamanian requests, has modified the original treaty two times by treaty. While relations between our two countries are necessarily close and generally friendly, there remains a good deal of conflict and controversy over the canal. In the belief that these problems, if left unresolved, might permanently embitter relations between our two countries and in order to provide for needed new canal capacity, President Johnson agreed to negotiate a new treaty with Panama. While draft agreements were signed, they were never submitted for ratification in either country.

Last December, the Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Canal Study Commission recommended that the United States construct a new sea level canal in Panama 10 miles west of the present canal site. Following this recommendation, President Nixon decided to reopen talks with Panama on a new basic treaty governing U.S. canal rights.

While the House of Representatives does not have a direct voice in approval of treaties, many Members of Congress feel that the canal is so vital to U.S. interests that we should not give up a single right in the Canal Zone. The breadth and depth of this concern is evidenced by the fact that 88 Members have introduced 42 House resolutions to express the sense of the House of Representatives that the U.S. maintain its sovereignty and jurisdiction over the Panama Canal Zone.

The subcommittee is meeting today to consider the resolutions and to hear from our distinguished colleagues on this subject.

The greatest exponent of all is our great and distinguished colleague from Pennsylvania who has made a lifelong study of this matter,

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