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LVII. What became of Congress when Howe took possession of

Philadelphia ?
Fiske's War of Independence, 141. Hildreth's U. S. III. 221, 226.

LVIII. Burgoyne's expedition.
Winsor's Hist. of Amer. VI. 156, 295–361. Johnston's U. S. 219-23. Bryant's

Popular Hist. III. 567-92. Hildreth's U. S. III. 196–214. Morris's Half
Hours, II. 48, 61 +. Washington and His Country, 281-97, 314-24; map,
281. Coffin's Boys of '76, chaps. XIII. to XV., XVII., XX.; maps, 242, 234.
Lossing's Field-Book of Rev. I. 46, 57, 79, 80, 91. Fiske's War of Indepen-
dence, 125–38, 143+; map, 131.

a. Object.
b. Plan.
c. Map showing movements of both armies.
d. Expeditions sent out from the main army.

1. To Vermont.
2. Up the St. Lawrence, via Lake Ontario, to the Mohawk

Valley. e. The movements of the main army. f. The American generals opposed, and the position of the Con

tinental army.

References above.

g. The battles near Saratoga.

1. Bemis Heights.

2. Stillwater. h. The surrender. Why necessary ? ?

1. Terms of surrender.

2. What was done with Burgoyne's army? i. Make a full summary of the reasons why Burgoyne failed.

NOTE. Howe's failure to co-operate efficiently with Burgoyne is partly explained by a mistake made in the office of the secretary for the colonies, in England.

Lord George Germain left the orders for Howe to be copied, when he went away on a visit; on his return he forgot to sign them. They lay some time in a pigeon-hole and did not reach Howe until Aug. 16.

Many very interesting particulars in regard to Burgoyne's incapacity and mismanagement will be found in Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America, Vol. VI. pp. 295–314. Also, an account of the skilful manner in which Schuyler hemmed in and hindered his antagonist, and of the extent to which credit is to be given to him for Burgoyne's surrender rather than to his incapable and selfish


Winsor's Hist, of Amer. VI. 295, note i.

LIX. The government of the colonies during the war. a. Under what government were the colonies after the Declara

tion of Independence? Johnston's U. S. 179–80, 194, 205-6, 212, 218, 234-5.

6. Review : The First Continental Congress.

The Second Continental Congress. c. What had Congress to do?

What authority had Congress?

d. What were the Articles of Confederation ?

Johnston's U. S. 270–1, 276. Andrews' Manual of Const. 35–8. Johnston's

U. S. Hist. and onst. 79-80. Lossing's Field-Book of 1812, III. 19-20.

When were they adopted?
Give the principal points of the Articles.
Compare this plan of government with that proposed by

What were the weak points in the working of this plan? Why?

The following brief summary has been found by experience to be

so useful in securing a definite and permanent idea of the articles on the part of immature students that it is given in addition to the Articles themselves, which will be found in the appendix.

Points to be remembered from the Articles of Confederation.


To be only ONE HOUSE.
Delegates to be appointed annually, by the states.
Number of delegates to be not more than seven,

nor less than two, per state.
States to pay their own delegates and to recall

them at pleasure. Delegates in Congress voted by states. The vote of nine states was required to pass a


To make war, conclude peace, contract alliances.

To decide disputes between states, on appeal.

To regulate money, postal matters, etc.

To levy or apportion taxes on the states. Congress.

No power to collect taxes or to raise money.

No power to enforce its own measures. There was no national judiciary and no executive.

LX. The winter of 1777-8.
Johnston's U. S. 218, 229. Bryant's Popular Hist. III. 565, 593-5. Hildreth's

U. S. III. 230–1. Morris's Half Hours, II. 73. Washington and His Coun-
try, 331 +, 338. Lossing's Field-Book of Rev. II. 125, 130; map, 128.

Coffin's Boys of '76, chap. XXII. a. Where were the armies on each side ? 6. The condition of the American army at Valley Forge.

LXI. The Conway cabal.
Winsor's Hist. of Amer. VI. 392, 446-7. Bryant's Popular Hist. III. 596.

Hildreth's U. S. III.' 232-6. Lossing's Field-Book of Rev. II. 130-4.
Washington and His Country, 338–9. Fiske's War of Independence,

How was it frustrated ?

LXII. The French treaties.

a. How were the colonies treated by foreign countries during the

war? Johnston's U. S. 225-6.

b. Early life of Franklin and his connection with public affairs. Johnston's U. S. 226. Bryant's Popular Hist. III. 137-8, 190, 261, 264, 347.

Morris's Half Hours, II. 84 +. Lossing's Field-Book of Rev. I. 86-7.

C. Franklin's appointment as minister to France.
Franklin's Auto. Fiske's War of Independence, 34, 54, 89, 113, 123, 182. Hil-

dreth's U. S. II. 305, 403, 412–13, 420, 460, 467, 474, 494; III. 178-9.

d. The treaties : Terms. Hildreth's U. S. II. 246. Johnston's U. S. 225, 227-8. Bryant's Popular Hist.

III. 598. Morris's Half Hours, II. 87-8. Washington and His Country, 339-40.

1. How were they obtained ?
2. Why had France waited so long?

3. Immediate results.
e. England's answer to the treaties.

1. Declaration of war against France. Johnston's U. S. 228, 237. 2. Evacuation of Philadelphia. Why necessary? Johnston's U. S. 229. Bryant's Popular Hist. III. 601. Hildreth's U. S. III.

238, 247-9. Washington and His Country, 341-3. Lossing's Field-Book of Rev. II. 146–7. Fiske's War of Independence, 150-1.

NOTE. — Under the evacuation of Philadelphia notice the losses of the British army by desertion, which resulted from an agreeable winter in the American city and the inducements offered by the colonists.

LXIII. Summary of events following Burgoyne's surrender.
a. The French treaties.
b. England's declaration of war against France.
c. The evacuation of Philadelphia.
d. The Conway cabal.

e. Change of the commander-in-chief of the British army in


LXIV. Monmouth Court House.
Johnston's U. S. 229. Bryant's Popular Hist. III. 602; map, 602. Hildreth's

U.S. III. 249–51. Lossing's Field-Book of Rev. II. 148–58. Washington and

His Country, 341-2. Coffin's Boys of '76, chap. XXIV. Notice Lee's conduct, and connect it with his previous history. Give the position of each army after this battle.

LXV. Stony Point.
Johnston's U. S. 238. Bryant's Popular Hist. III. 615-16. Hildreth's U. S. III.

281-3. Lossing's Field-Book of Rev. I. 743, 746–50; map, 743. Washington
and His Country, 361,364–7. Coffin's Boys of '76, chap. XXIII.; map, 267.
Fiske's War of Independence, 156–7, 163. Winsor's Hist. of Amer. VI.

455-6, 457-8.
Why did Washington order the storming of Stony Point ?
Did he accomplish his object?
Why did he not keep the position?

LXVI. Privateering.
Winsor's Hist. of Amer. VI. chap. VII. Johnston's U. S. 198, 241-3. Bryant's

Popular Hist. III. 418, 623. Hildreth's U. S. III. 176, 272, 332. Lossing's
Field-Book of Rev. I. 328–9, 569, 610, 641; II. 638. Fiske's War of Inde-

pendence, 159-60. Lossing's Field-Book of Rev. II. 637-45. Paul Jones's exploits.

NOTE. - The best account of naval exploits in the Revolution easily accessible is in Winsor's Hist. of Amer. VI. chap. VII.

LXVII. Gates in the South ; with map.
Bryant's Popular Hist. IV. 34-9. Hildreth's U. S. III. 313-16. Morris's Half

Hours, II. 117. Washington and His Country, 390–9,421-30. Coffin's Boys of
'76, chaps. XXVI., XXVII. Lossing's Field-Book of Rev. II. 463-9. Fiske's
War of Independence, 156-7. Winsor's Hist. of Amer. VI. 476–80; map,

537 a. Why was Gates sent south ? b. Camden. 6. What became of the armies ?

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