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most concise form; put in no explanations and quote no remarks. If your mind cannot furnish all the explanations you need, you ought to go to your references and study the whole subject anew. As a rule, put into your note-book, beyond the things required by your teacher, only such things as you can refer to more easily and quickly in your own note-book than in the books of the library to which you have references; for instance, if you have to select the items for a summary from half a dozen books, keep the summary when made.

Fourth. Do not think that you have done all within your power to settle a question when you have exhausted the list of references given. Many times you may not be satisfied with anything that is given in the references, and many times the lesson will suggest to you questions which you personally would like to have answered. If you are to be a scholar, it is of the greatest importance that you begin now to find for yourself an answer to any question which your own mind asks, and to form a habit of never dismissing any subject until you are satisfied, or have exhausted all your available resources. You will soon become accustomed to the use of the books in the library, and you can hunt down a subject for yourself by means of contents, indexes, etc., as well as your teacher can do it for you. It is entirely within your power to prove whether the library contains anything on the point you wish to find, or not.

Fifth. When your own resources, faithfully exhausted, fail to furnish an answer to your questions, ask them of your teacher. Any good teacher will be very glad to tell you, either in class or out, where to look farther, or to give you an answer outright. When you differ from the book that you have been reading, go to your teacher and find out, if you can, whether you disagree with it through ignorance. If there is another side to the question, read it up; in the end, you have a right to your own opinion apart from the teacher's, or from any books, provided, always, that you have found out all it is possible to learn on your subject and have really thought about it honestly and carefully.



Sixth. Expect your mind to remember exactly all the important points of what you read and of what you hear in the classroom. When you fear that you have forgotten something, do not run to your book to look it up until your mind has made its best effort to recall it. Require yourself to hold in mind all the main points of what you have been over. If you cannot with patient effort make your mind recall something that you have forgotten, go back immediately and relearn it.

Do not be afraid to learn and to remember as many dates as are really necessary. It takes less time to learn a date than to learn the principal parts of a Latin verb, and there are fewer to be learned in any month or year.





1. Why had navigation previous to the fifteenth century been

chiefly confined to inland seas and to the shores of the

ocean? Bryant's Popular Hist. I. 89-90, 96. a. Ships.

Any Ency. b. The

compass: Winsor's Hist. of Amer. II. 94-7.

means of defence come into

II. When did gunpowder as a

common use? Any Ency.

(Note the connection between the use of gunpowder and the ability of Europeans to make their way among the native races in America.)

III. What did the ancients believe about the shape of the earth ? Montgomery's Amer. Hist. 1. Bryant's Popular Hist. I. 103, 108. Winsor's

Hist. of Amer. I. 8, 30-1; II. 1, 40.

IV. What traditions and tales had they about land to the west?

Bryant's Popular Hist. I. 13. Winsor's Hist. of Amer. I. 13, 15, 16, 19.


V. What voyages and discoveries were made by the Portuguese in

the fifteenth century? Johnston's U. S. 5. Any Ency. Montgomery's Amer. Hist. 6. Bryant's

Popular Hist. I. 97-8, 99–104. Winsor's Hist. of Amer. 11. 39-42. Eggleston's Household U. S. 2, 11. Morris's Half Hours, I. 42–3.

VI. What education had Columbus ?
Bryant's Popular Hist. I. 99-100. Winsor's Hist. of Amer. II. 1-3. Eggles-

ton's Household U. S. 2-3.

VII. What means of information had he about the Western


Montgomery's Amer. Hist. 2-4. Bryant's Popular Hist. I. 100-4. Higginson's

U. S. 52-5.

a. His map-copying.

Morris's Half Hours, 41-9. Montgomery's Amer. Hist. 3, 6. b. His father-in-law's position and maps.

Winsor's Hist, of Amer. II. 1-7.

C. His brother's voyages. d. What reasons are there to suppose that he knew of the dis

coveries of the Norsemen? e. The Portuguese voyages and discoveries.

Montgomery's Amer. Hist. 6. Winsor's Hist, of Amer. II. 39-42.

VIII. Why do we believe the world to be round?

Why did Columbus believe the world to be round?
Montgomery's Amer. Hist. 7. Winsor's Hist. of Amer. II. 1-4, 24-26.
What lands did Columbus hope to find ?
Montgomery's Amer. Hist. 4. Byrant's Popular Hist. I. 112-13.

IX. What efforts to have an expedition sent did Columbus make

before he succeeded ?

Montgomery's Amer. Hist. 8. Bryant's Popular Hist. I. 106-9. Winsor's Hist.

of Amer. II. 4-5. Higginson's U. S. 55 +. Morris's Half Hours, I. 49 +.

X. Give an account of how Columbus obtained an expedition

from the king of Spain. Bryant's Popular Hist. I. 109–10. Eggleston's Household U. S. 4. Winsor's

Hist, of Amer. II. 5-11.

XI. What was the bargain between the rulers of Spain and

Columbus ? Bryant's Popular Hist. I. 110. Winsor's Hist. of Amer. II. 5. Amer. Ency.

XII. What were the objects of the voyage ?
Montgomery's Amer. Hist. 4-5, 13. Bryant's Popular Hist. I. 98, 149. Coffin's

Old Times in Col. 45.
a. What gold mines were known at that time?
b. Where were slaves obtained ?

Coffin's Old Times in Col. 46-9.

What nations carried on the slave trade? In what countries

were slaves bought and used ? 6. What were the old routes to India ?

Bryant's Popular Hist. I. 113–114. Montgomery's Amer. Hist. 13.

XIII. Columbus's outfit and first voyage : Route, Discoveries,


Montgomery's Amer. Hist. 9-12. Amer. Ency. Bryant's Popular Hist. I. 110-17.

Winsor's Hist. of Amer. II. 6-11. Higginson's U. S. 55–62. Eggleston's Household U. S. 5. Morris's Half Hours, I. 50–6.

XIV. Columbus's later voyages; give
a. Route,
b. Objects,
C. Discoveries made on each.

Bryant's Popular Hist. I. 118–21. Winsor's Hist. of Amer. II. 15-23; map 61.

Eggleston's Household U. S. 6–7.

XV. What nations were most interested in getting a share of the

new world? Why?

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