Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB
[ocr errors]

I am especially indebted to Professor Richard T. Ely, for encouragement, advice, and constructive criticism; and to Professor Frank R. Rutter of Dartmouth College, who has read the manuscript carefully and offered suggestions of the greatest value. I am also under obligation to Professor R. L. Masson of the University of Michigan, Professor E. S. Fullbrook of the University of Nebraska, Mr. Joseph K. Folsom of Dartmouth College, Miss Clara F. Widger of the University of Wisconsin, Mr. Arnold Zurcher of Oberlin College, and many department, bureau, and division officials at Washington, D. C., for assistance by way of criticism or verification either of the manuscript as a whole or of selected chapters.

P. S. P. OBERLIN, OHIO,

September, 1923.

PREFACE TO FISK'S INTERNATIONAL

COMMERCIAL POLICIES

An effort has been made in the present volume to bring together in a form available for students of economics, as well as for general readers, a systematic treatment of the politics of international commerce. Such an effort is beset with many difficulties. In the first place no method of treatment is entirely free from all objections. Again while there is an abundance of literature on some of the topics considered in the following pages, the literature is very meager as regards other topics. As to general works no English books cover the entire field of international commercial politics although some German writers — notably Roscher, Cohn, Lexis, van der Borght, and Grunzel — have treated the subject in a scholarly way. The author wishes to make special acknowledgments to the last named author for frequent use which he has made of his excellent work, System der Handelspolitik. For services rendered he wishes also to express his appreciation to the officers and attendants of the libraries of Congress, University of Illinois, University of Wisconsin, and Wisconsin Historical Society, and to his colleagues, Professors N. A. Weston, M. H. Robinson, and J. W. Garner. Professors Weston and Robinson read the manuscript and their criticisms were invaluable. Professor Garner furnished valuable assistance in the preparation of the last two chapters on navigation policies. The author feels a special debt of gratitude to his former teacher, the editor of Macmillan's “Citizen's Library,” both for earlier services in the classroom at the Johns Hopkins University and for reading, re-reading, and revising the manuscript of the present work.

G. M. F. CHAMPAIGN, ILLINOIS, October 8, 1907.

CONTENTS

-

1. INTRODUCTION

General Statement. — Meaning of Commerce. - Materials of

Commerce. Classification of Commerce. - Politics of Com-
merce. - Political Control of Commerce. General Character of
Ancient Commerce. - Development of Ancient Commerce.
Commercial Policy of the Middle Ages. - Development of Medie-

val Commerce.

II. MERCANTILISM

General Character of the Early Modern Period. — General

Characteristics of Mercantilism. First and Second Phases of

Mercantilism. – Third Phase of Mercantilism (The Balance of

Trade). — Criticism of Mercantilism. — Portugal and Spain.

The Netherlands. France. — England.

III. FREE TRADE

Political and Economic Revolt against Mercantilism. - The

Physiocratic System. — The Free Trade System. — England. -

The United States. Continental Europe.

IV. PROTECTION.

General Character of Protection. — Causes of Growth of Protec-

tion. — Main Arguments for Protection. — The United States,

1789–1883. — The United States, 1890–1899. — The Payne-

Aldrich Tariff, 1909.

The Underwood Tariff Act, 1913. - The

Post-War Tariff Situation in the United States. — The Fordney-

McCumber Tariff Act, 1922. - France. - Germany. - Other

Continental European Countries. — Post-War Tendencies in

Europe. The Protectionist Reaction in Great Britain.

V. EXPORT, TRANSIT, AND IMPORT DUTIES

Definition and Development of Customs Duties. Classifica-

tion of Customs Duties. — Relative Importance of Export Duties.

- Revenue Export Duties. — Protective Export Duties. - Tran-

sit Duties. Classification of Import Duties. - Present Impor-

tance of Import Duties. · Who Pays the Tax? — Import Duties

and Trusts.

VI. PROHIBITIONS AFFECTING INTERNATIONAL TRADE

Importance of Trade Prohibitions. — Export Prohibitions.

Import Prohibitions for Revenue and Protection. — Import Prohi-
bitions Based on Sanitary Grounds. — Prohibitions Based on

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small][merged small]
« AnteriorContinuar »