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the security of ships within eighty geographical miles of the shores, which are places of the greatest danger; and the other half, when a ship' by the appomtment of the said commissioners, or the major part of them, shall thereby actually sail over
from Great Britain to any such pórt in the West Indies, as those commissioners, or the major part of them, shall choose for the experiment, without losing its longitude beyond the li: mits before-mentioned. The French, Dutch, Spaniards, and other nations, have likewise offered rewards for the same purpose.
In order to find the longitude with the required precision, it is necessary to construct a perfect time. piece ; for, since by the motion of the earth round its axis, every point upon its surface describes the circumference of a circle, or 360°, in twenty-four hours time, it is plain it must describe 15° in one hour, because the twenty-fourth part of three hundred and sixty is fifteen. Hence the difference of longitude may be converted into time, by allowing one hour for every fifteen degrees, and proportionally for minutes: so, also, difference of time may be converted into difference of longitude, by allowing fifteen degrees for every hour, and proportionally for a greater or less time. Conséquently, the one known, the other is easily found.
Our countryman, Mr. John Harrison, produced a time-keeper of his own construction which did not err more than a second in a month. This was in the year. 1726, and he received much encouragement to go on to render his time-piece still more perfect, and in 1761 his son embarked in a voyage, for Jamaica, with a watch of his father's construction, and
he found that it bad erred in four months, less than two minutes in time, or about 284 minutes of longitude, which was within the exactitude required by the act: he therefore claimed the reward of 20,0001. Another trial, to Barbadoes, was dewanded, and on his return he received 10,0001., with the promise of the remainder when he should have constructed other watches equally accurate in keeping time. The commissioners likewise agreed with Mr. Kendal, one of the watchmakers appointed by them to receive Mr. Harrison's discoveries, to make another watch on the same construction with this, to determine whether such watches could be made from the account which Mr. Harrison had given, by other persons, as well as himself.
The event proved the affirmative, for the watch produced by Mr. Kendal, in consequence of this agreement, went even better than Mr. Harrison's; it was sent out with captain Cook 'in his second voyage towards the south pole, and round the globe from the year 1772, to the year 1775 : when the only fault found in the watch was that its rate of going was considerably accelerated, though in this trial of 3 years and a half, it never amounted to 14"} a day. The consequence was, that the House of Commons were pleased to order the other half of the reward to be given to Mr. Harrison. This gentleman had also, at different times, received other sums of money, as encouragements to him to conti. nue his endeavours, from the board of longitude ; from the East India company, aud from opulent individuals.
LONGITUDE, of a star, an arch of the ecliptic, intercepted between the first of Aries, and the point of the ecliptic cut by the star's circle of longitude.
LONICERA, honeysuckle, a genus of plants of which there are 19 species. The Lonicera grata, or evergreen honey-suckle, is the most beautiful: it grows without any culture in North America: it has strong branches, covered with a purple bark, which are ornamented with lucid green leaves embracing the stalks, and continuing their verdure all the year. The flowers have a strong aromatic flavour, they first appear
in June; and there is a constant succession of flowers till the frost puts an end to them,
Lord, in modern history, a title of courtesy, given to all British and Irish noble men, from the baron upward ;-to the eldest sons of earls; to all the sons of marquises and dukes; and to various officers; as the mayor of London, the chamberlain of the king's household, and the high chancellor of the kingdom. Lord is also a general term, equivalent with
peer; wherefore the house of peers is also called the
LORDS, House of. See PARLIAMENT, and Peer.
LORD, in law, one who possesses a fee or munor. This is the primitive meaning of the word; and it was in right of their feofs, that lords came to sit in parliament.
LORD Chamberlain, the sixth great officer of the crown, to whom belongs livery and lodging in the king's court, and fees from each archbishop and bishop, when he performs homage to the king, and from each peer, at his creation, or doing homage:
LOTION, is such wasbing as concerns the beautifying the skin, by cleansing it of those deformities which a distempered blood sometimes throws upon it. There is reason to apprehend that almost all the lotions advertised for sale,' as quack medicines, contain much poisonous matter, such as muriated mercury, and therefore ought never to be had recourse to.
LOTTERY. See CHANCES.
Loxia, the grosbeak, a genus of birds of the order Passeres. The Loxia curvirostra, or crossbill, is about the size of a lark. Its favourite food consists of the seeds of pine; and pine woods are always its principal haunts.
It has the manners of a parrot, and in North America it builds on the highest firs, and attaches its nest to the trunk by means of the exuded resin. Loxia pyrrhula, or the bullfinch, is commonly known in this country, changing its residence according to the season, ia summer retreating from the habitations of man, in winter preferring orchards and gardens, in which it does great mischief by destroying the buds of trees. These birds may be instructed to whistle a variety of tunes. The Loxia chloris, or greenfinch, is a species of this genus. See Plate, Nat. Hist. Fig. 32.
· LUCANUS, a genus of insects of the order coleoptera, of which there are 26 species. The principal is the Lucanus cervus, or stag-chaffer, which is the largest of European coleopterous insects, being two or three inches long. It is chiefly found in the neighbourhood of oak-trees, and its larve are found in the hollows of those trees, residing in the fine mould usually seen in such cavities, and feeding on the softer parts of the decayed wood. The larva, when arrived at its full size, which is about its fifth or sixth year, forms a hollow in the earth in
which it lies, and afterwards remaining perfectly still for the space of a month divests itself of its skin and commences pupa.
It lies in this state three or four months, and then gives birth to the perfect insect. The exotic species of this genus are mostly natives of America, but one species has been discovered in New Holland, which differs from the rest in being entirely of a beautiful golden-green colour, with jaws of a brilliant copper colour. See Plate, Nat. Hist. Fig. 33.
Luke, the gospel of, a canonical book of the New Testament. Some say that it was properly St. Paul's gospel, and that when that apostle speaks of his gospel, he means what is called St. Luke's. This gospel, as well as the Acts of the Apostles, written by the same evangelist, are supposed to have been two parts of the same volume, and to bare been written in the year 63 or 64.
St. Luke is pure, copious and flowing in his language, and has a wonderful and entertaining variety of select cir. cumstances in his narration of our Saviour's divine actions. We learu from this author a variety of facts which have not been related by the other evangelists, and his style is well adapted to the history which it is employed ón.
LUMINOUS appearances. See Sea. Lunds, in anatomy, a part of an animal body which is the instrument of respiration. The langs are the largest viscus of the thorax; they are situated in its two sides, with the heart as it were be. tween them. The lungs of animals ate popularly called the « lights."
Lustre, in mineralogy, is a term used in works of modern chemistry. The lustre of minerals is