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guard against imposition, were seized Continuing the consideration of Dr. with mingled feelings of terror and Morton's distinctive characteristics of amazement. One called him “ Skia- our aboriginal race, the next subject gusta," (God, or a very great man); is-another, “Unantaha," (God Almigh- 4. Maritime Enterprise.—“One of ty); and a third, “ Agagheha,” (Jesus the most characteristic traits of all Christ).
civilized and many barbarous commuLiké Pallas from the brain of Jove, nities,” says Morton, “is the progress the system sprang at once before the of maritime adventure. The Caucaworld complete in all its parts. A sian nations of every age present a newspaper in the Cherokee language striking illustration of this fact: their was soon published, and the greater sails are spread on every ocean, and portion of the New Testament and the fabled voyage of the Argonauts is Watts' Hymns was translated and but a type of their achievements from printed; and had not the Georgians, in remote antiquity to the present time. a spirit of Vandalism, destroyed their Hence their undisputed dominion of printing establishment, the whole Bible the sea, and their successful colonizainight for years past have been read in tion of every quarter of the globe." the Cherokee tongue.
This aptitude for the ocean is evinced The elements of this written lan- in a much less degree by the Malay, guage consist of eighty-five charac- the Mongolian, and the Ethiopian; ters, six of which represent vowels and "and far behind all these," says Morthe rest syllables. The language is pot, ton, “is the man of America.” He like the ancient Egyptian, idiographic, refers in illustration to a curious fact that is, conveying ideas to the mind by mentioned by De Azara, who says that pictures and resemblances, or meta- when the Rio de la Plata was discovphorical figures; nor is it, like the ered by his countrymen, its shores Chinese, lerigraphic, that is, repre. were found inhabited by two distinct senting the words of the language; Indian nations, between whom, notbut it consists of vowels and syllables, withstanding the restless pature of this the various combinations of which people, no communication had ever have been found to embrace every taken place, simply because they had word in the tongue. For a native to neither boats nor canoes. Even those learn to read requires no longer a pe- causes which are calculated to deveriod, than the time requisite to be- lope any latent nautical propensity, as come acquainted with the charac- in the case of Cuba, which is the centers. The word Cherokee, for exam- tre of a great archipelago, seem to have ple, pronounced by the natives Tselo- excited no maritime enterprise among gé, is represented by three characters, our Aborigines. “When Cortez apequivalent to tse, lo, and ge. This proached in his ships in the Mexican har. may be considered a syllabic alphabet, bor of Tobasco," says Morton, “ he was being intermediate to the European and astonished to find even there, the seaChinese languages, the characters of port, as it were, of a mighty empire, the the former expressing elementary same primitive model in the many vessounds, and those of the latter designat- sels that skimmed the sea before him. ing elementary objects, that is, ex- Let us follow this conqueror to the pressing those ideas required in the in- imperial city itself, surrounded by fancy of knowledge, a combination of lakes, and possessed of warlike dethese forming additional words.
fences superior to those of any other George Guess now resides with his American people. The Spanish comnation west of the Mississippi, little mander, foreseeing that to possess the distinguished above his neighbors for lake would be to hold the keys of the acuteness of intellect. His mind at city, had fifteen brigantines built at least was not, in the language of our Tlascala; and these being subsequentauthor, “incapable of a continued pro- ly taken to pieces, were borne on men's cess of reasoning on abstract subjects, shoulders to the lake of Mexico, and nor did it reject whatever requires in- there re-constructed and launched. Vestigation or analysis." Although a The war thus commenced as a navat stranger to the honors of the world, the contest; and the Spanish historians, name of George Guess is destined for while they eulogize the valor of the immortality
Mexicans, are constrained to admit the VOL. XI.—NO, LIV.
utter futility of their aquatic defences; running the wagon-train over them, as for although the subjects of Montezu. a means of concealment. ma, knowing and anticipating the na- But the manner of inhumation practure of the attack, came forth from the tised among the American natives, that city in several thousand boats, these is, placing the dead in a silling posture, were so feebly constructed, and man- seems wholly peculiar. The legs are aged with so little dexterity, that in a flexed upon the abdomen, and the chin few hours they were all destroyed, dis- is supported on the palms of the hands. persed, or taken by the enemy." To this conventional rite, all the Ame
In surveying the nations of the globe, rican tribes, including the ancient Pethis inaptitude for nautical enterprise ruvians and Mexicans, with occasional evinced by the American Indian, can exceptions, conform. The Peruvians, scarcely be regarded as a “distinctive however, did not inhume their dead, characteristic." The naval contest but placed them in a sitting posture, between the Mexicans and Spaniards sowed up in sacks, on the floors of finds a parallel case in the present war- their tombs. But a most extraordinary fare between the British and Chinese; exception to the custom in question and this latter people, who date back has prevailed among various tribes a national existence for thousands of throughout the whole extent of the years, have even now, in the nineteenth two Americas, the body being dis. century, no flag in a foreign port. The sected before interment, and the fact that the navigation of the Ameri- bones alone being deposited in the can aboriginal, since his long contact earth; but even in these instances, the with European arts, has not been ex- custom of the sitting attitude, as the tended beyond rivers and lakes, finds bones are often held together by their an explanation in his natural inapti- natural connections, may be still maintude to conform to new customs and tained. This practice, however, has habits, as well as in his deficiency in been observed by some pavigators mechanical invention. Even the Chi- among the Polynesian islands. nese, with advantages incalculably Having considered the leading chagreater, are now in precisely the same racteristics of the American race, Dr. condition; nor have they, at any time, Morton next inquires whether they deevinced more nautical skill than did the note an exotic origin, or warrant the persevering Incas, who, with log ca. conclusion that this race is as strictly noes and rafts of reeds, subdued the aboriginal to America, as the Mongofierce islanders of Titicaca.
lian is to Asia, or the Negro to Africa. 5. Manner of Interment.“ Vene. After adverting to the various theories ration for the dead," says Morton, “is in regard to the origin of our Indian a sentiment natural to man, whether population, which generally trace them civilized or savage: but the manners of to an Asiatic source, he thus states expressing it, and performing the rites his own conclusion :of sepulture, differ widely in different nations. No offence excites greater “In fine, our own conclusion, long ago exasperation in the breast of an Indian deduced from a partial examination of than the violation of the graves of his the facts thus briefly and inadequately people; and he has even been known stated, is, that the American race is esto disinter the bones of his ancestors, sentially separate and peculiar, whether and bear them with him to a great disc we regard it in its physical, its moral, or tance, when circumstances have com- its intellectual relations. To us there are pelled him to make a permanent no direct or obvious links between the peochange of residence.”
ple of the old world and the new ; for, even On the other hand, the Indian,
admitting the seeming analogies to which obeying the dictates of his vindictive
we have alluded, these are so few in num
ber, and evidently so casual, as not to in spirit, never loses an opportunity of
validate the main position: and even exhuming the body of an enemy. So frequently did this occur in the recent
should it be hereafter shown, that the Florida contest, as we several times can be traced to an exotic source, I main
arts, sciences, and religion of America, ourselves witnessed, that the whites tain that the organic characters of the finally adopted the practice either of people themselves, through all their endbuilding large fires over graves, or less ramifications of tribes and nations, prove them to belong to one and the same scattered over every region of the race, and that this race is distinct from all globe, have ever remained a people so others."
peculiar as to need no argument to
prove their lineage, should, after havThe Esquimaux, however, in ac- ing wandered into the new world, have cordance with general opinion, are ex- lost every memorial of their history, cluded, as belonging to the Mongolian language, laws, and religion? The race. They " obviously belong," says hypothesis is too absurd to merit a seMorton, “to the Polar family of Asia, rious examination. Besides, it has pass insensibly into the American race, been recently announced to the world and thus form the connecting link be that the remains of the lost tribes have tween the two." On the western coast been discovered still existing in Asia. of America, in consequence of its prox. It does not, however, hence follow imity to Asia, the Esquimaux are that our aboriginal race is indigenous much more numerous, and extend to the soil. On the contrary, it was much farther south than on the east- shown, when on the subject of the geoern coast. “A redundant population," graphical distribution of man, that, says our author, “has even forced like plants and inferior animals, he besome of them back to the parent hive, comes naturally diffused over the surwhither they have carried a dialect face of the earth. It is well remarked derived from the cognate tribes of by Lyell, whose language is previously America. Such are the Tsutchchi, quoted, that if all mankind were now who thus form a link between the no- cut off, with the exception of one falar nations of the two continents.” mily, we might expect their descendThese Indians of Mongolian origin ants, let this family be placed in the have become more or less blended with old or the new world, or even on a what are more strictly aboriginal coral islet of the Pacific, to spread, nottribes.
withstanding they should never beMorton shows very satisfactorily that come more enlightened than the Esthe peopling of America cannot be re- quimaux, over the whole earih in the serred to regular emigration from course of ages. Experience, indeed, Asia, whether, as some suppose, proves that whole families might drift the Mongols arrived in large ships on our northwest coast from Asia, or with all the appliances of war, or, in upon the shores of South America the opinion of others, that the whole from Africa, or from Spain to the population of America has been de- Azores and thence to North America. rived from the northwest angle, on the “ The general prevalence of easterly supposition of a continued chain of co- winds,” says Morton, “is adverse to lonies during a long succession of ages, the colonization of America from the extending from Prince William's Sound islands of the Pacific;" but this obseryto the extremity of Terra del Fuego, a ation is not borne out by facts, as on distance of eight thousand miles. That the western coast of Mexico, between civilized nations should have found the eighth and twenty-second degrees their way from Central Asia to Central of norih latitude, there is a complete America through the cold and remote inversion of the trade-wind. Here, regions of Behring's Straits, whose aus. where we should expect a prevalent tere climate has reduced its inhabitants easterly wind, we find an almost perto the lowest stage of humanity, manent westerly current. seems beyond the range of all proba. “ To us,” says Morton, as just quot. bility. Equally untenable is the Jew. ed, “ there are no direct or obvious ish theory, (strongly advocated by the links between the people of the old late Lord Kingsborough, author of world and the new.” Are we, then. Mexican Antiquities), which refers the to conclude that man has had distinct entire native American population 10 centres or foci of creation? This we the ten lost tribes of Israel carried presume is not the opinion of our auaway by Salmanazar, King of Assyria. ihor, but merely that the American The difference of physical organiza Indian is as strictly aboriginal to the tion alone is, however, sufficient to set soil as the Mongolian is to Asia, or the this question at rest for ever; but, inde- Negro to Africa. But as there is no pendent of this, can it be supposed difficulty in explaining the geographical that the Jews, who, notwithstanding distribution of man from a single point,
and as all ethnographic researches, as ing essentially separate and peculiar] we attempted to show in our August may, at first view," says Morton, Number, prove the various races of " seem incompatible with the history man to constitute a single species, the of man, as recorded in the Sacred position advanced above is the merest Writings. Such, however, is not the postulate. « Once for all, I repeat my fact. Where others can see pothing but conviction," says Morton, “ that the chance, we can perceive a wise and obstudy of physical conformation alone vious design displayed in the original excludes every branch of the Caucasian adaptation of the several races of men to race from an obvious participation in those varied circumstances of climate the peopling of this continent." Now and locality, which, while congenial if the principles developed in the Ar- to the one, are destructive to the ticle just adverted to, are founded in other." Much research and erudition nature, viz., that there is an intimate have been employed by anthropologiconnection between physical features cal writers to establish the unity of and moral and intellectual character, the human family ; but as difficulties, both of which are influenced by local regarded as insuperable, have been causes, then does this last conclusion encountered in tracing back the diverse prove an utter fallacy. Time was, varieties of mankind to the same sinno doubt, when the present distinc. gle pair, some have cut the Gordian tion of races did not obtain ; and hence, knot by calling in the aid of supernaat the period when man, in his gra- tural agency. Thus Morton, like others dual diffusion, reached America, the before him, thinks it, as expressed in Caucasian race may scarcely have been his Crania Americana, “ consistent known as a distinct variety.
with the known government of the The following extract from the * Lin universe to suppose that the same ombrary of Useful Knowledge" coincides, nipotence that created man would so far as accidental varieties in man adapt him at once to the physical as are concerned, with our own views:- well as to the moral circumstances in « The peculiarities which arose in the
which he was to dwell upon the
earth.” Now this supposed miracle human species at a remote and unknown period, have become the characteristic
did not, of course, occur until the dispermarks of large nations: whereas those sion of Babel; and, inasmuch as man which have made their appearance in is endowed with a pliability of funclater times have, in general, extended tions, by which he is rendered a cosvery little beyond the individuals in mopolite,-a faculty possessed in the whom they first showed themselves, and highest degree by the inhabitants of certainly have never attained to anything the middle latitudes, there is not the like a prevalence throughout whole com- slightest ground for the belief that it munities. But this is a circumstance ever did uccur, simply because no such which it does not seem difficult to ex- special adaptation was demanded. plain; if we consider that ever since the The chief characteristics which distinpopulation of the world has been of large
ge guish the several varieties of man, amount, the possessors of any peculiar
viz., the comparative development of organization have borne such a very small numerical proportion to the nation
the moral feelings and intellectual to which they belonged, that it is no ways
powers, require no particular adaptasurprising that they should soon have
tion to external causes. Least of all, been lost in the general mass; still less could the American race have been enthat they should have failed to impress it dowed with an “original adaptation," with their own peculiar characters. In " to the varied circumstances of cli. the early period of the world, when man- mate and locality," inasmuch as the kind, few in numbers, were beginning to region inhabited by them embraces disperse themselves in detached bodies every zone of the earth through a disover the face of the earth, the case was tance of one hundred and Gifty degrees altogether different ; and we can easily of latitude. understand how, if any varieties of color, It is thus seen that the attempt to form, or structure, then originated in the obviate the difficulties encountered in human race, they would naturally, as society multiplied, become the characteris
the endeavor to trace back to the same lics of a whole nation."
Adam and Eve, the Caucasian and the
Ethiopian races, by the assertion that “ This idea (the American race be- "each race was adapted from he be
1842.) The Immigration of the Esquimaux comparatively recent. 619 ginning (by an all-wise Providence) to by the way, are generally attributed to its peculiar destination," is the merest this source. We are, however, no bepostulate, and unsustained by the sha- lievers in this theory, but merely addow of proof. The opinion of Morton, duce it to show that those who seek however, seems, at first view, to derive for a solution of this question in Holy some support from the following state. Writ, must go back to the time of Adam. ment by Dr. Caldwell:-“ According In view of the preceding facts, and to accredited dates, it is four thousand of a host of others, did our space perone hundred and seventy-nine years mit their introduction, it follows as an since Noah and his family came out of irresistible conclusion that all our abothe ark. They are believed to have been rigines, with the exception of the Esof the Caucasian race; and the cor- quimaux, have the same descent and rectness of the belief there is no ground origin. The monumental antiquities to question. . . . . Three extending from Canada to the southern thousand four hundred and forty- part of Chile, present, in their style five years ago, a nation of Ethiop- and character, indications of having ians is known to have existed. Their proceeded from branches of the same skins of course were dark, and they primitive family. This conclusion is differed widely from Caucasians in also confirmed by the uniformity of many other particulars. They migrat- their mental, moral, and physical chared from a remote country, and took acteristics, under every variety of cirup their residence in the neighborhood cumstances, and from universal analoof Egypt. Supposing that people to gies in their language, religion, methhave been of the stock of Noah, the ods of interring the dead, and certain change must have been completed, and other arbitrary customs. The emia new race formed in seven hundred gration of the Esquimaux tribes from and thirty-three years, and probably in Asia is of a comparatively recent dale, a much shorter period." * Than inis as is evidenced by their Mongolian feakind of reasoning none can be more il tures, whilst the period of the arrival logical. The whole rests on the be- of what are considered our aboriginal lief that Noah and his family, consist- race dates back to the earliest ages of ing of “his sons and his wife, and his mankind. This inference was long sons' wives,” belonged to the Caucas- since drawn by Mr. Gallatin, who has ian race; but as there are in reality no bestowed great learning and research distinct races, the five varieties, gen- upon the Indian languages. “Whilst erally admitted, being merely typical the unity of structure and of grammatiexamples of extreme diversity, the va- cal forms," he says, “ proves a comriations of which run imperceptibly mon origin, it may be inferred from into each other, it follows that, as re- this, combined with the great diversity gards the physical features of Noah, and entire difference in the words of our knowledge is extremely limited the several languages of America, that But admitting that Noah and his sons this continent received its first inhabithad features resembling the presentants at a very remote period, probaCaucasian variety, another insuperable bly not much posterior to that of the objection still remains; for as the Cau- dispersion of mankind.” A further casian and the Ethiopian were in close confirmation is afforded in the little afproximity more than three thousand finity between the four hundred diayears ago in Egypt, the existence of lects of America and the various landifferent varieties of the human race guages of the old world. The entire at the era of the flood is no ways im- number of common words is said to probable. Now as one of the three be one hundred and eighty-seven, of sons of Noah, Ham for example, may which one hundred and four are comhave had, on entering the ark, a wife mon to the languages of Asia and belonging to a variety of mankind Australia, forty-three to those of Eueven further removed from him than rope, and forty to those of Africa. At the difference now existing between the same time, some of these analothe Caucasian and the Ethiopian, it gies may be reasonably explained on follows that their descendants may be ihe ground of mere coincidences; and the present negro race of Africa, which, others, as well as any sameness in arts
* Thoughts on the Unity of the Human Species. Philadelphia: 1830.