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industry and enterprise, and wish them in. And it may be taken as a pretty all possible prosperity and happiness ; sure and conclusive evidence, that its yet, independently of the effects of introduction would be as premature such a policy on other sections of the for the exigencies of the country, as Union, we are satisfied, that we should the digging a canal, or making a railnot advocate their own best interest, road, through an uninhabited country by advocating higher duties than al- or wilderness; while to undertake to ready exist. We are not sure, that any force it, either by bounties or taxes of branch of trade which cannot flourish any kind, would only end in the injury with a protective duty of 20 per cent. of the parties investing, as well as the ad valorem, ought safely to be engaged general prejudice of the country at large.
BY W. WALLACE, ESQ., AUTHOR OF “PERDITI,” ETC.
STAR OF THE West! whose steadfast light
Sparkles above our troubled sea,
Turn with a trusting heart to ihee-
That trembled, like a thing of fear
Before its haven-rest is near.
Of glory set within our skies,
Above a nation's destinies,-
From Heaven's far battlement unfurl'd,
That pall a sun-deserted world!
CHIEF OF THE BRAVE! 'Twas thine to wield
Trampled the foe beneath thy feet,
And saw, victorious o'er thy brow
Unfurled, Columbia's glory-sheet.
Oh! when the storms of Treason lower
With boyhood gladly gave his life,
Of wild Ambition's demon-strife;
Rush where the ranks of Treachery stand,
Lit on the altars of our land.
What though around thy brow sublime
Like the brighi Grecian torch of old
Shall beam on centuries untold.
Long as a Hero's grave shall be
Echo the anthem of the sea,
The ancient songs of liberty-
Shall hover o'er each patriot's sleep-
That watch the shut eyes of the Deep
To all who groan in tyrant-chains,
For them a brighter lot remains-
So long, unterrified, sublime,
The noblest glory of thy time!
We have been wandering awhile over decaying links that bind them to ages the pleasant hills and valleys of Spain, long past, and to far distant lands. in company with an agent of the Brit- The origin of the Gypsy race has ish and Foreign Bible Society; and yet puzzled many an antiquarian, and has in rather strange company, too, forgiven rise to various speculations in the such a personage to keep, viz. : profes- different countries inhabited by them. sional Thieves and vagabonds ;-and They have been called by some Moors that not officially, with the view of or Arabs; by others, Tartars; and by bringing them to justice, but as pure others, again, Bohemians,—with a great amateurs of humanity, or rather of variety of other designations derived by rascality, in one of its most questiona accident and adopted by ignorance. ble shapes, and with the design of ren- They represent themselves as Egypdering to these vagabonds no other just- tians, bound to do penance by their ice than that of the critic and his wanderings for the sin of having retorian.
fused hospitality and protection to the Mr. Borrow has devoted much of his Virgin Mary and her son, when they time and attention to the study of the fled from the wrath of Herod-a soluGypsy race, as it exists at the present tion, doubtless, framed for the problem day in Europe. He has collected many of their existence by the pious imaginacurious facts concerning it, and his tion of Oriental Christians, who, glad work contains much that is interesting to demonstrate in every way the stern in respect of its past and present condi- vengeance of God, laid this sin upon tion. Although devoted principally to them, and read its punishment in their an account of the Spanish branch of restless and precarious mode of life. this great family, it gives us a good The more extensive learning of the deal of information touching the present day teaches us that they came other scions of the same stock, and de- from the heart of India,—which posimonstrates beyond a doubt the fact tion the shreds and patches that now that this people, though now divided remain of their original language into various tribes, having little inter- serve not a little to demonstrate. This course with each other, are yet one in language, with the additions it has detheir origin and in their language. The rived from those of the various counfacts which Mr. Borrow has laid before tries through which they have passed, us are drawn, not so much from the would seem to be as curious an organic writings of others, as from his own ob- remain as now exists in the world, servation and experience of the Gyp- a shadowy image of the confusion of sies, during a long and familiar ac- Babel. It is perhaps in itself the most quaintance with them ; facilitated by a authentic history both of the origin and knowledge of their peculiar tongue, progress of those who have so long which few Europeans have had either spoken it. At first it was assuredly the opportunity or the patience to ac- Sanscrit, but a multitude of Greek, quire. His work has a practical and Persian, and Sclavonic words have begenuine character belonging only to come mingled with it ; while in the that information which comes thus, as present day it has yielded somewhat it were, from the fountain head ; and to the influences of the modern lanthe light which he has thrown upon guages of Europe, and the Gypsy diathe habits of this mysterious people, lects of Spain, of Germany, and of enables us to trace out the rusty and England, vary slightly from each other,
The Zincali; or an Account of the Gypsies of Spain. With an original collection of their songs and poetry. By George Borrow, late Agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society in Spain. Two vols. in one. New York: Wiley & Putnam, 161 Broadway, 1842.
and become more and more akin to the from the East, few traces now remain ; tongues of those respective countries. yet even from these one may easily
These people are known in different see how, in an ignorant and superstiparts of Europe, under different names. tious age, they raised themselves to In England they are called Gypsies the rank of sorcerers and magicians. merely ; in Russia, Zigani; in the Great activity and agility of body, East, Zingarri; in Hungary, Chingany; joined to a certain subtlety and acutein Germany, Zigeuner; in Spain, Gitá- ness of mind, the knowledge of poisons nos. Mr. Borrow derives these words and precious stones, and a remarkable from the etymon Zincali, which they knowledge of the means of changing sometimes apply to themselves, signi- the colour and appearance of animals, fying The black men of Zend or Ind. —these characteristics might well give The name which they all in common them, in the eyes of the credulous and give to both themselves and their lan- unenlightened Europeans of the middle guage, is Rommany, from the Sanscrit ages, the reputation of supernatural atword Rom, which our author trans- tributes, and class them as the confede. lates, The Husbands, or that which rates of the devil himself. The art of pertains to them--a strange epithet, preparing and administering poisons, truly, and one that marks a time and of which the remedies are known to a country in which strongly metaphori- themselves alone, is gradually disapcal expressions were in use.
pearing among the Spanish Gypsies. The condition of the Zincali varies In olden times it must have been one somewhat in the several countries in of great profit to them, as they were which they have found a refuge. In often called upon to cure the illnesses England they are sometimes smiths, which they themselves had secretly but more generally jockeys, buying and caused; or where the animal was of a selling horses, the women fortunekind fit to be eaten, they suffered it to tellers, and both roving about as if they die, and then easily obtained its carcould find no rest for the soles of their case. But their imagined powers of feet. In Russia they are yet thieves witchcraft and fortune-telling have and vagabonds, but distinguished in been, and still are, their greatest some parts by a wonderful talent for source of revenue. They still gravely music. In Moscow, the finest choirs pretend to read the fate of their willing are those composed by the Zigani. dupes in the stars, or in the lines of Their young girls have in some in- the palm, and are as gravely believed stances married into Russian families -often, within our own knowledge, by of respectability; and Mr. Borrow tells persons who might be supposed far reus of a lovely and accomplished Coun- moved by education and intelligence tess, who was once the chief attraction above the level of absurdities so gross. of a Gypsy choir in that city.
Mr. Borrow relates an instance which The Chingany of Hungary are ex- proves equally that no elevation of empted by the very abjectness of their rank is beyond the reach of their imcondition from the servitude which in pudence, or above the infatuation of the that country oppresses the peasantry. credulity on which they thus practise: The tax-gatherer passes them by, for they have nothing to lose, being, in point “There were two Gitánas at Madrid, and of property and of standing, one degree Probably they are there still. The name of lower than the lowest slave. They, one was Pepita, and the other was called 100, are tinkers and smiths, wandering La Chicharona ; the first was a spare, from place to place, and living in pov. shrewd, witch-like female, about fifty, and erty, but in merriness of heart. They
was the mother-in-law of La Chicharona, have also a great love of music, and
who was remarkable for her stoutness.
These women subsisted entirely by forare said to touch the violin with a pe
tune-telling and swindling. It chanced, culiar excellence, which has given
that the son of Pepita having spirited pleasure to even a Parisian audience.
away a horse, was sent to the presidio of In all parts of the world the trade of Malaga, for ten years of hard labor. smith seems to be a favorite one with This misfortune caused inexpressible afthem, both the taste and the profession fliction to his wife and mother, who deterbeing an inheritance from the fathers mined to exert every effort to procure his of their line. Of the arts which they liberation. The readiest way which ocare said to have brought with them curred to them, was to procure an inter
view with the Queen Regent Christina, forth, at times, bright flashes of genius. who, they doubted not, would forthwith There is poetry in her soul, as well as pardon the culprit, provided they had an in her form and mien. True, she is opportunity of assailing her with their an impostor, but her imposture has gypsy discourse ; for, to use their own descended to her from many generawords, they knew well what to say, tions; the equivocal trade which she I, at that time, lived close by the palace,
follows is almost respectable from its in the street of Santiago, and daily, for the space of a month, saw them bending
antiquity; the very lie she tells is, as their steps in that direction.
it were, old enough to be true. Her 15 One day, they came to me in a great deceit, too, is but partial, and of a suhurry, with a strange expression on both perficial kind, for in her unconscious of their countenances. We have seen looks and gestures you read her as she Christina, hijo,' (my son,) said Pepita is, a free and fearless creature, with to me.
more of nature and perhaps of truth “* Within the palace ? 'I inquired. in her, than most civilized women.
«« Within the palace, oh child of my She is .no cultivated and developed garlochin,' answered the sybil: 5 Chris- flower, but tina at last saw and sent for us, as I knew she would. I told her bahi (fortune), “A weed of glorious feature,” and Chicharona danced the Romalis, whose hardy fibres and brilliant hues (gypsy dance,) before her."
might be envied by the more refined 666 What did you tell her ??
beauties of the parterre. I told her many things,' said the hag,
It must not be supposed that these many things which I need not tell
better characteristics are always conyou: know, however, that amongst other
fined to the Gypsy woman; there are things, I told her, that the chabori, (little queen,) would die, and then she would be
traits in the man, also, which command Queen of Spain. I told her, moreover,
our respect. His is indeed a dark picthat within three years she would marry
ture, but it too is not without its brightthe son of the King of France, and that er side. There is in him a dignity and it was her bahi to die Queen of France independence of character, joined to and Spain, and to be loved much, and great courage, a quick and subtile inhated much.
telligence, and a certain loyalty to the “And did not you dread her anger, laws of his fathers, and to the brothers when you told her these things ??
of his race. He, however, has coarser ««• Dread her, the Busnee ?' screamed tasks, a grosser fraud to practise, and Pepita: no, my child, she dreaded me, is often not only hardened, but brutalfar more; I looked at her so—and raised ized, by desperate crime. my finger $0--and Chicharona clapped The following description of a Gitáher hands, and the Busnee believed all I
na will give those who have not seen said, and was afraid of me: and then I asked for the pardon of my son, and she
such a person some idea of the form pledged her word to see into the matter,
which envelopes this wild, erratic spirit: and when we came away, she gave me “She is of the middle stature, neither this baria of gold, and to Chicharona this strongly nor slightly built, and yet her every other. so at all events we have hokkanoed movement denotes agility and vigor. As (humbugged ?) the Queen. May an evil she stands erect before you, she appears end overtake her body, the Busnee !'” like a falcon about to soar, and you are
almost tempted to believe that the power The female Gypsy, is, according to of volitation is hers; and were you to Mr. Borrow's account, the better half stretch forth your hand to seize her, she of her race. She still retains, wild and would spring above the house-tops like a untaught though she be, some of the bird. Her face is oval, and her features best and strongest instincts of woman's are regular, but somewhat hard and coarse, nature. As a maid, she is inviolable;
for she was born among rocks in a thicket, as a wife, true and devoted; as a moth
and she has been wind-beaten and sun
scorched for many a year, even like her er, tender and watchful. She has a sense of the beautiful, and feels per
parents before her; there is many a speck
upon her cheek, and perhaps a scar, but haps the dignity, factitious though it
no dimples of love; and her brow is be, which hangs around one who is
wrinkled over, though she is yet young. thought to have some knowledge of Her complexion is more than dark, for it the unseen world, and to interpret is almost that of a mulatto; and her hair, rightly its hidden purposes. She sends which hangs in long locks on either side