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Th' unwieldy bisons driven along, He breathed a prayer, and climbing thence, Heaved, pitched the grassy swells among, Strove to awake each deadened sense. Like huge, black creatures of the sea, Some stars were on the cloudless sky, With bellowings of mad agony,
The moon was riding pale and high, That rose above the roaring flame; And looked with that most tranquil mien Right towards that rising ground they Upon how desolate a scene ! came,
As when the orbed Earth is burned, In heedless course and headlong !—Where Some wandering spirit, back returned, Shall Moray fly in this despair ?
Beneath lone Luna's waning ray
May all the wasted world survey, “Less merciful the savage foe,
Throughout whose prospect still and wide Than fire or furious buffalo,
No living thing shall be descried, Aslant he fled, if so he might
Beast, bird, nor flower, nor waving tree, Escape the vast herds' frantic fight. But all of bare, bleak lava be, Brief time he strove, he sprang, he flew, Spread dark, or glittering ghastly-bright: When lo! so near their breath he drew, So Moray in that silent light With shaggy bulk, and tumbling leap, Beheld, where'er he turned his eyes, And foamy mouth, and bellowings deep, No shrub nor plant nor leaf arise, And eye that glowed, and tossing head, Nor reed that quivered in the air, On-on they plunged their myriad tread, But all was cold and black and bare; Trampling the earth with thunder! Fast Save in the North a distant glare Still Moray fled, this peril past :
Upon the heavens was redly cast, The flames were near-he felt their Where the far-marching flames were breath
passed, He stood their lurid ranks beneath
Blent with their blue in fearful hues subHe saw them tread the quivering reeds lime, In wrath, and rise, like warrior-steeds, Like the last burnings of the sphere of To whelm him down ;-he looked-how Time!”
near Ken-hát-ta-wa's brandished, fatal spear!
We regret that space is denied us No more-he turned his blinded gaze,
even to hint at the tribes of Ioways, And rushed into the glaring blaze.
Konzas, Pawnees, Ottoes, Missouris, The spear sang past him through the fire, Delawares, and all the other tribes And, yelling in his baffled ire,
whom our traveller visited while in The chief pursued with maddened mind, the vicinity of Fort Leavenworth; but While closed the dark-red walls behind. we must now suppose him to have re Scorched by the flames through which he turned to St. Louis, and to have revisbroke,
ited the “States." We will call on With ashes smothered, wrapt in smoke, him again at Fort Gibson, in ArkanAnd treading, every step he took,
sas, about to take part in the unfortuWith bleeding bare feet's blistering soles
nate expedition of General LeavenO'er burning roots and glowing coals, The weary captive staggered on,
worth, into the country of the PawNor knew what way his course might run,
nees and Camanches; a journey comTill all the blackened air and ground
menced with the highest hopes and Spun like a mighty whirlpool round,
expectations, but which, from the lateWhen suddenly he faltered-fell
ness of the season and badness of the What passed beside he might not tell. climate, cost the lives of so many gal
lant officers and men. This expedi“He woke-what were they? Dungeon tion was projected by the United States bars,
government, with the view of forming Through which looked down the silent à treaty and establishing friendly relastars
tions with the southwestern Indians, And calmly smiled at him ?-In pain
whose territories had as yet been unvisOf throbbing eyes and dizzy brain,
ited by Americans. The party conAnd limbs that hardly might be raised,
sisted of the first regiment of dragoons, He half arose and round him gazed.
about four hundred strong, under the It was a pit, deep, damp and round, Beneath the prairie's level ground,
command of Col. Dodge, and was acWherein the greener grass that grew,
companied by General Leavenworth, And reeds yet moist with rain or dew,
the commandant of Fort Gibson, and Were scathed not by the fiery scourge
his staff. A portion only of the comThat rolled above its rapid surge,
mand ever reached the Camanche And, bending o’er his helpless trance, country, as nearly one-half, including Had veiled him from the savage glance. the veteran General, were attacked by a fatal illness almost in the commence- Gibson. We cannot follow him on ment of the march. The progress of this expedition, nor in any of his subthe regiment through the prairies might sequent wanderings; suffice it to say, almost have been traced by the sick that the second volume is in every way camps they were compelled to leave equal to the first, and that we have behind them at the end of each day's only noticed the incidents selected by journey; and, had the party been re- us, as they happened to fall under obceived in a hostile manner by the In- servation. dians, it is doubtful whether many of Mr. Catlin afterwards visited the Inthe soldiers would ever have returned. dians of the North Mississippi and of Our traveller himself was among the Florida, and in fact appears to have sufferers, but by great effort was ena- sought out every tribe within the limbled to accompany the troops on a its of his rambles; and he laments great part of their journey. They sincerely that he has as yet been unawere met at last by a war party of ble to penetrate among the inhabitants Camanches, who escorted them to of the Rocky Mountains, and the altheir great village. Here they were most unknown regions between them most hospitably received, and were and the Pacific Oceau. partially successful in the object of We take leave of our author with their mission. But the sickness which regret, for in spite of ourselves he alprevailed among the party forced the most gives us his own liking for his commanding officer to return much Indians; and when we close the book earlier than had been intended to their we are almost for a moment involunplace of departure, after the loss by dis- tarily convinced that the savages are ease of nearly one-third of his force. as humane and worthy of admiration The whole of this melancholy journey as the whites are cruel and contemptis recorded with great faithfulness by ible. It positively requires a little exMr. Catlin, and forms a most interest- ertion of the organ of self-esteem to ing portion of his work; for his indispo- bring ourselves up to our former degree sition did not prevent his collecting of respect for civilisation; and to commany valuable portraits for his gallery, pare our own people favorably with and facts for his letters. His return the wild nations of the west, and alto Fort Gibson was attended, however, though the desired effect is at last proby a renewal of his illness, which de- duced, and our own race is restored in tained him there for a considerable our minds to its elevated position, we time; when at length, determining, as are forced, nolens volens, to admit that he said, not to die in that detestable in reference to the Indians as well as country, he boldly resolved to attempt, many other things the old maxim in his enfeebled state, a journey on holds true, thathorseback, alone, to Fort Leavenworth, “The devil is not so black as he is five hundred miles to the north of Fort painted.”
ON THE INFLUENCE OF PROTECTIVE DUTIES ON THE MANU
FACTURING PROSPERITY OF A COUNTRY.
There is no greater fallacy than the tion of the truth from the present state of notion that high protective duties are Belgium and France, two countries in beneficial to a country. They never which the protective system has cerfail on the contrary to exercise in the tainly been tested to the fullest extent end the most injurious influence on its that could be desired by its most inindustry. This has been already prov- fatuated advocate. ed clearly enough in a great many in- It was an axiom of Jean Baptiste Say, stances; our present object is to derive which can never be successfully controa further and most conclusive illustra- verted, that " wherever you limit a
people in markets to purchase in, you tories. An advance of wages, and in never fail, to the same extent, to limit the value of raw material, and in markets for them to sell in.” And un- provisions, follows. As a matter of less one single nation can produce eve- course, this increases the cost of prorything in any way required for her duction, and an increase in the market consumption, which never has, nor ever price of the product, to meet the cost of can happen, no one nation can dispense manufacture. This enhancement in with her markets to sell in, or cut off the cost of production cuts off compeher foreign commerce without suffer- tition, in the neutral markets, with the ing the most serious evils. Although productions of nations more favorably Say was a Frenchman, no nation has situated for the production of similar ever acted upon principles more dia. goods. The consequence is, their marmetrically opposite to his doctrines kets for selling in are finally narrowed than the French. M. Say was at one down to their own domestic consumptime residing, in his youth, at the vil. tion; and this once supplied, the delage of Hampstead, near London, in the mand falls off to such an extent as time of Pitt's administration, when the seriously to embarrass the whole procelebrated window tax was imposed. tected or bounty trade. This has been The room' occupied by him had two fully realized in France and Belgium. windows. The landlord, in order to Their iron and cotton trade, the two save on his taxes, found it necessary to most highly protected, are at this time close one of these windows, which cir. two of the most languishing and emcumstance attracted Say's mind to the barrassed trades in either country. subject of taxation in general; which Large sums of money have been emfinally resulted in the publication of his barked in them, which in many cases great work on “ Political Economy;" have been wholly sunk, or have only which, though it may contain some er- derived sufficient support from the dorors nevertheless full of irrefragable mestic demand, to keep them in un proproofs of the advantages of free trade, fitable operation. They cannot avail of the ruinous effects of high duties, themselves of any export trade to and the injustice and the impolicy of neutral markets, as the cheaper and unnecessary taxes of all kinds.
better English production shuts them There are no two branches of trade in out. And it is rather curious that artiwhich France has shown more jealou- cles which have been the least protectsy toward England than in the iron ed are at this time the most prosperous and the cotton trade. There have in these countries. An article which been none which she has been more cannot be made to compete in neutral anxious to foster and promote under markets with the manufactures of every form of government, from Bona- other nations without high domestic parte down; and falling into the com- duties, will be still less able to do so mon error of governments, she has al- when such duties are levied. The tenways imagined this could be best done dency of all high duties, therefore, is to by exorbitant protective duties.
cramp and annihilate trade in neutral Now, no fact is clearer, than that high markets, and to glut those at home. protective duties, (or protection or And high duties not only ultimately bounties at all,) except in the legiti- result in the embarrassment of the mate way of simple revenue, never fail trade at home as soon as the home ultimately in a measure to defeat the market is gorged; but they almost very object of their adoption.
entirely fail in yielding any revenue to The first result of high duties, it is the Government. true, is to put money temporarily in the They give rise, also, to a system of pockets of one class, iron-masters and smuggling, which injures both the revcotton-spinners, for instance,--taken enue and the manufacturer. We have from the purses of another class, or of stated that the import of lace from the people at large, without the coun- England into France is prohibited, and try in the aggregate becoming a shil. what is more curious, they also prohiling richer. The prosperity of this bited the importation of fine Sea Island class, or these classes, has a tendency yarn, spun into high numbers at Manto divert a large share of capital from chester, which is the only suitable maother channels, and cause it to be in- terial for the manufacture of lace. vested in the Government bounty fac. The consequence was, after repeated
experiments and expensive efforts made Cockerill's great works, at Seraing, to spin this fine cotton thread in after his death ceased to be worked to France, it was measurably abandoned profit. The “ Sociétés Anonymes" as a failure. The numbers spun in have proved losing concerns; the whole Manchester for the lace manufacturers country has been injured and thrown at Nottingham, ran as high usually as back by the policy of high duties 240, the production of which is favored levied for protection, and the governby the climate of England, as well as ment itself forced to have recourse to by the better selections of the raw direct taxation for support. Whereas, cotton made by the English manufactu- on the other hand, here, as in France, rers. The result of these prohibitory those branches of trade which have duties on the lace trade in France is, had the least protection are at this that 25,000,000 francs' worth ot' lace day by far the most flourishing; such is smuggled annually into the country, as the manufacture of guns, pistols, at a premium to smugglers of 30 per zinc, lead, linen goods, carpets, and cent. The government is cut off from flax. revenue, while no trade in France is No country that does not possess more depressed, embarrassed and lan- within itself the elements of manuguishing, than this same protected and facturing resources in such abundance fostered lace trade at the present as to cause their development in a time.
sufficient degree to meet existing deBelgium, acting on the example of mands, and to compete with foreign France, which adjoins her whole nations in neutral markets, under the southern border, thought to encourage protection afforded by the revenue manufactures, and especially the iron wants of the government, can be and cotton trades, by a similar policy made a permanent, healthy, and prosof high protective duties. This course, perous manufacturing country by the as usual, gave an active temporary im- highest duties that can be imposed. It pulse to trade, and a few manufacturers is as unnatural to legislate for the exmade money at the outset.
istence of manufactures in a country Companies were soon formed in where nature has denied their existvarious parts of the kingdom, called ence, or, what is just as effectual a só Sociétés Anonymes,"in which the peo- bar, where no foreign or domestic de ple freely subscribed for shares. Im- mand exists sufficient to call them into mense sums were drawn from other being and sustain them in prosperity channels of trade, to be invested in when created, as for a legislature to manufactures, under the control of will that the ocean be turned into dry these companies, especially in the land, or that stones shall be converted manufacture of iron, machinery, and into loaves of bread, and serpents into of cotton; and it seemed that Bel. fishes. In all cases of such demand in gium was as ardent and as anxious to foreign and domestic markets, success close her ports to British goods of this would be the result if no protective kind as France. Belgium being a duties existed. In the United States, smaller country than France, the re- we should still compete with the sults of increased wages, living, and English in coarse cotton goods, if no over-production at home, soon began duty on them existed ; and so of hats, to show themselves. What little ex- shoes, saddlery, and many other of the port trade they enjoyed under their products of our active and intelligent connection with Holland, if not sacri- industry. All the protective duties the ficed by their separation from that South American States, Old Spain, country, has been in a fair way of an- and so many other countries which nihilation under the fatal influence of have vainly exhausted themselves in their subsequent high protective duties. such experiments, can impose upon For, while they are wholly unable to themselves, cannot create manufactures compete with England in foreign neu- among them. They have often tried tral markets, they have glutted their it, and have always failed. Their redomestic and neighboring markets, strictions have always acted as a especially in the leading branches of bounty on smuggling, and defeated the trade alluded to; and out of 50 blast collection of revenue for government. furnaces, only about 18 are now in The reason is plain. They do not posoperation. Many mills are idle. Even sess in sufficient abundance those indispensable and requisite elements so with manufactures bolstered up by necessary in such pursuits as to cause bounties in the way of protective duthem to engage in the same. Other- ties. In our own country, experience wise they would spontaneously embark has tended to prove, as everywhere in the business of manufacturing. It else, that manufacturing prosperity requires no legislative act to make an and high protective duties do not acre of land in the valley of the Mis usually exist together, unless backed sissippi sufficiently rich to yield an by natural and other advantages, and abundant crop of corn; and without the free and open ability to compete in paying a man a bounty in order to se- neutral markets; and then protection cure its cultivation, it will be culti- itself, beyond revenue, is wholly usevated in due season as its produce is less. wanted.
It is well known, that in the period And when our country becomes suf- from 1828 to 1832, when our protectficiently populous, and our foreign ive tariff existed at its highest point, trade sufficiently extensive and wellthe manufacturers of the United States established, and our capital sufficiently were never in a worse condition. Inabundant, and the demand at home vestment in them became so great, and and abroad sufficient to warrant it, our the resulting over-production so enoriron trade, coal trade, cotton trade, mous, without meeting an adequate wool trade, and all the other branches demand at home or abroad, they one of trade, will become sufficiently pros and all became more or less embarperous without the aid of restrictions rassed, and many wholly failed, involvon commerce in the way of high pro- ing hundreds and thousands in irretective duties. The iron mountains trievable ruin. in Missouri, and iron ore in the Alle- Contrast this period of high protecgany mountains, and coal mines in tion with the present of reduced dumany sections of the Union, will find ties, say, during the past year, 1841, a plenty of workers. These great and none can fail to observe the great mineral reservoirs are rather to be held difference in favor of the present conin store or reserve for our posterity, dition of our manufacturing interest. whose numbers and wants will so far We venture to assert, that since the exceed our own; and all attempts of commencement of our government, the the legislature to unlock them at pre- manufacturing prosperity of this counsent, by offering bounties for such a try was never greater than it is at this premature disturbance of them, must time. And there is no portion of the be attended with unjust and injurious United States so prosperous and thrivconsequences. A few individuals ing as Massachusetts, the head-quarmight gain at the moment, but the ters of manufactures in the United whole country would suffer in the end. States. To our certain knowledge, if We are too much prone to spend we have not been wrongly informed by money for objects, and engage in enter- a party interested, the directors of a set prises, which are not required by the of print-works in this state, which wants or exigencies of the country, cost $1,500,000, have, during the last and which it would be more wise to two or three years, been in the habit leave to be developed by the wants of of declaring 14 per cent. semi-annual succeeding generations. Thus, many dividends, or about 28 per cent. per canals have been cut, and rail. annum. And what other interest yields roads either made or attempted to be such dividends? Another evidence made, which might do well enough of the present prosperous condition of some hundred years hence, and at that manufactures in Massachusetts may time prove even profitable ; but which be gathered from the fact, that all the at present serve no other purpose than stocks invested in their large factories to involve the states and people thereof sell on an average about at par, while in almost hopeless debt, and to embar- many of them range considerably rass to some extent the whole country. above it. The same must for ever happen with We cannot see how this thriving and all pursuits pushed beyond their legiti- prosperous state of things is to be augmate bounds, as indicated by the free mented by increased protective duties. and natural action of the great laws of We reverence the people of New Eng. trade, and can never fail to happen land for their general intelligence, their