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I. CLIMATOLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES
. . .
ces, fc. By Samuel Forry, M.D.
Harring. By Alexander H. Everelt. . . . .
John Tyler. . . . . . . . . .
(With a fine Engraving on Steel.)
FOUNDED ON Fact.-By John Quod, Esq. . . . .
. . . . IX. RAMBLES IN YUCATAN . .
. . . .
ninsula, including a Visit to the Ruins of Chi-Chen, Ka-
1. The Palace of the President.
3. The Next Session of Congress.
. . . . . XII. MONTHLY FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL ARTICLE XIII. Sonnet. ON THE DEATH OF CHANNING.–By Cornelius Ma
thews . . . . . . . . . . XIV. MONTHLY LITERARY BULLETIN . . . . . .
THIS NUMBER CONTAINS SEVEN SHEETS, ONE HUNDRED AND TWELVE PAGES.
The excellent work to which refer- has now derived from them their ence is made at the foot of this page present useful and interesting applicahas one merit which is of primary im- tion. Having presented in Part First portance—it is as valuable for the au- a classification of the principal pheihenticity as for the originality of its nomena of our climate, physically conmaterials. In its preparation, its la- sidered, Dr. Forry traces out, in Part borious and judicious author has accu- Second, the medical relations of these mulated a mass of facts for which laws, thus establishing in both a classialone he is eminently entitled to the fication of climates, having for its basis thanks, not only of the scientific world, observation; and having extended his but in a peculiar degree, of his coun- researches through a long series of trymen at large--data which have re- years, and over vast masses of indiquired years to collect, and years to viduals, he has disclosed many imporcollate and digest. Unlike all other tant relations having reference to the treatises on the same subject, which healih and disease of our wide-spread are generally loosely written and made borders. up of the most vague and general Climatology, although of the highstatements, the deductions of this vol- est interest to man in every conceivable ume are based upon precise instrumen- relation of his earthly existence, yet tal observations. “The design of this has been, strange to say, wonderfully work,” in Dr. Forry's own language, neglected so far as regards the climate “is to exhibit a connected view of ihe of our own country. Indeed, so little leading phenomena of our climate, effort has been made to keep pace with both physical and medical, comprising the progress of kindred branches of a condensation of all the author's ob- science, that the work of M. Volney servations on the subject." It is based on the climate of the United States, chiefly on the “Army Meteorological written more than forty years ago, Register," and the “ Statistical Report when this French savant made a on the Sickness and Mortality in the flying visit through our country, is Army of the United States," embrac- still quoted by every writer on this ing a period of twenty years (1819 to topic. So barren of precise data, in 1839), both of which are the result of truth, is this work, that the author's the labors of the same author, who only instrumental observations consist
• The Climate of the United States and its Endemic Influences : based chiefly on the Records of the Medical Departinent and Adjutant General's Office, United States Army. By Samuel Forry, M. D. New York: J. & H. G. Langley. 1842. 8vo. pp. 380.
VOL, XI.-NO. LIII.
of a few thermometrical results ob- America, it is cheering to those entained from a literary gentleman in gaged in solving the intricacies of meNew York, for which even he made no teorological phenomena to look foracknowledgment. Prior to the appear. ward to the prospects of the future. ance of Dr. Forry's work, we possessed In this general view of the existing no treatise founded on facts in regard state of climatology in our country, we to the climate of the region that we must not forget the present head of the inhabit. It is, therefore, with particu- Medical Department of the United lar pleasure that we hail the volume States Army, Dr. Thomas Lawson. before us, in which the author has de- To him the volume before us is approtermined the relations to one another priately dedicated, inasmuch as it was of the isolated facts collected in refer- under his official direction that the inence to our climate, and in which, as vestigation of the subject was first unregards the general laws of climate, dertaken by Dr. Forry in the “ Ariny he has demonstrated their harmony Meteorological Register," and the throughout the globe.
“Statistical Report on the Sickness and The merit of being the first to estab- Mortality of the Army of the United Jish, on an extensive scale, a system of States." meteorological observations, with a “In the investigation of the laws of view to the elucidation of the laws of climate," observes Dr. Forry, “ a range climate throughout the United States, of subjects so multifarious as to comis due to the late Surgeon-General of the prise almost every branch of natural United States Army, Dr. Joseph Lov- philosophy, is embraced; but its true ell, who in 1819 issued instructions to province is properly restricted to a genthe medical officers of the different eral view of these subjects, which, if posts to keep regular records of the based on legitimate deductions of obweather and to transmit them quar- served phenomena, should enable us to terly to the Medical Bureau at Wash- reduce the infinite variety of appear. ington. In 1820 and 1821, he published ances presented to us in nature, lo a the general results of each year, and few general principles. It is by means in 1826, the connected results of the of this generalization that the subject observations for the preceding four will be elevated to the dignity of a years. The first State that followed science. in this laudable measure was New “ Climate embraces not only the York, whose academies and other temperature of the atmosphere, but all schools, established under legislative those modifications of it which produce patronage, have been bound, for many a sensible effect on the physical and years past, to keep meteorological reg- moral state of man, as well as on all isters, and make reports of the results other organic structures, such as its to the regents. In 1836, a liberal ap- serenity, humidity, changes of electric propriation for similar purposes was tension, variations of barometric pressmade by the Legislature of Pennsyl. ure, ils tranquillity as respects both vania, thus supplying each county in horizontal and vertical currents, and the State with a set of meteorological the admixture of terrestrial emanainstruments; and the observations ihus tions dissolved in its moisture. Climate, made have been reported monthly to a in a word, constitutes the aggregate of special committee of the Franklin In- all the external physical cireumstances stitute, where they are at all times appertaining to each locality in its reopen for consultation. As Ohio has lation to organic nature." come, within the last year, into a simi. Considering the vast importance of lar measure, we have now a very ex- this subject to human welfare, it is tensive district of country dotted, as it lamentable to contemplate its meagerwere, with points of instrumental me- ness in the advanced state of knowteorological observation. When to ledge in the nineteenth century. Even these efforts of individual States and at the present day, one writer regards those of the medical department of our climate as differing only with the disarmy, we add the observations made tance of parallel zones from the equaunder the direction of the British au- tor or the poles; another, as dependent thorities in their extensive possessions, on the internal heat of the globe; a as well as those of private individuals third, as merely a tabular arrangethroughout the continent of North ment of the course of winds, of the
quantity of rain, and of thermometric, and winter, are best adapted, by this hygrometric, and barometric degrees; agreeable and favorable vicissitude, for whilst a fourth, supposing himself in developing the most active powers of advance of the age, refuses to admit man. It is, according to Malte-Brun, that climate is materially modified by between the 40th and 60th degrees of any causes other than latitude and north latitude, that we find the nations local elevation.
most distinguished for knowledge and The prosecution of this subject, as civilisation, and the display of courage pointed out by Dr. Forry, promises to by sea and by land. This limitation, confer upon mankind benefits of the however, is inapplicable to the United most interesting and valuable nature. States, in consequence of a feature in The general law of the decrease of our climate to be described hereafter. heat for each parallel, from the equa- With us the 32d and the 46th paraltor to the pole, subject as it is to modi- lels would form a reasonable boundary. fication from local causes, may be as. In general, in countries which have no certained, as well as that for each ver- summer, the inhabitants are destitute tical height in proportion to its eleva- of taste and genius; whilst in the retion above the level of the sea. We gions unfavored by winter, true valor, may determine the bounds of each loyalty, and patriotism, are almost unspecies of vegetation, and draw around known. As in the corporeal structure, the globe series of curves, that is, lines different effects result from the dry and of equal annual temperature, or iso- restless air of the mountain, compared thermal lines,-lines of equal summer with those evidenced in the moist and temperature, or isotheral curves,—and sluggish atmosphere of the valley, so, lines of equal winter temperature, or as regards the mental manifestations, isocheimal curves. It is pleasing to the observation of the poet Gray is contemplate such a division of the philosophically correct: earth, each of these belts representing a zone, in which we may trace the « An iron race the mountain cliffs maincauses of the existing similarity or tain, diversity in animal and vegetable pro- Foes to the gentler manners of the ductions. To determine the influence plain.” of these zones respectively upon the animal economy in health, and the Our author has taken for his motto agency exercised in the causation of the remark of Malte-Brun, that “the disease, has afforded investigations still best observations upon climate often more useful and interesting. As cli- lose half their value for the want of an mate not only affects the health, but exact description of the surface of the modifies the whole physical organiza- country ;” and accordingly he has tion of man, and consequently influ- given a bold outline of the physical ences the progress of civilisation, a features of the vast region stretching comparison of these systems of cli- from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, mate, as distinguished into constant and from the Gulf of Mexico to the inand variable climes, or mild and ex- land seas on our northern border. treme ones, in connection with the in- The Atlantic Plain, extending from fluence of the noxious exhalations the Hudson to the Mississippi, is dewhich arise from the earth, will reveal scribed as slightly elevated above the to the medical philosopher much that sea, gradually widening from a few is now unknown, and to the political miles in the North to upwards of one economist many of the circumstances hundred and fifty miles in the South. that control the destinies of a people. Among the physical features which The complete development of the men- characterize this alluvial zone, which tal, moral, and physical attributes of slopes gently down to the ocean, are man, even when nature has bestowed extensive morasses and swamps, slug. a perfect organization, is made to de- gish streams, and wide arms of the sea pend upon the physical agents which penetrating far inland. It is cominfluence those functions. For full posed, in a great measure, of tertiary mental and corporeal development, and secondary cretaceous deposits, con. the due succession of the seasons is re- sisting of alternating beds of sand and quisite. Those countries which have clay, and sometimes marl, all abounda marked spring, summer, autumn, ing in marine fossil shells. As the al