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force them. In the year 1651, a clergy. command to him; to which the other man of the name of Olier, sounder of the retorted, Your ancestors, sir, would congregation of St. Sulpice, conceived a have said, Sortons !” This is alleged by plan of supplying the inefficiency of the Madame de Crequi (a relation of Horn) law, by putting honor in opposition to itself. With this view he projected an as
as the reason of the implacable obduracy sociation of gentlemen of tried valor, demned to death for a most atrocious
of the Regent, when Horn was conwho, by subscribing an engagement, to which the solemnity of an oath was to be murder, and when the most powerful added, obliged themselves never to send efforts were exhausted in vain to obtain or accept a challenge, and never to serve
from him the slightest relaxation of as seconds in a duel. In this project he either the severity or the ignominy of engaged the Marquis de Fenelon, a noble- the punishment.* The great Law of man respected for the frankness of his Lauriston, the canonized patron-saint disposition and the austerity of his prin- of modern credit-system financiering, ciples, as well as for his well-known cou- commenced his meieor career by severage, when that quality had been called ral duels. But the prince of duellisis upon in the service of his country; since in these despicable times was the celeit was of him that the great Condé had brated profligate the Duke de Richesaid, that he was equally qualified for lieu, who was as willing and ready to conversation, for the field, or for the cabi- murder a husband as to seduce a wise,
It was to this nobleman that the --for whom, by the way, a pistol-meetjustly-celebrated Archbishop of Cambray owed his education and his rise in the ing took place between the Marquise church.
de Nesle and the Countess Polignac. “ The Marquis de Fenelon having St. Evremont and St. Foix are also the placed himself at the head of this associa- names of two noted duellists who floution,-into which no one was admitted rished amid the noxious rankness of unless he had distinguished himself in the this period. Another is chronicled by service,-on the Sunday of the Pentecost, our author in the following manner:the members assembled in the church of St. Sulpice, and placed in the hands of “ Amongst the other fashionable roués M. Olier a solemn instrument, express- of the day was Du Vighan, from Xainting their firm and unalterable resolution, onges, whose handsome appearance was never to be principals or seconds in a
so fascinating, that hackney-coachmen duel, and moreover to discourage the are said to have driven him without a banesul practice to the utmost of their fare, for the mere pleasure of serving such power. The great Condé was so struck
a joli garçon. Another anecdote is rewith the proceeding, that he said to the lated, of a tailor's wife, who called upon marquis, that a person must have the him for the payment of four hundred opinion which he himself entertained of francs, due to her husband ; but his attrachis valor, not to be alarmed at seeing him tions were such, that she left behind her the first to break the ice on such an oc a bill for three hundred. Although of casion."
middling birth, he sought to attract the
notice of the King, who granted him let. Under the Regency and the dissolute ters of nobility on his appearance. This reign of Louis XV., the frequency of fortunate youth was constantly involved duels again increased. The life of in law-suits, wherein he always contrived licentious intrigue, which was the to win his cause. So successful was he chief occupation of all the world of in all his undertakings that the Archfashion and nobility, could not but bishop of Paris called him “the serpent generate constant occasions calling for of the terrestrial Paradise.' The name this mode of adjustment. One, for he was usually known by was Le Charinstance, is told in which the rank of mant; and Madame de Crequi was obliged the Regent alone protected him from him qu'à son corps défendant.
to acknowledge that she only mentions that necessity. When the Count de
“ It was of course of the utmost necesHorn, a Belgian nobleman of distin- sity that such a charming gentleman guished family, was found by his high- should be constantly engaged in some ness with one of his favorites, the duel; and his fascinations seemed to opeCountess de Parabère, “ Sortez, Mon- rate as powerfully on the marshals of sieur !” was the duke's disdainful France, constituting the court of honor,
* See Democratic Review for July, 1842, p. 19.
as on the hearts of the ladies of the court, ceived a slight wound the combatants for he was invariably acquitted.
were separated; and shortly afterward “ His sword, however, was not always D'Agout, who had resigned his comas successful as his features and manners, mission, which was held under Condé, for he received from the Count de Meu
was restored by the latter to the corps lan a severe wound, that endangered his of the Guards, with promotion to a precious life. On his recovery he had the majority. In this reign flourished the presumption to pay his addresses to Ma- noted Chevalier d'Eon, the most expert demoiselle de Soissons, a young princess of great beauty, who became so enamored fencer and duellist of the time, of of her admirer that her aunt was obliged whom it was reserved only for a postto shut her up in a convent at Montmartre, mortem official declaration, to settle under the surveillance of one of the pro- the doubts existing as to his sex-a vost's officers. But bars and locks could considerable part of his life having not keep out such a Lothario; and a letter been passed in female attire ; while a and a rope-ladder having been discovered, tumor in the breast, growing out of a the lady's family applied to the Baron wound received in fencing, contributed d'Ugeon, one of their relatives and an ex to the mystification which, for reasons pert swordsman, to bring the youth to never fully explained, he saw fit to
The challenge was sent and ac- practise on this singular subject. His cepted; but the meeting did not take only rival in skill, and equally in faplace, in consequence of the fatal malady shionable popularity, was the Chevaof the King, upon whom Du Vighan at
lier St. George, who was a mulatto, tended to the last.
“ The monarch dead, Du Vighan lost and, in spite of swart features and no time in seeking his adversary, who in. woolly head, a great favorite among flicted two dangerous wounds in his right the ladies. He was appointed Equerry side. Notwithstanding the severity of to Madame de Montesson, whom the the injury, he contrived to scale the walls Duke of Orleans had privately married, of the abbey of Montmartre to see his be- and then Captain in the Guards of his loved princess; but he was obliged to son, the Duke of Chartres, the present spend the night under the arches of the King of the French. He is thus deeloisters, the young lady having been shut scribed :up. During this painful vigil, his wounds broke out afresh; and the hemorrhage
“He was an excellent musician, amiawas so profuse, that he was found there a ble and polished in his manners, and of a corpse the following morning. The body most agreeable conversation ; his humaniwas carried home, and a report spread ty and charitable disposition were univerabroad that he had died of the small-pox, sally acknowledged; and, although encaught from the King, during his attend- gaged in many duels, he had generally ance on the royal sufferer. Although the been the insulted party, and was never princess grieved pretty nearly unto death, known to avail himself of his reputation yet she at length consoled herself by mar
to insult any one less skilled in the scirying the Prince de Cobourg."
ence of destruction.” Under the succeeding reign, of It was during this reign that the Louis XVI., a duel took place be- celebrated impostor Cagliostro, being tween the Comte d'Artois (afterwards called out by a physician whom he Charles X.) and the Duke de Bourbon, had called a quack, proposed, on the growing out of some highly ungentle. plea that a medical question should be manly rudeness on the part of the for- settled medicinally, that the parties mer, at a masked ball, toward the should swallow two pills, the one poiDuchesse de Bourbon. It was termi- sonous and the other innocuous. nated, after a short encounter, without
The following is certainly the subbloodshed, on the interposition of the lime of French bravado:seconds. The father of this Duke de Bourbon,
“ Such were the reckless feelings of the Prince de Condé, though a prince the time, that a certain Marquis de Tenof the blood, had also fought a duel teniac, from Brittany, actually challenged with a young Captain of the Guards, the pit of a theatre. Being behind the the Vicomte d'Agout, who challenged scenes, he had appeared so forward in him for a gross injury and insult, one of the wings, that the public rebuked growing out of a licentious intrigue of him; when he immediately stepped forthe Prince. After the Prince had re- ward to the footlights, and addressing the
audience, said, 'Ladies and gentlemen, plenipotentiary;" and that to Sir Sidwith your permission a piece will be per- ney Smith's equal absurdity does not formed to-morrow, called “ The Insolence need an allusion. of the Pit chastised,' in as many acts as After the Restoration of the Bourmay be desired, by the Marquis de Ten- bons, the level of comparative social teniac!' This impudent address was received with great applause, and no one
tranquillity which had been maintained individual thought proper to resent a gene- imperial throne, and him that sat there
by the superincumbent weight of the ral insult.”
on, was all broken up again. The It is not worth while to dwell upon political agitations which prevailed, the period of convulsion that succeeded and the bad blood between the parthis reign, in connexion with the his- tisans of the old and of the new ortory of the Duel. With the earlier der of things, again sought freorators and leaders of the Republic it quent vent at the point of the sword was rather the fashion to detest and or the muzzle of the pistol. Within despise it as one of the discarded this period the Press arose in freedom things of the old régime. In the par- and great power, and out of its unaclance of the day the duel was “the customed licentiousness grew a vast argument of an assassin.” Occasional number of duels involving its conducduels were, however, fought. A few tors and others. Literary duels became months after delivering a very eloquent frequent, especially on account of pospeech against the practice, Barnave litical and historical works. Critics fought with Cazalès. The National occasionally found a weapon sharper Assembly, after having, at first, adopt- and more merciless even than the pen ed a severe law against it, at last ab- of their vocation, with which to rogated all former laws prohibiting assail an unfortunate author's missingle combat, and passed an amnesty takes of fact or reasoning. Two enin favor of those transgressors who had thusiastic novel writers fought in de been prosecuted agreeably to their fence of the classical and romantic enactments. Under the Directory and schools of literature. A Neapolitan the Consulate the practice revived; and colonel of the name of Pépé, challenged amidst the prevailing military ardor, the author of a work in which Italy the recklessness of life, the general so was reproached for its pusillanimity, cial agitation, and the unsettled confu- and refuted the slander by wounding sion of classes, it became fashionable the author. While the Count de Ségur, and frequent. In the army it was con- author of the “Campaign of Russia," stantly resorted to, both by officers and had to meet General Gourgaud, one of soldiers; scarcely a day passed without Napoleon's aides-de-camp, by whom he a meeting in the Bois de Boulogne, was also visited critically with a corwhile garrison towns were continually rective wound. disturbed by desperate duellists. Pis Since the Revolution of July, duels tols were now adopted by civilians, af- of the press and of politics have been ter the English fashion, and the sabre, most absurdly frequent. A pistol-case rarely the small-sword, became the has been at times an almost indispenarm of the military. Napoleon was sable article of furniture to the editor's very stern in discountenancing it. cabinet. The legitimist editors of Le Although he knew, from the character Revenant challenged those of their of his officers and soldiers, that it was editorial confrères who had not implicit impossible to prevent it, yet he visited faith in the virtue of the Duchesse de with his displeasure all the superior Berry, and both Laborie, of that paper, officers who transcended the regula- and Carrel of the National were woundtions on this subject. He was fre- ed. The eventual fate of the latter in a quently heard to say, that he never similar encounter with Emile de Gicould place any dependence upon a du- rardin is well known. Similar ocellist in battle, and that Latour Mau- currences took place in all the princibourg, the bravest of the brave, had pal cities. The mania spread through never drawn his sword in a private all classes. Paragraphs can be quoted quarrel. His own reply to the mad from French papers of this period, rechallenge of Gustavus IV., of Sweden, lating three or four duels in a mom. is well known,—" that he would order ing, growing chiefly out of political a fencing-master to attend him as a differences. In the present more tran
quil time they are of course less fre- gers of the principals. Brantôme makes quent; but there is no country, not even the following remarks on the subject: our own South-west, where the duel is more thoroughly established in public “I have heard much talk on this matter, opinion and as a practical resori than and have been informed by great Italian France. That is, in fact, the only captains, that they were the founders of country in which a regular code of these fights, and their punctilios, which rules exists, for the government of the were well known theoretically and practipractice. This is given at length by cally. The Spaniards resemble them, but Dr. Millingen, embracing eighty-four
are not so proficient in the art, which nowarticles, as having been sanctioned by tion. The Italians are a little more cool
a-days our Frenchmen practise in perfectwenty-five general officers, eleven and davised in this business than we are, peers of France, and fifty officers of and somewhat more cruel. They have givrank. The Minister of War, who could en as an instruction to those who feel disnot consistently with his public duties posed to grant or to spare their adversaaffix his signature to the document, ry's life, the glorious opportunity of showgave his approbation in an official letter, ing their generosity, by maiming their and the majority of the Prefects equally fallen foe, both in his legs and arms, sanctioned the regulation.
and moreover giving him a desperate cut A considerable number of duels are aeross the nose and face, to remind him of on record as having been fought by their condescension and humanity.” women in France, sometimes with the pistol and at others with the sword,
And he farther relates, that when he sometimes with each other for jea- was at Milan he took fencing lessons lousy, and at others with their lovers. for a month under a celebrated The actress Maupin, of the opera, in master named Trappe; and during the time of Louis XIV., was a famous this period not a day passed, but he duellist. Having once at a ball be- witnessed at least twenty quadrilles haved in a very rude manner to a of persons fighting in the streets, and lady, she was requested to leave the leaving the dead bodies of their adverroom, which she did on the condition saries on the pavement. There were that those gentlemen who had warmly numerous bravoes who let themselves espoused the lady's cause should ac- out for hire, to fight for those who did company her. After a hard combat not feel disposed to risk their own lives. with them in succession, she killed The same practice prevailed in Spain. them all, and quietly returned to the This mode of fighting constituied ball-room. And so late as 1827, a lady the famed Vendetta ; and the hired of Châteauroux, whose husband had combatants were called Bandeleri. received a slap in the face without Upon the extent to which the practice resenting the insult, called out the degenerated-if indeed it should be offender, and in a duel with swords called a degeneration into that of severely wounded him.
secret or hired assassination, in the In Italy during the thirteenth and avenging of wrongs or the indulgence fourteenth centuries, the press teemed of passion, it is not necessary to speak. with works on “the noble nature of In Spain duels in a former day had the science of duelling.” More ela- a similar frequency to that which we borate works have been written on have observed to have grown out of duels, satisfaction of wounded honor, the military chivalry of the age, in the and the various qualifications of mur- other countries of Europe. During the der, by Italians, than by the natives of period of the Moorish wars, single any other country: Among these may combats between the warriors of the be named Antonio Massa, Pomponio different faiths were of constant occurTorelli, Pigna, Dario Attendolo, Suzio rence. At a later day we find the de la Mirandole, Fausto de Longiano, founder of the order of the Jesuits, Possevino, Rinaldo Corsa, Fabio Al- Loyola, offering to fight a Moor whó bergoti, Maffei. Most of the celebrat- denied the Divinity of the Saviour. ed fencing-masters who gave instruc- But in modern times, both in Spain tion to the duellists of other countries and Portugal, duels are very uncomwere Italians. In Italy first originated mon, though in both the stiletto has the practice of bringing in seconds and almost become a national weapon. witnesses, who were to share the dan In Germany and Northern Europe,
duels, although formerly not unfre- promotion. Gustavus II., a contemquent, are now rare-throwing out of porary of Louis XIII., hearing of a meview the ridiculous student duels of ditated duel between two officers, was the Universities. By an ancient law first on the ground, where he had a of Sweden, writes Dr. Millingen, gallows erected; pointing to which and
to the hangman at its foot, as await“If a man told another that he was in- ing the survivor, he coolly told them, ferior to any other man, or had not the Now, gentlemen, you may proceed.” heart of a man, and the other replied, In the Austrian and Prussian states, * I am as good a man as yourself,' a meet- and in most of the countries of Gering was to follow. If the aggressor came to the ground, but did not find the offende many, duelling is rigidly punished with ed, the latter was to be considered disho- offence is of rare occurrence, though
various terms of imprisonment. The nored, and held unfit to give testimony in any cause, and deprived moreover of the not entirely unknown. In 1834, the power to make a will. But if, on the German papers gave an account of a other hand, the insulted party came for- duel of a most romantic nature: ward, and the offending party did not make his appearance, the former was to “A Baron Trautmansdorf was paying call him aloud by name three times, and, courtship to the widow of a Polish geneif he did not appear, make a mark upon ral, the young Countess Lodoiska R; the ground, when the offender would be he only awaited an appointment to an held as infamous and false. When both embassy to marry her. In the mean time parties met, and the offended was killed, a Baron de Ropp courted the lady, and in his antagonist had to pay a half compen a sonnet turned his more successful rival sation for his death; but, if the aggressor into ridicule. The baron immediately succumbed, his fate was to be attributed sent him a message, which Ropp acceptto temerity and an unguarded expression, ed; but on the ground proposed a chamtherefore his death called for no compen- pion, who espoused his cause, when sation. In Norway, any gentleman who Trautmansdorf fell. His second, indigrefused satisfaction to another was said to nant at this act of treachery, insisted that have lost his law, and could not be admit- Ropp should give him satisfaction. The ted as evidence upon oath. According to second was also mortally wounded, when the Danish laws, it was held that force is it was found out that Lodoiska herself a better arbiter in contestations than had accompanied her betrothed in male words; and in the judicial combats, attire. Ropp, having recognized her which frequently arose on the slightest when she fell, felt so deeply the turpitude provocation, no champion was allowed to of his conduct, that he threw himself on fight in the cause of another, however his own sword, and expired near the bofeeble or unskilled in arms he might be: dies of Lodoiska and her lover." women were not even allowed a proxy to defend them, but were obliged to defend their honor personally. In such cases, to
Duels are rare in Russia, but less so afford the woman a better chance, the among the Poles. Two singular Rusman who had offended her was obliged to sian duels are mentioned. A dispute get into a pit up to his waist, by which and challenge having taken place bemeans his Amazonian opponent could tween Prince Dolgoroucki and an old wheel round him and strike him on the general officer, Zass, and at that mohead with a sling or leather thong to ment the Swedish artillery being which was suspended a heavy stone; the heard, and intelligence being brought male combatant was armed with a club, that the enemy were attacking a reand if he missed her three times, or doubt, the two engaged in their duel struck the ground instead of her, he was at once by standing together in an emdeclared to be vanquished.”
brasure of the redoubt till the one or
the other should be struck. The The story of Gustavus Adolphus is Prince was cut in two by a cannon generally known, who, after strikingone ball, when the general withdrewof his officers, Colonel Seaton, accepted this desperate resolve having been withis resignation of his commission, and nessed by the whole army. The then, following him across the frontier, other was between a noted duellist, offered him satisfaction for his wound- the Count de Tolstoy, and a naval cap. ed honor on equal terms--which of tain. The latter, refusing other weacourse resulted in reconciliation, and pons, insisted upon what he called a
return of the officer to favor and naval manner of fighting, which was,