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losopher. The same poverty which it is supported by justice and humanemasculates the merely elegant scholar, ity, two unfailing pillars. Surely, a who seeks patronage instead of inde- rock of defence for ever. pendence, imparts fresh energy to the The moralist, the historian, and the conceptions, and higher aims to the poet, the three intellectual characters ambition of the manly student and the who include all others, are essentially robust thinker. The education and democratic,--with very rare exceptions, training of the scholar, moral as well which may be easily reconciled to the as intellectual, are calculated to foster general facts. generous ideas of development, and The sagacious moralist inculcates an abhorrence of servility, narrowness, republican doctrines for obvious reasons. and cant. The sequestered path of The advocate of freedom of the will, life in which he willingly, walks, at- (as the soundest and profoundest ethical tended by his immortal friends, “his iheorists have ever been,) must of conmaster and the angel death,” leads him sequence teach the doctrine of freedom to form a truer estimate of things and in action--for the one doctrine leads a juster conception of character, than naturally to the other. The free mind he can arrive at whose whole existence only can accept the plain precepts is passed in the confusion and hurry of which are enforced by a regard to moral business, or spent in the breathless pur- obligation. The licentiousness, an suit of short-lived and inconstant incidental evil accompanying this great pleasure. And, above all, the natural good, is merely an incidental evil, and sympathy with his race, that innate comparatively infrequent. It by no love of his fellow creatures which every means amounts in importance to a cause manly heart delights to cherish, more sufficient for the extinction of liberty. than anything else contributes to impel The freedom of the press has been the author to stand forward as the ad- time and again most eloquently devocate of humanity, the friend of the fended on the same general grounds, oppressed, the defender of the rights of from the Areopagitica of Milton to the
Thus have we seen the great famous speech of Lord Erskine. We men of all ages acting or speaking ; need not therefore repeat them here. thus spoke Demosthenes and Henry- The highest morality appeals directly thus wrote Plato and Montesquieu- to conscience, and truckles not to human for this fought Gustavus and Wash- creeds, nor that self-constituted authorington-for this lived Howard and ity which is wanting in its approval. It Xavier-for this died the Christian asserts the right of private judgment, martyrs, and that Sublimest of all implying intelligence and candor, at the Martyrs, in whose name and for whose same time that it respects the highest of name they died.
all authorities, the sources of all others, The sincerest Christian should be the and unadulterated by any admixture firmest democrat; for democracy is with them, Conscience and the Holy that creed which teaches peace on Scriptures. Pure ethics is democracy earth and good-will toward men, reve- moralized, to speak after the quaint rence for the innate worth of all human- fashion of our forefathers. It would ity,and respect for the equal divinity and make a man erect, calm, courageous, ultimate capability of all human souls. and forbearing. Its object is, by the Its missionaries are the political high- practice of self-denial and of uncompropriests of the ark of state, and they have mising truth, to form a manly robustever been its Prætorian guard, also. ness of character. The noble synonyme and badge of free It coincides with the purest Christian dom, has been so often perverted from teaching, in striving to arouse the two its true meaning, to express a vicious finest and sublimest of all reliances, unbelief and destructivism, for unbe- the two heart-strings of the human lief 's and destruction's sake, that it is soul formed to create the most melotoo often consounded with it. In its dious music, Love and Faith ; by the pure sense, an upright democrat is no first of these, to encourage and extend more, but on the contrary far less, a an universal spirit of philanthropy; by time-server than a sincere believer in the last, to preserve a stedfast hope and any other political creed. Democracy sacred trust in the truth, the beauty, is a principle not a fashion, and hence and the wisdom of God's providence, appealsneither to prejudice nor passion. and the operations of nature and for
tune, guided by his unerring hand.ence by peculiar conditions, reciprocal This morality allows of a reasonable rights, and mutual and generous sentipride and a tolerant ambition: it is ments of truth and loyalty. especially occupied in promoting the After a while, a new class came to growth of the generous sympathies, be considered, the wealthy mercantile the finest impulses of joy and grati- class--the “merchant princes” of Amtude; in encouraging works of charity sterdam and Florence, of Antwerp and and affection; and, in a word, in the Genoa; and, in general, the middle cultivation of benevolence in its purest classes in the Hanse towns, and the forms. At the same time, it renoun- free Italian cities. Even at a much ces utterly all the meaner springs later date, and nearer to our own time, of conduct and palsies the action of the middle class was, in effect, the fear. Its policy would make man bet- predominant class in the state. But ter by making a friend and a freeman three great revolutions, the three revoof him rather than a coward and a lutions of modern history, finally settled slave; by acts of mercy rather than by the question as to which power was acts or words of harshness; by court to rank supreme—the English revoing his good will rather than by appeal- lution, and the American and French ing to his dread and hatred.
revolutions. The first expelled one The study of history is a study of dynasty with one set of principles for political importance, and which most another dynasty with another set. It eflectually demonstrates the progress did little for the people. The French of the democratic principle. In the revolution attempted to do more. It earliest ages, the people were consi- may perhaps be said to have attemptdered as little better than a mere rak- ed too much. Yet horrible as were ble rout. The immense armies of the the excesses it saw, still it was of first devastators of the globe were com- unquestionable benefit to society and posed of willing slaves or timid mer- civilisation, if only by attracting atcenaries. Fear was the dominant tention to that forgotten, though principle, then. As we advance to- most important class, the third estate ; wards the progress of Grecian, and while the revolution itself was less later yet, of Roman power, we perceive justly responsible for those excesses a republican spirit growing up gradu- than the perpetual counter-revolution ally, which at times appeared maturing which was always struggling against and about to promise the revival of a it, with all the animosities of a virtual fabulous golden age. Brief experience civil war, of which the guillotine was soon, however, dispelled any sach illa- the military engine. The American sion, and the stately Roman no less revolution, of all revolutions the justest, than the lively Greek, ignorant of the gave independence to the first of motrue principles of Christian morality dern states, and put an end to foreign and individual liberty, on which alone tyranny and ignoranı despotism. These democracy can rest, was found incapa- three great revolutions set in motion ble of self-government for any length by the popular sentiment, if not led on of time. In Greece, the force of intel- directly in the first instance by the lect served to repress a constant revo- people, yet by their best representalutionary tendency in the fickle popu- tives, have at last taught the world lace, who certainly wanted not infor- the simple lesson, that the people are mation to become a free people: but the only rightful source of power-that in Rome, the intellectual refinements government is a business delegated by of Greece tended rather to emasculate them to their elected agents—that the than to invigorate a naturally stern and voluntary obedience they pay to rightstoical people. The history of the eous law, is only the reasonable tax middle age in Europe, is almost wholly incurred for sarrendering the smallest taken up with the records of noble possible portion of individual freedom houses, of knights and courts, and to the general guardian of national bishops and earls, with their wars and freedom. tournaments, and councils and cru The thorough historical student must sades. Feudalism prevailed, which therefore become a believer in demo resolved the whole of society into two cracy. It is the only creed which can classes, the patron and the follower, be borne out by the facts of history: ennobling, as it were, personal depend- the only theory by acting on which
we may hope to preserve the unity this hardy constitution of intellect and and integrity of our own republic, and conscientious moral sense, we find Milby means of which we may expect to ton and Dante, sublime poets, sublimer arrive at mature glory. We are happy patriots. Milion's fellow secretary, to see the latest of the great historians, Marvell, was an elegant poet and a Bancroft (a name to be placed close to true man. Even the courily Waller Hume and Tacitus) tracing the growth was a parliament man, and wrote his of the democratic principle in our colo- noblest copy of verses on the Protector. nial history with nicety and profound Cowley, though he was a determined research, — that principle which has royalist, has written the most admirbeen at work in so many countries, at able eulogium upon Cromwell that has so many different epochs, and under so been penned-ihe tribute of praise many controlling hands. What names which even hostility could not conceal. and events does it not recall—Pericles, An expression of republican feeling and Cæsar, and Cicero; Tell, and Wal- could hardly be looked for among the lace, and Washington; Cromwell, and courtly and heartless wits of Charles' Mirabeau, and Napoleon; Emmett, and days, nor hardly in those of good John Adams and Bolivar; the defence Queen Anne. In the present century of the pass at Thermopylæ, the Punic the Muse of Liberty inspired her freest wars, the battle of Marston Moor, the strains into the youthful lyres of ColeDeclaration of Independence.
ridge, Southey, and Wordsworth, who The standard authors of history, in apostatized from their early creed in English, have been most of them advo- maturer life. Leigh Hunt affords alcates of royalty, and defenders of the most the sole instance of a poet bedivine right of kings: popular oppres- coming a political martyr since the sion, however they aim to do so, they days of Milton and Withers. He was cannot easily obscure, and hence their incarcerated for a supposed libel on the very caution and occasional suppres. Prince Regent. Lamartine, in France, sions are more effective than they underwent a similar fate. The two could have anticipated, and in an op- noblest lyrical poets of the last half posite way. The French historians, century, Burns and Beranger, were deuntil of late, have been in general gos- voted patriots: the one celebrating the sipping court writers, retailers of anec- ancient glories of his native country, dote and scandal, painters of manners, and the other immortalizing the vicand not of characters. In the present tories of his favorite idol, Napoleon. century Guizot, Michelet, Thierry, and The German Muse, in the verses of Dumas, have set their followers a Körner and Schiller, breathed the subvery different example, and deserv- limest aspirations after Freedom, and edly rank very high. For accuracy a recognition of the worth of a manly and judgment the Germans are beyond soul. In our own country, the Ameriall praise, but their writers use crayons can Wordsworth, Bryant, who has instead of painters' brushes; they give still not borrowed the political theory, forcible and clear outlines, but meagre if he has rivalled the poetical beauties and colorless. From all faithful chron- of his original, has sung noble hymns iclers we gather that history adds her to Liberty, that should be engraven on testimony to the inherent worth of de- the hearts of his countrymen. And mocracy.
hardly with one exception, our writers The remark is often heard that poets of the first class, Bancroft, Channing, should never become politicians, be- Hawthorne, &c., have not only spoken cause politics is a business, and a se out freely their belief in the stability vere study besides, not a pure“ busi- and integrity of the Republic, but have ness of delight;" and yet we find the also expressed themselves plainly in greatest poets have uniformly been the the terms of the democratic creed. warmest partizans, a class of men very From American democracy much is, unlike ordinary political hacks, yet with reason, to be expected: more still the advocates of a particular sys- than from the worn-out governments tem, and choosing a side. We learn, of the old world, and the presumptuous too, that, despite of the airy charms of endeavors of other nations. We say romance and the splendor of glittering presumptuous, because their claims are gauds, the true poet is inherently and ill-founded. Our Revolution, the basis almost necessarily a republican. Of of our democracy, was established
upon the firmest foundation.
Correspondent to this should be the commenced in a deliberate, though character of our literature: colored by earnest spirit, after mature reflection, the rays of the fair Sun of Liberty, and with a special design. Advocated which we trust may never set!-based by cool heads and brave hearts, it was on the firm foundation of eternal justconducted in a spirit of intelligent zeal, ice, that cannot be moved, and wholly and yet a wise moderation, and finally inspired by the universal sympathy of consummated with sagacity and (so a nation of philanthropists. Our poets, far as we may speak of any form of unlike the sycophantic versifiers of a human government) with a fair pro- court, will chaunt the praises, not of spect of permanency: No bloody con- the conqueror, but of the pacificator: spiracies, no Bartholomew massacre, our historians will paint no Reign of no Sicilian Vespers, marked its course, Terror, but the everlasting dominion but wise counsels and eloquent oratory, of peace: our philosophic teachers and fields fairly fought and won. It will inculcate all those duties and had a deep meaning, it was stamped seek to instil all those principles that with a moral purpose; it was not a strengthen and invigorate the manly revolution in the ordinary sense of a character, that support the true Christchange of rulers; but it was a baptism ian, and that distinguish the character of a great nation, the political regener- of the genuine Patriot. ation of a great people.
PENCILLED IN A VOLUME OF TENNYSON'S POEMS.
THERE's a fairy with a dimple
POLITICAL PORTRAITS WITH PEN AND PENCIL.
THOMAS WILSON DORR, OF RHODE ISLAND.
(With a fine Engraving on Steel.) “ Væ victis !"_Wo to the conquered! in Mr. Dorr the representative of a great —is as true now as when the speech and true democratic principle, to which broke from the fierce lip of the rude it was meet and right to do honor in Gaul. And never is it more so, than his person. The misfortunes which when, in the civil struggles of parties, have caused him to fail in carrying that the cause of popular liberty sustains a principle into practical effect, in no rereverse, and its supporters, by force, spect weakening his identification with fraud, or fortune, find themselves com at least its abstract truth, constitute no pelled to succumb again beneath the sufficient reason to divert us from that pressure of the power they have vainly purpose. On the contrary, we are attempted to overthrow. The defeated induced by this cause to anticipate by are then, always and everywhere, several months the Number in which traitors, rebels, caitiffs and brigands! it was originally contemplated to insert The felon's fate for their bodies—the it. However disastrous the event may felon's fame for their memories ! have been, the principle remains un
This is a sad truth—and it is still touched, and not less true and great more sad to find the spirit out of which than it was when it triumphed in the it proceeds not less rife and rancorous achievement of our own Revolution. among a very large portion of our own And however disgraceful that event population, than it has ever shown may have proved, its disgrace does not itself in the most insolent and bitter attach to Mr. Dorr, whose individual ferocity of English Toryism. It is conduct-though he may have been at brought strongly to our mind when- times mistaken in judgment, and deever we reflect upon the treatment ceived in his estimate of men—has in which within the past few weeks has no single respect been wanting in coubeen showered upon the high-minded rage, firmness, disinterestedness, or de and pure-minded man, the courageous votion to the cause at the head of and patriotic gentleman, scholar, and which he stood. democrat, with whose name—in the It may have been Alexander, Cæsar, midst of all the obloquy with which or Hannibal-no matter which-who the very air resounds-we esteem itno said, that better was an army of deer dishonor to adorn this page.
with a lion for their chief, than an There is said to be but one unpar- army of lions under command of a deer. donable sin. So far as the affairs of There would probably be not much to this world are concerned, it is true,– choose between the two. Without deand that sin is failure. Of this, Mr. siring, by such a juxtaposition of names, Dorr has certainly been guilty. We to convert Mr. Dorr, from his proper are well aware that this is therefore peaceful capacity of a quiet civilian precisely the proper moment at which into the military one for which he was every friend, whether of his principles probably neither meant by nature nor or of his person, ought to turn round trained by art, we may yet be permitand abandon and abuse him. Now, ted to express our doubt whether Alexthough we happen to stand in this ander, Cæsar, or Hannibal—or all the double relation toward him, yet, for the “three single gentlemen rolled into very singularity of the thing, we think one"-could have made much out of proper to pursue a different course. the greater part of the materials which When our intention was announced of seem to have surrounded him, in his reinserting his engraved portrait in the cent unsuccessful attempt to establish present series of distinguished Ameri- and maintain the Constitution of the can Democrats, it was because we saw State of Rhode Island. It has been