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In regard to the principal phenom- similar to themselves has proceeded ena of physical life, such as the pro- from hybrids of an opposite sex. It is gress of corporeal development, the thus apparent that the vis procreatriz periodical phenomena of the constitu- between different species, both in the tion, and those other processes termed animal and vegetable kingdoms, is very by physiologists the natural functions, defective, and that the law of nature the opinion is warranted, from a com- which maintains the diversity of tribes prehensive view of the question, that in the organized world, is not really there is no marked difference among infringed by the isolated phenomena the different races of mankind.
observed in reference to hybrid proThe pathological history of the dif- ductions. That animals generally have ferent races constitutes as much a part the same form and endowments now of their physical description, as any as at the remotest period of our acquaintfeature in their anatomical structure. ance with them, is an opinion confirmFrom a survey of the facts connected ed by the oldest historical records, as with this question, it appears that the well as by the works of art and the whole human family, making due al- actual relics found in Egyptian tombs. lowance for endemic influences, are The zoological descriptions of Arisequally, subject to those ills which totle, composed twenty-two centuries “ Hesh'is heir to," thus confirming the ago, are still faithful to nature in every doctrine that a common nature pertains particular. Hence it would appear that lo mankind. This comparison is based insurmountable barriers to the interon the fact that certain diseases are mixture of species, at least among wild peculiar to man, a list of which has animals, have been provided by nature, been made out by Blumenbach. in the instinctive aversion to union
An identity of species between two with other species, in the sterility of animals, notwithstanding a striking hybrid productions, and in the law of difference in some particulars, has been the reproduction of the corporeal and inferred, as a general rule, if their off- psychical characters of the parent in the spring has been found capable of pro- offspring, creating. Although this doctrine has These facts have an important bearbeen generally maintained by our most ing upon the doctrine that mankind distinguished naturalists, yet some have constitutes a single species. It is well rejected it as a hasty generalization. known to horticulturists and those enThe production of hybrids is a phenom- gaged in breeding domesticated anienon observed not only among mammi- mals that, by crossing and intermixing fers, but among birds, fishes, the insect varieties, a mixed breed superior in tribes, and the vegetable kingdom; almost every physical quality to the and when we survey the numerous parent races is often produced ; and it facts opposed to the generally admitted has also been observed that the interlaw of nature that all hybrid produc- mixture of different races of the human tions are sterile, there would seem to family has produced breeds physically be some ground for doubting the sound- superior, generally speaking, to either ness of the general conclusion. Thus ancestral race. Now, as it is a law, the dog and the wolf, and the dog and according to the high authority of Bufthe fox, will breed together, and the fon and Hunter, that those animals of mixed offspring is capable of procrea- opposite sexes, notwithstanding some tion. And that mules are not always striking differences in appearance, barren, is a fact not unknown even to whose offspring is equally prolific with Aristotle. But as hybrid productions themselves, belong to one and the are almost unknown among animals same species, it follows that these facts in their wild and unrestrained condi- afford a strong confirmation of the contion, it would seem that there is a mu- clusion deduced from many others, tual repugnance between those of dif- viz., that there is but one human speferent species; and thus nature guards cies; for, as just remarked, whilst ihc against a universal confusion of the dif- offspring of distinct species, (real hyferent departments of organized crea- brids,) are so little prolific that their tion. Notwithstanding the occasional stock soon becomes extinct, it is found exceptions to the general fact of the that the mixed offspring of different sterility of hybrid productions, it has varieties of the same species generally never been observed that an offspring exceeds the parent races in corporeal
vigor and in the tendency to multipli- wholly either the ewe or ram. The incation. This law, however, does not crease of a common ewe, impregnated by apply to the moral and intellectual en a ram of the new breed, follows entirely dowments; for we find these deterio- the one or the other, without blending rated in the European by the mixture any of the distinguishing and essential of any other race, and, on the other peculiarities of both. hand, an infusion of Caucasian blood where common ewes have had twins by
“ Frequent instances have happened tends in an equal degree to ennoble otter rams, when one exhibited the comthese qualities in the other varieties of plete marks and features of the ewe, the the human family.
other of the ram. The contrast has been Before proceeding to the considera- rendered singularly striking when one tion of the diversities exhibited among short-legged and one long-legged lamb, the various tribes of mankind, we will produced at a birth, have been seen suckbring under notice what may be called ing the dam at the same time.” accidental
or congenital varieties. Among all organized productions, we Among instances of variety of strucfind variety of form and structure in ture originating in the race of man, the same species, and even in the off- which are in like manner propagated spring of the same parents ; and what through many generations, may be is equally remarkable, we discover a mentioned the oft-observed fact of sutendency to perpetuate in their offspring pernumerary toes or fingers, and corall individual peculiarities. This con- responding deficiencies. Hence the stitutes an exception to the general names of Varus and Plautus among law that animals produce their like,- the ancient Romans. Likewise those an exception by which it were easy to peculiar features by which the indiviexplain the present existence of diver- duals of some families are charactersified races, originating from the same ized; as, for instance, the singular primitive species, did not a new diffi- thickness of the upper lip in the impeculty arise in the question, having refer- rial house of Austria, which was introence to the extent of deviation of struc- duced, three centuries ago, by interture that may take place without break- marriage. These organic peculiarities ing in upon the characteristic type of are often transmitted to children, even the species. There are many instances when one of the parents is of the ordinaon record in which these accidental va- ry form, for three and four generations. rieties have been perpetuated by heredi. Hence there is reason to believe that if tary transmission. 'One of the most persons of this organic peculiarity were extraordinary is the recent origination of to intermarry exclusively, we might
new variety of sheep in New have a permanent race characterized England, called the “ancon or otter by six toes or fingers. We have a sibreed,” in consequence of the short- milar fact in the history of the English ness of the limbs and the greater family of “ porcupine men,” in whom proportionate length of the body, the the greater part of the body was coverfore-legs being also crooked. A male ed with hard excrescences of a horny lamb produced by a ewe of the com- nature,which were transmitted heredimon kind, was the first ancestor of tarily. These remarks apply equally this breed ; and his offspring often ex to those peculiarities of organization hibited the same peculiarity of organi- which predispose to many diseases, as zation. Finding the animal unable to well as to the transmission of mental jump over fences, the propagation of and moral qualities, all of which are the breed became a desirable object. truly hereditary. It is thus seen that That the breed is permanent appears varieties of structure are not always from the following facts, communica- transmitted from first parents, and that ted to the Philosophical Transactions when they have once arisen, they befor 1813, by Col. Humphreys : come, under favorable circumstances,
“When both parents are of the otter permanent in the stock. breed, their descendants inherit the pecu
In considering the diversities preliar appearance and proportions of form. sented by the human family, we will I have heard but of one questionable notice first the varieties of color. The case of a contrary nature.
Negro and the European are the two “ When an otter ewe is impregnated extremes,which, as in every other parby a common ram, the increase resembles ticular in which the various tribes of
the human family differ, run into each for all these have black hair ; but other by the nicest and most delicate among the spotted Africans, according gradations. Hence we are warranted to Blumenbach, the hairs growing out in the opinion that difference of com- of a white patch on the head are plexion constitutes no distinction of white. These facts, in connection species, inasmuch as the skin is almost with others observed among inferior black in some nations classed as Cau- animals, as the dog, sheep, and goat, casian, and even among the American prove sufficiently that a distinction of tribes the extreme of a white and a species cannot be established on the black skin is exhibited. This subject mere difference in the hair. What a is investigated at length both by Law- striking contrast there is between the rence and Prichard, the former main- hairy coat of the argali or mouflon and taining that climate has no agency in the beautiful fleeces of our most valucausing the varieties of color observed able sheep, both of which belong to in the human species, whilst the latter the same species. It is probable that advocates the opposite opinion. That the black and crisp hair of the negro Prichard is correct to a certain extent tribes, called from a loose analogy we will attempt to show in the sequel; woolly, may be an accidental variety. but it is equally evident that the differ- That a similar connection in point of ence of color in the primary races color also exists between the skin and comes under the head of accidental iris was noticed as long ago as the days or congenital diversities. Having stated of Aristotle. many facts which favor the latter opi As regards the difference of stature nion, Lawrence adduces analogous ones and features, and peculiarity of organamong the inferior animals. Thus, the ization, it has been already remarked circumstance that in many parts of that these do not give sufficient ground England all the catile have the same for establishing a distinction of species. color, he refers to the custom of Hence, seeing the varieties of form slaughtering all the calves which have and structure which distinguish the innot the desired tint. We also know habitants of the same region, it should that white sheep may produce black not excite our surprise when we conJambs; and so well aware are farmers sider the diverse influence of external of the liability of this color's being again agencies in remote regions, to find a transferred that they always reject black much greater diversity between the rams in breeding. But the influence of natives of each respectively. Indeed local circumstances,on the other hand, is we find in all the departments of orapparent in the fact that, notwithstand- ganized nature a diversity of structure ing the horses which run wild in Para- within the limitations of species analoguay are descended from variegated gous to those exhibited in the human European stocks, yet they are now of races. It is conceded on all hands, as one peculiar color.
is remarked by Blumenbach, that swine As regards the hair, beard, and color were unknown in America until carof the iris, we also observe strongly ried hither from Europe; yet, notwithmarked varieties in the human family. standing the comparatively short peWhilst the head of the Caucasian race riod that has intervened, there now is adorned with an ample growth of exist many breeds, exhibiting the most fine locks, and his face with
a copious striking peculiarities as compared with beard, the Negro's head presents short each other or with the original stock. woolly knots, and that of the American The pigs carried in 1509 from Spain to or Mongolian, coarse and straight hair, Cuba degenerated, according to Herall having nearly beardless faces; and rera, into a monstrous race, with toes with this diminution of the beard is half a span long. They here became combined a general smoothness of the more than twice as large as their Euwhole body. That the coloring prin- ropean progenitors. Again, we find ciple in the skin and hair is of a com- the breed of domestic swine in France, mon nature is evident, from the fact that with a high convex spine and hanging among the white races every gradation head, just the reverse of that of Engfrom the fair to the dark is accompa- land, with a straight back and pendunied by a corresponding alteration in the lous belly. In Hungary and Sweden tint of the hair. This remark applies we meet a solidungular race. It is equally to the colored varieties of men, also observed by Blumenbach “ that
there is less difference in the form of sider their moral and intellectual difthe skull in the most dissimilar of man- ferences; and so remarkable are these kind than between the elongated head contrasts between the races usually of the Neapolitan horse and the skull distinguished as white and black, that of the Hungarian breed, which is re- the distinction of coloris not more strikmarkable for its shortness, and the ex- ing. Whilst the most disgusting tent of the lower jaw.”-It thus ap- moral as well as physical portrait of pears, as was shown before, and will man is exhibited by the hideous savabe still further illustrated, that organic ges of Congo, New Holland, and New structure is strikingly adapted to the Guinea, we discover, on the other necessity of local circumstances. hand, that those nations which have
The classification of skulls under the produced the richest fruits in art and five general forms already described, is science, in religion and morals, in civiliof course entirely arbitrary. As in sation and government-in a word, in every other corporeal diversity, so we all that can dignify and ennoble man, find in regard to crania an impercepti- —have a beautifully formed head, charble gradation among the nations of the acterized by great development of its carth, filling up the interval between anterior portion. It is these races which the two extremes of the most perfect have, at all times, not merely vanCaucasian model and the most exagge- quished those of a more ignoble formarated Negro specimen. Hence we must tion, characterized by the low retreatconclude that the diversities of skulls ing forehead, but held them in peramong mankind do not afford sufficient manent subjection. The remarkable ground for a specific difference,-an in- prominence of the cheek-bones and the ference confirmed by the variations projection of the jaws is another charwhich occur in animals of the same acteristic trait of savage tribes, indispecies.
cating their coarse and animal nature Admitting then that the phenome- in a great development of the organs na of variation brought under view in of taste and smell.* But notwithstandregard to inferior animals, which are ing their cruelty and selfishness, their observed both in their wild and domes- unfeeling barbarity to women and chiltic state, are analogous to the varieties dren, and their brutal apathy and indowhich distinguish the various races of lence, unless stimulated by the desire the human family, it follows that the of revenge, or roused by the
pressure latter should present still greater dif- of actual physical want, which give to ferences ; for whilst each species of the dark races, generally speaking, the animals inferior to man is mostly con- lowest degree of moral feelings, we yet fined to a limited region and to a mode find the inferiority of the intellectual of existence that is simple and uniform, faculties, compared with the white rathe human races are scattered over the ces, more general and strongly marked.t whole face of the earth, under every
From an extensive series of analogies variety of physical circumstances, in among the different races of man addition to the influences arising from brought under view by Prichard, he a moral and intellectual nature. attempts to establish the conclusion,
Having surveyed the diversities of " that the phenomena of the human corporeal formation among the various mind and the moral and intellectual races of man, it now remains to con- history of the human races afford no
The physiognomy of the Fejee Chief, recently brought to this country by the squadron of the Exploring Expedition, and who had been captured on account of the massacre, several years ago, of part of the crew of one of our vessels, upon whom he displayed his cannibal propensities, afforded a fine illustration of this law.
† We would be distinctly understood as using the terms, white and black races, in the general sense of Caucasian and Ethiopian varieties. The color of the skin implies no distinction of races; for, as is shown throughout this article, the African tribes vary much in this respect,—the American exhibit the extremes of white and black, and even the Caucasian, generally characterized as white, present nations decidedly black. In the frontispiece to the third volume of Prichard's work, we have a striking specimen of a black Caucasian, being a portrait of Ramohun Roy, a. Brahmin of undoubtedly pure race.”
proof of diversity of origin in the fami. parent to the offspring,--that the mind, lies of men. * Nor can it be notwithstanding it is immortal and impretended that any intellectual superi- material, depends for its manifestations ority of one human race over another, and developments on organic strucwhich can be imagined to exist, fur- ture, which last determines the intelpishes any argument against this con- lectual grade of the individual,-and clusion. If, for exampie, it were al- that there is an intimate connection lowed that the Negroes are as deficient between physical features and moral in mental capacity as some persons and intellectual character, both of which have asserted them to be, this could are influenced by local causes. not prove them to be a different species, Hence it follows that we regard the since it must be allowed that there are mind of every human being, as it emadifferences equally great, and even nated from the Creator, identical in its greater, between individuals and fami- nature. The difference between indilies of the same nation.
viduals, in this respect, is the result of There are some Negrocs whose mental the peculiar organization of the brain faculties fully attain the standard of and of education. Towards the Deity, European intellect."
the original relation of the Negro and From these facts, as will be seen, the European is the same, but the one Prichard, following the footsteps of has far outstripped the other in the deBlumenbach, draws the inference that velopment of the material structure there is nothing in the organization of through which mind is manifested. the brain of the most debased Negro We repudiate the idea of a “mind distribes, which affords a presumption of eased ;" for as it is immortal and iminferior moral or intellectual endow- material, it can suffer no change from ments. On the other hand, Lawrence disease; but to have sound manifestauses the following language:-“I tions of mind, we must have healthy deem the moral and intellectual char- organic structure. Upon the doctrine acter of the Negro inferior, and deci- of a plurality of mental organs, we dedly so, to that of the European; and, are enabled also to explain the pheas this inferiority arises from a corres nomenon of monomania or madness ponding difference of organization, I upon a single subject. must regard it as his natural destiny." In taking a general survey of the Now, we will attempt to show, in fol- physical ethnography of the African lowing up the physical ethnography of races, it will be necessary first to advarious nations, that both these conclu- vert to its physical geography. Africa sions, though correct in part, abound in has generally been divided into three error.
great regions, two of which comprise The writer would here, however, first immense mountainous tracts or tableannounce his own creed. We believe lands, whilst the third is the interventhat the brain is an aggregate of many ing space consisting of an ocean of distinct organs, each having a peculiar sand. The elevated region of Northfunction,—that the varieties of moral ern Africa is a continuous system of feeling and of capacity for knowledge highlands, which, under the denominaand reflection, as a general law, de- tion of Atlas, extend along the Medipend on diversities of cerebral organi- terranean coast. These highlands on zation, which are indicated by differ- the border of the Atlantic ocean seem ences in the shape of the skull,—that to be a continuation of the system of a cerebral organ is not, perhaps, less mountains in the Spanish Peninsula, susceptible of improvement and deve- separated only by the narrow strait of lopment than a muscle,*—that moral the Mediterranean ; and on each side and intellectual qualities, not less than of this sea, the vegetation in general physical, are transmittible from the presents a marked analogy. The
* It cannot be doubted that a partial change of figure in the cranium' of the adult takes place from time to time, according to the pursuits of the individual. That bones change more easily than the softer parts is proved by physiological experiments and the phenomena of discase. By the absorbents, their elements are continually removed—a loss which is as constantly repaired by the deposition of new particles secreted from the blood.