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has been dispersed according to the ca- fact that seeds may actually lie conpabilities afforded by its structure, and cealed in the earth for ages without the aid of external agencies.” The losing their vitality, Thus, seeds found phenomena connected with the vegeta- at Stirling, Scotland, in a bed of clay, tion of islands are also thought by which had been buried under fourteen Prichard to be strongly confirmatory of feet of peat-earth, produced, upon bethe dispersion of species from particu- ing sowed, a crop of chrysanthemum seplar central points. In opposition to the tum! The circumstance that the pine hypothesis that the vegetable tribes, forests of our western States, when burnt independent of any centres of propaga- or cut down, are succeeded by forests tion, will spring into existence wher- of oak trees, is an analogous fact. It ever the physical conditions are conge- would seem, then, that where both the nial to their nature, he adduces also soil and the atmospheric conditions are the negative evidence that similar cli- equally suitable for many social plants, mates on each continent, notwithstand- the strongest will choke the others, and ing a general analogy, have dissimilar finally obtain the complete mastery: but vegetation. But if we reject the theory that the seeds of the weaker planis will of equivocal production, that is, of the for ages preserve their vitality in the spontaneous generation of the same earth, and spring into visible existence species in many and remote localities, as soon as the proper conditions arise. how are we to account, by the means Dispersion of Animals.-One of the of dispersion above enumerated, for the most powerful supporters of the theory existence of similar aquatic plants in of the spontaneous origin of animals is the marshes of distant countries? We Rudolphi. « As mould and various find, for example, that under the same fungi,” he says, generate themselves physical circumstances, the Nymphæa under the necessary conditions, so likeLotus will spring up in India and in wise do infusory animalcules; and the Hungary, and the Potamogeton Natans most unbridled fancy can hardly imain Europe and in St. Domingo. To what gine that the infusoria were produced other theory can we refer the phenome- in Asia, and from thence have been non observed by Humboldt, that the spread over the world.” But whether same subterranean cryptogamous plants or not these lower orders of animals, are seen in the mines of New Spain, whose diminutiveness baffles all accuwhich are known to grow in deep exca rate researches into their mode of orivations of the earth in Europe? How else gination, spring into existence without are we to explain the fact that when parentage, we know at least that the those mountains of Italy, which are of opinion derives no confirmation from comparatively modern origin, were up- the argument of analogy among the heaved, their upper regions became higher order of animals, whose struccovered with the vegetation of Lapland, ture admits of more satisfactory inwhilst the intermediate country is de vestigation. void of those plants? In ascending As the existence of insects is closely Mount Ararat, according to Tourne- connected with that of the plants and fort, we observe at its foot the plants animals on which they subsisi and often of western Asia; a little higher up, the live, it follows that the laws of their vegetable forms of Italy are recognized; dispersion must be much dependent next, those of central France; at á upon those of the latter. According to still higher level those of Sweden ; and M. Latreille, who has given much atbeyond this last point, the flora of Lap. tention to the geographical distribution land and the Alps. Besides, geologi- of the insect tribes, it appears that cal investigations prove that subse- they are very distinct in countries sequent to the era of the secondary form- parated by seas, vast deserts, and lofty ations, there has been a new develop- chains of mountains, of which the loment of vegetation on the surface of cality, soil, temperature, and other the earth. These facts favor the hypo- physical conditions, are apparently sithesis that plants, independent of ori- milar. But although the same tribes ginal dispersion from certain centres, of insects may not be found under the will spontaneously arise wherever phy- same parallel and similar local condisical conditions exist adapted to their tions, yet it has often been observed nature.

by naturalists that they are replaced by Reference may here be made to the analogous groups.

Notwithstanding the adaptation of trating an admirable conformity bebirds for extensive migration, we find tween the organic capabilities of each that their geographical distribution and the surrounding physical circumbears an analogy to the rest of organ- stances. Thus, in the Old World, in ized nature. Thus, in regard to the analogous climates north and south of vulture tribe, we discover peculiarities the equator, the species, notwithstandin Europe and America, whilst in New ing many genera exist in common, are Holland they are entirely unknown. entirely different. The horse and the Again, the parrot tribes found in Asia, ass found in the northern hemisphere, Africa, and America, are each peculiar. are represented in the southern by the

Although the inhabitants of the zebra and the quagga. On comparing ocean are not, like those of the land, the two continents, if we except the confined to particular regions, yet even northern regions which approximate, among them we find a geographical the same law is discovered. When distribution. If there do exist any cos- the Spaniards landed in the new world, mopolites in the ocean, it is some they did not find a single quadruped of species of whales, which, according to Europe, Asia, or Africa. For instance, the testimony of whale-fishers, traverse the elephant, the rhinoceros, the camel, the globe from pole to pole. In regard the dromedary, the hippopotamus, the to fishes it is known that those of the giraffe, the lion, the tiger, the horse Mediterranean differ entirely from those and the ass, were not found in Ameof the Red Sea ; that the silurus electri- rica. On the other hand, the lama, cus appertains exclusively to the rivers the peccari, the tapir, the jaguar, the of Africa, and the electric gymnotus to agouti, the sa pajous, the sloth, and those of America; that flying-fishes others, were equally unknown in the are almost unknown beyond intertro- eastern hemisphere. We read, it is pical seas, and that among a vast as- true, of the American lion, but he is semblage of antarctic animals, none is widely different from the lion of Africa found which is known to the waters of —a remark that applies equally to the the northern hemisphere. The pheno- monkey tribes. As the continent of menon of the same species of fishes New Holland is remotely separated being found in inland collections of wa- from all the other extensive tracts of ter, however distant from one another, land, so it has an assemblage of aniis very analogous to the fact of the dif- mals not less peculiar than its vegetafusion of aquatic plants under the same tion. Of the marsupial or pouched circumstances. Those opposed to the animals, which are so exceedingly rare theory of equivocal generation explain in other countries, there are here this fact by reference to the inundations more than forty species. In the class attested by historical and geographical of reptiles, the same law obtains. proofs, or on the supposition, as is done Thus, the crocodile of the Nile is totally by Lyell, that the minute eggs of fishes different from the alligator of America, are occasionally transported from lake and so of the boa of India and the to lake among the feathers of birds. python of the New World ; and, as

Having now reached that part of our regards the poisonous species, the inquiry which refers to the mammifers hooded snake is peculiar to Asia, the and reptiles of the land--animals con cerastes to Africa, and the rattlesnake fined by their limited powers of loco- to America. The peculiar adaptation motion to the regions that gave them of organic structure to local conditions birth—the facts presented will lead to is apparent in the camel of the sandy more positive conclusions, than in the deserts, in which he is placed, as his case of the animals that cleave the air stomach has cells for holding water; with wings, or elude our view in the and also in the circumstance that the ocean's depths, or in the researches of hoofed animals of South America are the botanist who may mistake for suited to the precipitous Cordilleras, original centres of diffusion plants whilst the solidungular quadrupeds of whose seeds have been transported to southern Africa are equally adapted to a distant shore by an oceanic current. its vast sandy plains. With the exIn regard to tellurian animals, we may ception of the extreme north, where divide the surface of the earth into the two continents so approximate that zoological provinces, each the abode of the distance between them, which is a particular group of animals, illus- broken by islands, is partially frozen

over in winter, the researches of the laws of nature; for the meaning of the zoologist have not yet discovered that passage, in reference to the submersion any individual species are common to of the “universa terra”--the whole distant regions. Nevertheless, particu- earth—may be fulfilled by rendering it lar groups are represented in parallel in the words, “the region inhabited climates of distant countries by analo- by man,” inasmuch as the destruction gous tribes; for example, the tribes of of the depraved human race was the the simiæ, and the dog and cat kinds, end proposed by the deluge. Hence and other terrene animals, which, how- the tribes of wild animals belonging to ever, are very differently organized in remote regions may have been spared. the three great continents; and, not We have now reached the main withstanding this diversity of or- object of the inquiry before us-Do ganization in the monkey, (an animal the various races of man belong to a supposed by some to have a close single species? In the general classiaffinity to man,) all the tribes, in the fication of mankind, we find that nearly natural state, are confined almost every author has some peculiar views. wholly to the intertropical zone. As Thus, whilst Cuvier makes the disregards the zoology of islands, we find tinction of three races, Malte-Brun has that small ones, remotely situated from no less than sixteen. As the division of continents, are in general quite desti- Blumenbach, consisting of five varietute of land quadrupeds, whilst those ties, viz., the Caucasian, Mongolian, near to continents have mostly the American, Ethiopian, and Malay, is the tribes which belong to the main land. one most generally adopted, it may be

From a general view of the facts well to present here their general disabove adduced, the inference may be tinguishing characters. Among their fairly drawn that each species of ani- principal characteristics, those of the mal' had an original centre of ex- skull are most striking and distinguishistence, to which it was by nature ing. It is on the configuration of the peculiarly adapted, and from which bones of the head that the peculiarity point they have dispersed themselves of the countenance chiefly depends. in proportion to their capabilities of In the Caucasian race, the head is enduring a change of physical circum- more globular than in the other vastances.

rieties, and the forehead is more exLest these conclusions, in regard to panded. The face has an oval shape the distribution of organized beings, nearly on a plane with the forehead should be deemed hostile to the sacred and cheek-bones, which last project records, a word of explanation may be neither laterally nor forwards as in necessary. If we follow the words of other races; nor does the upper jawScripture literally, maintaining that a bone, which has a perpendicular direcpair of all living species was gathered tion, to which the lower jaw corresfrom all the climates of our globe and ponds, give a projecting position to the preserved in the ark of Noah, we be- front teeth, as in the other varieties. come involved in a zoological incon- The chin is full and rounded. The sistency, unless we call in the aid of skin may be described as generally supernatural agency; for, as animals fair, but it is susceptible of every tint, are adapted by their structure and and in some nations is almost black; functions to the local conditions of food, and the eyes and hair are variable, the soil, temperature, &c., all could not former being mostly blue, and the latter have existed on the same spot. More- yellow or brown, and flowing. It is over, either the carnivorous animal the nations with this cranial formation must have perished in the ark, or some that have attained the highest degree other species have been annihilated. of civilisation, and have generally ruled Independent of this, the same super- over the others; or, rather, as we will natural agency was demanded in re- attempt to show more fully, it is among storing these animals to their natural these nations that the progress of civiliand primitive abodes; for how else sation and the development of the ancould the polar bear, whose organiza- terior portion of the brain, each exertion is adapted to a frozen region, re- cising on the other a mutual influence, trace his steps through the torrid zone? have gone hand in hand. Of this But it is unnecessary to call in the aid variety of the human race, the chief of such a suspension of the ordinary families are the Caucasian's proper,

16

VOL. XI.NO. L.

the Germanic branch, the Celtic, the from a decided white to an unequivoArabian, the Lybian, the Nilotic, and cally black skin." This race was orithe Hindostanic.

ginally spread over nearly the whole of In the Mongolian variety, the head, the Americas south of the sixtieth instead of being globular, is nearly degree of north latitude. From this square. The cheek-bones project from point, towards the Arctic circle, our under the lle of the orbit of the eye, Indian manifestly belongs to the Monand turn backwards in a remarkable golian variety ; from Greenland, we outward projection of the zygoma. trace the same family of men to the The orbits are large and deep, the eyes north of Europe, comprising the Finoblique, and the upper part of the face land and Lapland coasts; and thence to exceedingly flat; the nose, the nasal the polar races of Asia, which are part bones, and even the space intermediate of the Mongolian tribes, covering the to the eye-brows, being nearly on the immense region extending from the same plane, with the cheek-bone. line of the Ural and Himmaleh mounThe color of this variety is olive or yel- tains to Behring's Straits. lowish brown, and the hair is blackish As the American variety seems to and scanty. This variety of the human form a middle point between the Caufamily has formed vast empires in casian and Mongolian, so may the China and Japan, but its civilisation Malay be said to hold a similar relahas been long stationary.

tion io the Caucasian and Ethiopian. The Ethiopian variety, which re. The forehead is more expanded than in cedes the farthest from the Caucasian, the African, the jaws are less promipresents a narrow and elongated skull, nent, and the nose more distinct. The the temporal muscles, which are very color is blackish brown or mahogany, large and powerful, rising very high on and the hair is long, coarse, and curly. the parietal bones, thus giving the idea This variety is found in New South of lateral compression. The forehead Wales and the South Sea Islands in is low and retreating: The cheek- general. bones and the upper jaw project for To these great races, more especially wards, and the alveolar ridge and the the first three, it has been customary tecth take a similar position. The nose to refer all the ramifications of the is thick, being almost blended with the human family. Taking the country cheeks; the mouth is prominent and of ihe Georgians and Circassians as the the lips thick; and the chin is narrow radiating point of the Caucasian race, and retracted. The color varies from we may trace out its principal branches a deep tawny to a perfect jet; and the by the analogies of language. The hair is black, frizzled, and woolly. It Armenian or Syrian division, directing is not true, as is remarked by M. Cuvier, its course to the south, gave birth to that the people composing this race the Assyrians, Chaldeans, and untamehave always remained in a state of able Arabs, with their various subdibarbarism. On the contrary, we will visions. In this branch, science and adduce facts showing that many negro literature have occasionally flourished, tribes have made considerable advances but always under fantastic forms. in civilisation, and that in proportion Another division embraced the Indian, to this improvement do they approxi- German, and Pelasgic branch, in whose mate to the physical characters of the four principal languages we recognize Caucasian.

a striking resemblance. The first is These three constitute the leading the Sanscrit, now the sacred language varieties of mankind, the American and of the Hindoos; the second is the Pelas. Malay being no more than mere inter- gic, the common mother of the Greek vening shades.

In the American race and Latin, and of almost every language the head is less square and the face now spoken in the south of Europe ; less flattened than in the Mongolian. third, the Gothic or Teutonic, from The color resembles that of copper, which arose the German, Dutch, Eng. and the hair is black, thick, and lish, Danish, and Swedish languages, straight. “Although the Americans," and their dialects; and fourth, the says Morton, possess a pervading Sclavonian, from which are derived the and characteristic complexion, there Russian, Polish, Bohemian, &c. This are occasional and very remarkable division is the most respectable branch deriations, including all the tints of the Caucasian variety; f...

them have philosophy, the arts and served among the different nations of sciences, been carried to a degree of the earth ? perfection unknown to any other race. If we pursue an analogical mode of This subject, by tracing out the analo- investigation in reference to the varigies of language, has been followed up ous branches of the human family, we into its minutest ramifications. Much will arrive at certain results, the agcredit is due to Prichard for his inde- gregate of which will throw much adfatigable researches in this respect in ditional light upon the question, whereference to Europe, Asia, and Africa ; ther they all belong to a single species. but it too often happens that the affi- These conclusions will now be summed nities of languages in the last two are up under distinct heads. not sufficiently known to lead to un From an extensive survey of varidoubted results. Among the American ous nations in reference to the proporvariety, it has been generally believed tionate duration of human life, it is evithat the languages are as innumerable dent that there exist no well-marked as the tribes, it being impracticable to differences in this respect among the establish any analogies among them, different families of man. If the comor with those of the eastern continent; parison, however, is extended to the but this opinion is manifestly founded simiæ, notwithstanding they approxi. in error. < With respect to the Ame- mate to man very closely in physical rican languages,” Morton says, “it structure, the contrast is very great. may be sufficient in this place to ob- The greatest longevity of the trogloserve, that they present resemblances dyte is no more than thirty years. As not less remarkable than those we have we discover no difference in this renoticed in the physical and moral traits spect between the Negro and the Euof these people.” (p. 85.) This ana ropean, there is little ground, as was logy, it would seem, is not of an inde- done by Linnæus, Buffon, Helvetius, finite kind. It consists mostly in pecu- and Monboddo, for introducing the liar conjugational modes of modifying ourang-outang into the human family. the verbs by the insertion of syllables. Moreover, we find as attributes comThe supposed infinite variety of North mon both to the Negro and the EuroAmerican tongues has been reduced by pean, the erect attitude, the two hands, the late researches of Dr. Heckewelder the slow development of the body, and other American archaiologists, to and the exercise of reason. On the three or four radical languages; and other hand, the whole structure of the the belief in the affinities between these monkey, who is four-handed, proves languages and those of Eastern Asia that to him the erect attitude is not has been strengthened by the researches natural. The striking characteristics of Klaproth and other German philo- of the predominance of the fore-arm logists. This affinity with the people over the upper arm, and the great of Eastern Asia, it may be here added, length of the upper and the shortness is confirmed by the inferences drawn of the lower limbs, are peculiarly from physiognomy. Thus Sidi Melli- adapted to his climbing habits. How melli, Tunisian envoy to the United beautifully is the majestic attitude of States in 1804, on seeing the deputies man, which announces to all the other of the Cherokees, Osages, and Miamis

, inhabitants of the globe his superiority, assembled at Washington city, was described in the words of Ovid:--instantly struck with the resemblance between their general physiognomy Pronaque cum spectent animalia cetera and that of the Asiatic Tartars.*

terram, But the question still recurs-Whence Os homini sublime dedit; cælumque tuer proceed the remarkable diversities ob- Jussit; et erectos ad sidera tollere vultus.

• There is nothing in the relative position of America that forbids the supposition of an eastern origin of its aborigines. Navigators have often picked up frail boats in the ocean, containing people who had been driven five hundred, one thousand, and even one thousand five hundred miles, from their homes.

† And while all other creatures to the dust

Bend their low look, to man a front sublime
He gave, and bade him ever scan the skies,
And to the stars lift up his lofty gaze.

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