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XV, MONTHLY FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL ARTICLE
XVI. The New Books OF THE MONTH

Tennyson's Poems-Bryant's Fountain and other Poems":

-Sterling's Poetical WorksDr. Forry's Climate of the
United States and its Endemic Influences-Forest Life, by
the Author of A New Home—Professor Johnston's
Elements of Agricultural Chemistry and Geology--Dr.
Francis's Discourse before the New York Lyceum of
Natural History-Perkins's Treatise on Algebra--Trea-
tise on the Right of Suffrage, by Samuel Jones-Facts on
the Rhode Island Controversy ; Dr. Wayland's Discourse
on the Affairs of Rhode Island ; and Review of Dr. Way-
land's Discourse by a Member of the Boston Bar-Mr.
Cooley's American in Egypt, Little Coin, Much Care,
by Mary HowittGeneral Harlan's Memoir of India and

Avghanistaun.
XVII. MONTHLY LITERARY BULLETIN

American-English-ContinentaiMiscellaneous.

220

THIS NUMBER CONTAINS SEVEN SHEETS, ONE HUNDRED AND TWELVE PAGES.

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DO THE VARIOUS RACES OF MAN CONSTITUTE A SINGLE

SPECIES ?*

In surveying the globe in reference to skull of the Carib or that of the Negro the different appearances of mankind, with its low retreating forehead and the most extraordinary diversities are advancing jaws! Or behold in the one apparent to the most superficial ob- the full development of intellectual server. The Patagonian and Caffre, power, as displayed in arts, science, compared with the Laplander and Es- and literature, and in the other a mere quimaux, are real giants, the stature instinctive existence! Hence arises of the latter being generally two feet the question-Have all these diverse less than that of the former. What a races descended from a single stock ? striking contrast does the coarse skin But notwithstanding these extremes and greasy blackness of the African, would seem, at first view, to forbid the present to the delicate cuticle and the supposition of a common origin, yet we exquisite rose and lily that beautify find them all running into each other by the face of the Georgian ! Compare such nice and imperceptible gradations, the head of the Circassian having those not only in contiguous countries but proportions which we so much admire among the same people, as to render in Grecian sculpture, with the flat it often impracticable to determine, in

• Researches into the Physical History of Mankind. By James Cowles Prichard, M.D., F.R.S., M.R.I.A., etc. London : 3 vols. 8vo., 1836, 1837, and 1841, pp. 376, 373, 550.

Crania Americana; or a Comparative View of the Skulls of various Aboriginal Nations of North and South America. Illustrated by seventy-eight plates and a colored map. By Samuel George Morton, M.D., Professor of Anatomy in the Medical Department of Pennsylvania College at Philadelphia. Philadelphia : 1839. Folio pp. 296.

Lectures on Physiology, Zoology, and the Natural History of Man, delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons. By W. Lawrence, F.R.S., etc. Salem : 1828. 8vo. pp. 495. (American Edition.)

De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa. Gött. 3d edit. 1795, 8vo. Collectio Craniorum Diversarum Gentium, Decades I--VII. Gött. 1790--1826, 4to. By John Frederick Blumenbach, M.D., Aulic Counsellor to his Britannic Majesty, Professor of Physic in the University of Göttingen, etc.

An Essay on the Causes of the variety of complexion and Figure in the Human Species. B: miel Stanhope Smith, D.D., LL.D., President of the College of New Jersey

Nou Brunswi

1910

A 10

dependent of the individual's locality, family, to afford confirmation and elucito what family of the human race he dation of its divine truths. belongs.

One of the most interesting problems Anyone who allows himself to in history is, the geographical distribuspeculate upon this subject, will at first tion of the human family; but history, view be inclined to adopt the opinion if we exclude the Mosaic account, afthat every part of the world had ori- fords no data for determining this great ginally its indigenous inhabitants, problem. In the introduction to his

autochthones,”-adapted to its phys- great work on language, Adelung reical circumstances. Voltaire, for ex- marks as follows:-"Asia has been in ample, ridicules the idea of referring all times regarded as the country where such different beings as the Circassian the human race had its beginning, reand the Negro to the same original. ceived its first education, and from By this hypothesis, a ready solution is which its increase was spread over the afforded of some of the most difficult rest of the globe. Tracing the people questions presented in the investiga- up to tribes, and the tribes to families, tion of the physical history of mankind; we are conducted at last, if not by hisfor instance, the remarkable diversity tory, at least by the traditions of all old in figure and complexion observed people, to a single pair, from which, among different nations—their differ- families, tribes, and nations, have been ence of moral and intellectual charac- successively produced. The question ter-and their peculiarity of language has been often asked,—What was this and even dialectic differences, observed first family, and the first people deas far back in antiquity as the days of scending from it? where was it setJacob and Laban. We might thus tled ? and how has it extended so as explain the fact that the oldest records, to fill the four large divisions of the ever since Cain went to the land of globe ? It is a question of fact, and Nod, seldom allude to an uninhabited must be answered from history. But country; or the no less surprising fact history is silent ; her first books have that in many parts of the world, as for been destroyed by time ; and the few instance, Central America, we discover lines preserved by Moses are rather vestiges of a primeval population, who, calculated to excite than to satisfy our having dwelt there for ages and brought curiosity.” the civil arts a comparatively Assuming that the earth's surface high degree of cultivation, were was formerly covered to a certain swept away before the dawn of his- depth with water-an opinion warranttory.

ed by physical facts as well as the On the opposite side of the question, Mosaic records—the portions which an argument thought by many to be first became dry and habitable, would conclusive as to the point at issue, is of course be those which are now the the inference deduced from the scrip- most elevated. Hence the region of tural history of man, which ascribes to Central Asia, which in respect 10 elehim a single origin. But such an ap- vation can be compared only to the plication of the Sacred Records is mani- lofty plain of Quito in South America, festly contrary to their spirit and design; has been with good reason pointed out for the most sincere believers in Reve- as the spot on which the Creator plantlation now freely admit the deduction ed the first people-a point from which of the geologist, that the period of the the human race gradually dispersed as creation of the earth extends far be- new lands became habitable. This yond 6000 years. However, as truth great table-land, when it first became can never be in opposition to truth, the dry, was but an island in the watery investigation of any subject which does expanse, with vegetable productions so not transcend the scope of the human entirely different from its present Alfaculties, cannot possibly detract from pine class, that it may have combined the authority and importance of the all the characters of the Garden of Sacred Writings. Indeed, many inves- Eden. But Adelung, forgetting the tigations into the laws of natural sci- influence of physical geography on clience which were thought at first to mate, speaks of its “snowy mountains conflict with Holy Writ, have even been and glaciers." und in the end, as will be shown in History then points out the East as

inquiry into the unity of the human the earliest or original seat of our spe

to

cies, as well as of our domesticated ani- lected, that the subject can be legitimals and of our principal food ; but as mately investigated. historical sources of testimony are con Before proceeding to the details considered inadequate to determine the nected with the question, whether the question whether the globe has been various races of man belong to a single peopled from one or more original species, it may be well to state that by stocks, it has been found necessary to the term species in natural history is seek for satisfactory evidence through understood a collection of individuals, the medium of researches into the whether plants or animals, which so natural history of the organized world. resemble one another that all the differHence the inquiry has been resolved ences among them may find an explaby the learned Dr. James Cowles Prich- nation in the known operation of physiard, in his “Researches into the Phy- cal causes; but if two races are distinsical History of Mankind," into the two guished by some characteristic pecufollowing problems :

liarity of organization not explicable on

the ground that it was lost by the one “1. Whether through the organized or acquired by the other through any world in general it has been the order of known operation of physical causes, nature to produce one stock or family in we are warranted in the belief that each particular species, or to call the they have not descended from the same same species into existence by several original stock. Hence, varieties, in distinct origins, and to diffuse it generally natural history, are distinguished from and independently of propagation from species by the circumstance of mere any central point; in other words, deviation from the character of the parwhether all organized beings of each par- ent stock ; but to determine whether ticular species can be referred respect- tribes characterized by certain diively to a common parentage ? 62. Whether all the races of men are

versities, constitute in reality distinct of one species? Whether, in other words, species, or merely varieties of the same the physical diversities which distinguish species, is often a question involving several tribes are such as may have arisen much doubt-a doubt which can, howfrom the variation of one primitive type, ever, be generally removed by a comor must be considered as permanent and prehensive survey of the great laws of therefore specific characters ?”_Vol. organization. i., p. 9.

As the natural history of man in re

gard to his origin may receive valuaIn our researches into the origin of ble elucidation from comparative phythe varieties of mankind, it is, there- siology and the diversities observed fore, necessary to dismiss all argument among inferior animals, our attention à priori. Let us repudiate that spe- will be first directed to this branch of ciousness of argumentation which the subject. maintains that it is much more conso In regard to the question whether nant with the wisdom of the Deity all the existing plants and animals, of that each region of the earth should each species, can be referred respectteem ab initio with vegetable and ani- ively to a common stock, Linnæus mal productions adapted to its physical maintained the affirmative, averring circumstances, than that immense that in every species of plants as well tracts, while a single species is slowly as of animals, only one pair was origiextending its kind, should remain for nally produced. Now if in tracing the ages an unoccupied waste. The ques. dispersion of the genera and species of tion belongs to the domain of natural organized beings, (plants and animals,) history and physiology, as based upon it should appear that they exist in those the observation of facts. Hence, too, regions only to which they may have it is obviously improper to set out, as wandered or been conveyed by accidenmost writers on the subject have done, tal means, from some single point rewith a distribution of the human family garded as the primitive or original seat, into certain races, as this is in fact a the inference that each species has despremature anticipation of the result. cended from a single origin is warrantIt is only by proceeding in the analyti- ed; but if, on the contrary, the same cal method, surveying the ethnogra- species are found in localities so sepaphy of various countries, and deducing rated by natural barriers or vast disconclusions from the phenomena col- tauces as to forbid the supposition of

their passage, the opinion of their dis- the species, notwithstanding the genus tinct and separate origins is equally may be common to two or even all authorized.

three of them, are in each very dissimiIn regard to the dispersion of plants lar. It has been remarked by M. de and of the primary habitations of indi- Humboldt, as was before observed by vidual species, Prichard refers to three the Count de Buffon in relation to the hypotheses:-1. That all the species of distribution of animals, that it is chiefly plants in every country, had their pri- in the Arctic regions where the two mary seat in one particular region, continents approximate, that we disfrom which they have spread as from cover the same identical species of the a common centre. 2. That every spe- vegetable kingdom common to both. cies had a particular centre or birth- Proceeding south, as for example in the place, but that different regions of the United States, we meet these common earth afforded the primary habita- plants more rarely; and in their travtions of different species. 3. That the els in equinoctial America, MM. de vegetable tribes, independent of any Humboldt and Bonpland found only centres of propagation, have sprung twenty-four species, (all of which beinto existence wherever the physical long to the monocotyledonous tribes,) circumstances favorable to their de- identical with those of any part of the velopment obtain. The first of these Old World. In ascending a lofty mounhypotheses is now considered irrecon- tain of the torrid zone, we also find that cilable with established facts. The se- the parallel temperatures of more norcond has many powerful advocates, thern latitudes display a general boamong whom is Prichard. But the tanical analogy. Hence several atthird, in our opinion, is gradually tempts have been made to divide the gaining ground, in proportion as the scí- surface of the earth into botanical proence of botanical geography is being vinces or distinct regions of vegetadeveloped by the accumulation of new tion. facts.

But as Nature seems to have proproportion as naturalists have ex- vided means for the dispersion of plants, plored the botany of remote countries, it is necessary to consider the bearing the distinguishing characters, on a of these facts upon the present inquiry. comparison of their respective aggre- Of these means, one of the most obgates of plants, have become more ap- vious is human agency. Animals in parent. Many important results have general, more particularly birds, also been deduced from the researches of contribute to their dispersion. The Mr. Robert Brown, and MM. de same end is promoted by means of atHumboldt and de Candolle. In relation mospheric currents; for we often find to the distribution of plants in reference the smallest seeds provided with wing. to the three great classes, we find that lets and feathery appendages, which the dycotyledonous family diminishes facilitate their transportation by winds. as we proceed from the equator to- Lastly, we know from actual observawards the poles; that this law is revers- tion that plants have migrated from ed in respect to the acotyledonous class; distant coasts by means of the great whilst ihe monocotyledonous plants, oceanic currents. in which De Candolle includes the From a consideration of these various ferns, exhibit but little variation of facts, Prichard arrives at the inference, number in different zones.

" that the vegetable creation was oriknow," says Humboldt, “ in any coun- ginally divided into a limited number inder the temperate zone, the num- of provinces,”—a conclusion which he

praceæ or of Compositæ, it thinks strongly corroborated by the fact will be pole n estimate that of the that in the northern continents, where Graminer or aftre aminosæ.” But, their near approach affords facilities notwithstandin Paintia logy in the for migration, many plants are comcharacter of beli ini

mon to both, whilst in proportion as the tries, lying on the same links !! continents become widely separated the characterized by similar physical risa 114mber diminishes. “ On the whole," cumstances, we do not die

we may conclude, with a identity of species. Am rich is in reat degree of probability, that each common with Asia and Europa. tribe of plants, and especially of the genera; but on comparing the inte

more perfect plants, had on the earth

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