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returns have been received, are given. The titles, Commerce and Navigation, and Revenue and Expenditure, published each year in the Almanac, are complete abstracts of the public documents of the same name, and the tables connected therewith, and, with the Post-Office and Mint, show the receipts and expenditures of the government under their several heads, the public debt, the imports, exports, and tonnage, the operations of the PostOffice Department, and the coinage of the Mint for each year since the adoption of the Federal Constitution. The exports for the last four years are given in detail. The rates of postage are under the new laws, - and these, with the inland and foreign mail service, are believed to be complete and correct. The Census of Great Britain and Ireland is from the official documents, and can be relied on as sufficiently exact for all practical pur. poses. It was hoped that the seventh census of the United States could be given, but it has been impossible to procure other returns than those published in this volume. The Titles and Abstracts of the Public Laws and Joint Resolutions have been carefully prepared, and are sufficiently full, except for professional use. The tabular view of the railroads in the country is continued from the last volume; and the comparative view of the debts, property, and general financial condition of all the States has been corrected with great care from the latest official returns. The information concerning the Individual States is more full than in former years. It is believed that nowhere else can be found such full details respecting the Executive and Judiciary, the finances, schools, charitable institutions, and pauperism and crime, of the several States. Should any one note inaccuracies or deficiencies therein, he is urgently requested to correct them. The European part of the work is somewhat extended, and is correct so far as it goes. The Obituary Notices and Chronicle of Events have been prepared with care.

The thanks of the Editor are particularly due to the heads of Department at Washington, and to his many contributors and correspondents, to whom the work is indebted for a great part of its value. A continuance of their favors is respectfully solicited. A work embracing such a multitude of facts must necessarily contain some errors; persons who detect any are earnestly requested to communicate them to the Editor. It is particularly desirable that these communications should not be anonymous. It is frequently a source of regret to the Editor that he cannot suitably acknowledge the valuable hints and assistance of anonymous correspondents. It is a matter of some public interest, that a periodical which circulates so widely, both in Europe and America, and which is so universally trusted as a manual for reference, should be rendered as accurate as possible; and this end can be obtained only by the coöperation of many individuals. Communications should be addressed to the " Editor of the American Almanac," Boston.

Boston, Mass., Sept. 30, 1851.

CONTENTS.

65

126

Rates of Postage in United States, . . 161 Sales of Public Lands, ..........191, 192

Privilege of Franking,

163 14. Mint,

192

Rates of Foreign Postage, &c.,...... 163 Officers of Mint and Coinage, 193

Postage to Oregon and California, 163 Coinage of the Mint for 58 Years,

Foreign Newspaper and Pamphlet 15. Census of Great Britain and Ireland, 195

Postage,

167 Emigration from the United Kingdom

Mail Service for 1850,

169

for 26 Years, 1825 - 1850, inclusive, 198

No. of Post-Offices, &c., since 1790, 169 16. Seventh Census of United States,.... 198

11. Commerce and Navigation,

170 17. Population of Principal Cities,... 200

Value of Imports, :

170

18. Population of the United States,..... 201

Value of Exports for four Years,.... 174 19. Slaves in the United States,

201

Imports from and Exports to Foreign 20. Colleges, &c., in the United States,. 202

Countries in 1849 - 50,..

176

Annual College Expenses,.

205

Tonnage of Vessels in Foreign Trade. 177 Theological Schools,

206

Vessels and Tonnage from 1815 to 1850,178 Law Schools, .

206

Imports and Exports of each State, 179 Medical Schools, ..

Vessels built in U. States, and their 21. Smithsonian Institute,

207

Tonnage, in 1850,

179 22. Religious Denominations, .......... 208

Comparative View of Tonnage from 23. State Elections, &c.,

208

1815 to 1850, .

180 24. Governors of States and Territories, 209

Commercial Marine of United States, 180 25. Finances of the States,

210

12. Revenue and Expenditure,

181 26. Railroads in the United States, 211

Imports, Exports, and Debt, for 60 27. Congress,.......

............. 218

Years,

181 Senate,

U. S. Revenue from 1789 to 1850, .. 182 House of Representatives,..

220

U. S. Expenditure from 1789 to 1850, 183 Alphabetical List of Representatives, 223

Duties. Revenue, &c., for 1849 - 50, · 184 28. Immigration into the U. S. in 1850, 224

Debt of the United States,

.. 189 29. Foreign Coins,

225

13. Public Lands,

190

...... 207

....... 218

[blocks in formation]

.. 208

66

1851 ......

.210, 211

66

PAGE

PAGE
Abstracts of Public Laws
143 Eclipse of Moon, Dec. 26....

36
Additions and Corrections
332 Eclipse of Sun, Jan. 21

35
Alabama.
..... 278 Eclipse of Sun, Total, June 17

35
American Obituary .................... 327 Eclipse of Sun, Dec. 10

36
Anierican States

................ 319 Elections, State ..
Arkansas.
289 Emigration to the U. S. in 1850

224
Apportionment of U. S. Represent tives 199 Emigration from Great Britain and Ire-
Appraisement of Foreign Merchandise, act 151 land for 26 Years.

198
Appropriations, U. S., for 1851, 1852. .... 143 Engineers, Corps of, &c. ................ 118
Army List

117 Engineers in Navy, Pay of......... 125
Army Officers, Pay of....

123 Envoys Extraordinary, &c.

......... 133 - 137
Army Pension Agents.
116 Ephemeris of the Sun

48
Arsenals in the United States ........... 120 Eras, &c...

3
Asteroids, Elements of Orbits. .......... 70 European States

322
Astronomy, Recent Discoveries in 66 Events, General, in 1850...............

344
Asylum, Military, Act establishing 150

347
Attorneys of U.S. Courts...

130 Elections, contested, Evidence in, Act con-
Banks. See the several States.

cerning

145
Barometrical Observations...........91 - 102 Executive Government of U. S........ 105
Belgium, Ministry

326 Expenditures of U. S. for 61 years 183
Brazil,
...... 326 Exports of each State for 1850

179
Cabinet, Officers in the

105 Exports, Value of, in 1849 - 50 .......... 174
Calendar : January, &c...
10-33 Exports to Foreign Countries

176
California.
315 Exports for 60 Years..

181
California Gold..

193 Federal Representative Population,...... 199
California Land Claims, Commission to Festivals of the Church

5
adjust,.....

108 Finances of the States..
Act concerning 152 Fixed Stars, Apparent Places of

56
Capitals of States...
208 Florida.

276
Census of U. States (Seventh) ........ 198 Flowering of Fruit trees in 1851 ........ 102
Census of Great Britain and Ireland ..... 195 Foreign Coins, Value of

225
Celestial Phenomena, Signs, &c. ........ 3 Foreign Goods imported..

170
Chargés d'Affaires of U. S. in 1851 ....... 134 Foreign Mail Service

159
Chronicle of Events,

...... 344 Foreign Ministers, &c., in U. S..... 137
Chronological Cycles

4 Foreign Nations, Intercourse with ...... 133
Church Festivals
5 Foreign Trade, Countries of

176
Circuit Courts....

.130 - 132 France. ...
Cities, Principal, Population of... 200 Franking Privilege
Clerks of District Courts of U. S......... 131 General Events in 1850 ................ 344
Clouds and Winds
..... 91 - 102

1851
Coinage of Mint for 58 Years

194 Geologists, U. S., with Land-Office...... 114
Coins, Foreign, Value of................ 225 Georgia

275
Collectors of Customs......

111 Government, Seats of, in different States. 208
Colleges in United States............... 202 Governments, Annual Expenses of State. 211
Colleges, Annual Expenses in
205 Governors of States, &c....

209
Commerce
170 Great Britain.

323
Commercial Agents in Foreign Countries 134 Great Britain and Ireland, Census of .... 195
Commercial Marine of the U.S.
180 Illinois.

307
Commission on California Land Claims.. 108 Immigration to United States in 1850.... 224
Commissioners, U.S., in Foreign Countries 134 Imporis, Value of, in 1849 and 1850..170-173
Congress, Thirty Second.......
218 Imports for 60 Years..,

181
Connecticut
245 Imports of each State for 1850

179
Consuls, Foreign, in U. S.

138 - 142 imports paying ad valorem Duties...170 - 173
Consuls in Foreign Countries. 134 - 137 Imports free of Duty
Contested Elections, Evidence in, Act con Indian Superintendents and Agents...... 115
cerning.
145 Indiana

302
Corrections and Additions ..

352 Indiana, Constitution of ..
Countries whence Goods are brought ... 176 Intercourse with Foreign Nations ....

133
Darkness of the Nights .......
8 Interior, Department of the

108
Debt of the United States.......... 181 - 189 Iowa

311
Debts of the States
210, 211 Ireland, Census of...

195
Delaware.
262 Jewish Calendar

5
Denmark, Ministry ............. 326 Judges of U.S. Circuit and District Courts 130
Department of the Interior.
108 Judiciary. U. S.

128
Department of State

106 Jupiter's Satellites, Eclipses of.......... 40
Departments, Officers in the ....... 106-108 Kentucky

292
Disks of Venus and Mars ......

41 Land-Office, Registers, Receivers, &c. .. 113
District Courts...
128, 130 Lands, Public

190
District of Columbia

319 Latitude and Longitude of Observatories 46
Eclipses in 1852

34 Latitude and Longitude of Places.... 43-47
Eclipse of Moon, Jan. 6,7
34, 35) Law Schools ....

201
Eclipse of Moon Jnly I

35 Laws. Titles and Abstracts of Public I'

........ 326
......... 163

347

170

302

... 208

....... 243

Legislatures, State, Meeting of........ 200|Presidents of the U. S........

105
Libraries, College...
202 - 205 Property of States..........

......... 211
Lighthouses, act concerning.

149 Prussia, Ministry ...................... 326
Louisiana ...
...... 282 Public Lands......

............... 190
Mahometan Calendar

6 Public Lands, Sales of...

191, 192
Mail Service for 1850

168 Public Lands, Surveyors-General of...... 113
Mail Service, Foreign......... ... 159 Public Laws, Titles and Abstracts of ..... 143
Maine....

227 Public Resolutions of Congress.

......... 156
Marine, Commercial, of the U. S........ 180 Railroads in New England ....212-215
Marine Corps.

127 Railroads in Construction in New England 214
Mars and Venus, Disks of...

41 Railroads in the U. S......

212-217
Marshals, U. S......
131 Receivers of Land Office.

112
Maryland ..

263 Recent Discoveries in Astronomy, &c. ... 66
Maryland, Constitution of ...
263 Refractions. Dr Young's

64
Massachusetts

236 Registers of Land Office................ 113
Massachusetts, Railroads of

212 Religious Denominations
Medical Schools

207 Representatives, Alphabetical List of.... 223
Meteorological Information ........ 91 - 102 Representatives, House of.....

220
Michigan

301 Representatives, U. S., Apportionment of 199
Military Asylum, Act establishing ...... 150 Resolutions, Public, of Congress......... 156
Military Geographical Departments...... 119 Revenue and Expenditure .......... 181 - 190
Military Geographical Divisions........ 119 Revenue, U. S., for 61 Years....

182
Military Posts

120 Rhode Island.....
Militia Force of the U.S. .............. 122 Russia, Ministry

326
Minesota Territory
318 Sardinia, Ministry

326
Ministers of U. S.'in Foreign countries.. 133 Satellites of Jupiter, Eclipses of, in 1852.. 40
Ministers, Foreign, in U. Š............. 137 Saturn's Rings ..

42
Mint.
192 Saturn, Satellites of....

84
Mint, Officers of, Coinage, &c. 193, 194 School Fund of States..

211
Mississippi..
280 Seasons, Beginning and Length of

4
Missouri.

309 Secretaries of Legation .

133, 137, 138
Naval Officers......................
113 Senate of the U. Š.

218
Navigation. ................ 170, 177 Ship Owners. Liability of, Act concerning 154
Navy Department ..
107 Signs of the Planets....

3
Navy List .....:
124 Signs of the Zodiac

4
Navy Officers, Pay of.......

125 Slaves in the U. S.

.......... 201
Navy, Vessels of War in ......
126 Smithsonian Institute....

207
Navy Pension Agents...
117 South Carolina ..

272
Navy Yards, Commanders of

124 Southern Railroads

............... 216, 217
New Hampshire

229 Sovereigns of Europe
New Jersey ...............

256 Spain, Ministry
New Mexico Territory

318 Specific Duties. See Imports.
Newspapers, Postage on............ 161, 167 Siar, Pole, Apparent Places of

54
New York.

249 Stars, Fixed, Apparent Places of........ 56
New York, Railroads in..

215 State Department...
Nights, Darkness of the, in 1852........ 8 State Elections, &c....

208
North Carolina.

270 State Finances, Debts, &c.

210, 211
Obituary, American, in 1850..
327 Sun, Ephemeris of the

48
1851..
331 Sun's Parallax in Altitude.

65
Observatories, Latitude and Longitude of 46 Supreme Court, U. S.......

130
Occultations .....
33 Surveyors of Land Office....

113
Ohio

295 Sweden and Norway, Ministry
Ohio, Constitution of ..................

295 Tennessee ......
Oregon Territory
317 Texas.

285
Pamphlets, Postage on................ 161, 167 Theological Schools.............

206
Parallax in Altitude of the Sun...... 65 Three Cent Pieces

193
Pennsylvania .
258 Tides, Height of Greatest, in 1852.

7
Pension Agents, Army and Navy.... 116, 117 Titles and Abstracts of Public Laws. 143
Planets, Signs of the..

3 Tonnage of the U.S.

177 - 180
Planets, Names of New

67 Tonnage. Comparative View of, for 35Years 180
Pole Star, Apparent Places of the ....... 54 Trade, Foreign, Countries of .

176
Population of the Globe
320 Treasury Department

106
Population of the U. S.
199 - 201 United States, Seventh Census...

198
Portugal, Ministry
326 Utah Territory

318
Postage Law, New
146 Value of Foreign Coins

225
Postage, Rates of Inland.

161 Venus and Mars, Disks of .............. 41
Postage by the N. Y. & Bremen Steamers 165 Vermont ....

233
Postage, Foreign

...163 – 168 Vessels of War in U. S. Navy
Postage to Oregon and California. ...... 163 Virginia

.......... 268
Postmasters in Chief Towns and Cities... 108 War Department ................... 107
Postmasters, Compensation of

160 Western Railroads

........... 217
Post-Office Department..
108, 157 West Indian Governments.

320
Post Office Distributing Offices 108 - 111 Winds and Clouds...

........ 91 - 102
Post Office Rec's and Expend's in 1949, '50 160/Wisconsin .

............... 313
Post-Office Statistics since 1790.. 169 Young's Refractions...................

64
Post-Office Revenue............157, 159, 160 Zodiac, Signs of the...................

321
.. 326

........... 106

1

.......... 326
.......... 291

147, 1

.......... 126

4

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