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Interstate commerce-(Continued).

taxation of domestic corporations engaged in. $ 8122.
Interstate railway companies.

offenses by. $ 6435.
Joinder.

See CAUSES OF ACTION; PARTIES.

of causes of action against stockholder. 83625.
Joint stock companies.

distinguished from corporations. $ 14.
Judgment.

See ACTIONS.
against corporation, effect of. $$ 3392-3401.

SS .
revival of against corporation. 8 3066.
Judgment creditors.

See CREDITORS; CREDITOR'S SUIT.
Judicial sale.

See EXECUTION.

franchise to be corporation not subject of. $ 257.
Jurisdiction.

See ACTIONS; PARTIES.
1. Of actions by and against corporations as depending upon residence and citizenship -

of State courts.
residence of corporations for the purpose of State jurisdiction. $ 7421.
influence on State decisions of the change in Federal doctrine. $ 7422.
corporation resides at its principal offico. 97423.
theory that it resides where it exercises its franchisos $ 7424.
further of this theory. $ 7425.
suable in any county in the State. $7426.
venue the same as in the case of natural persons. $7427.
in the county where the contract was broken or the injury occurred. $7428.
the same subject continued. $7429.
where the cause of action accrues. & 7430.
validity of statutes making corporations suable in any county. $ 7431.
local actions. $ 7432.
transitory actions. $ 7433.
changing the venue. $ 7434.
residence of a corporation the residence of its president. $ 7435.
national banks are State corporations for jurisdictional purposes. $ 7436.
jurisdiction and venue in respect of corporations chartered by the United States

other than national banks. $7437.
State jurisdiction in the case of interstate corporations. $ 7438.
actions against branches of corporations. 8 7439.
actions in the county in which the agent with whom the contract was made

resides. 8 7440.
2. Federal jurisdiction as dependent upon diverse citizenship.
early doctrine that a corporation was not a "citizen," under Federal Constitu.

tion and Judiciary Act. $ 7447.
dew doctrine that a corporation is a "citizen" of the State oreating it, for the

purposes of Federal jurisdiction. 8 7448.

Jurisdiction-(Continued).

conclusively presumed to be a citizen of the State creating it. 8 7449.
effect of this rule on domestic corporations. $ 7450.
further of this rule. 87451.
rule where the corporation is created by the concurrent legislation of two Statos.

$ 7452
all the substantial parties must be of diverse citizenship. $7453.
application of this rule of jurisdiction to joint stock companies. $ 7454.
Federal jurisdiction in the case of corporation owned by a State. $ 7455.
manner of pleading Federal jurisdiction. $ 7456.
further of this subject. $7457.

manner of averring citizenship. $ 7458.
3. Removal of such actions from State to Federal courts.
right of foreign corporations to remove on the ground of diverse citizenship.

8 7462.
submission to local jurisdiction does not preclude this right of removal. $ 7463.
further of this doctrine. 87464.
this right of removal extends to "tramp corporations.” § 7465.
invalidity of stipulation not to remove. $ 7466.
further of this subject. 8 7467.
right of removal on the ground of prejudice or local influence. $ 7468.
authority of the officer to make the affidavit. $ 7469.
substance of the affidavit. $7470.
conclusiveness of the affidavit. 8 7471.
right of removal in cases of a corporation created by the concurrent legislation

of two or more States. $ 7472.
alien corporations entitled to remove. 8 7473.
controversy must be wholly between different parties. $ 7474.
removal of actions against corporations organized under a law of the United

States. $ 7475.
further of this subject. § 7476.
suits arising under the laws of the United States. 8 7477.

removal by alien corporations. $ 7478.
4. Inhabitancy" of corporations for the purposes of Federal jurisdiction.

"inhabitancy" for purposes of Federal jurisdiction. $ 7484.
old doctrine that a corporation can have no inhabitancy outside of the State

creating it. $7485.
further of this question. 8 7486.
whether a corporation having an office in another State becomes an "inhabi.

tant." & 7487.
doctrine that inhabitancy and citizenship identical. $ 7488.

the recent Federal doctrine on this subject. $7489.
5. Jurisdiction as depending upon process and its service. See PROCESS.
6. Jurisdiction as dependent upon voluntary appearance.
appearance cures defects in service of process and waives jurisdiction over the

person. 8 7552.
in case of foreign corporations, waives exemption from being sued. $ 7553.
application of this principle to Federal jurisdiction. $ 7554.
waives exemption from being sued in the particular Federal district. $ 7555.

Jurisdiction (Continued).

what appearance not deemed such a waiver. $ 7556.
admits that it is sued by the right name. $7557.
what is a voluntary appearance for the purposes of the action. 87558.
what is not an appearance. $7559.
what is an authorized appearance by a corporation. $ 7560.

waiving service and confessing judgment. $ 7561.
Knowledge.

See NOTICE.
Laches.

See EQUITY; LIMITATIONS, STATUTE OF.
equitable doctrine of. $ 7842.
rights of bondholder lost by. $ 276.

on part of preferred shareholders. 82296.
Land.

See REAL PROPERTY.
damages for injuries to. 8 6370.

powers of foreign corporations relating to. $$ 7913-7923.
Land improvement companies.

powers of, generally. 5960.
Law of place.

See ContracrS; CONSTRUCTION.
Lawful purposes.

organization of corporation for. § 164.
Leases.

by railroad corporations. See CORPORATE
Leave to sue.

See RECEIVERS, subd. 15.
Legislative control.

See CONSTITUTIONAL RESTRAINTS; LEGISLATIVE POWER
Legislative power.

See CHARTERS.
corporations created by. & 35.
to amend charters. § 67.

to regulate tolls. See Tolls.
Lex loci rei situ.

See CONTRACTS; SITUS.
Liability

of directors, generally. See DIRECTORS, subds. 9, 10.
of directors, for failure to file reports. $$ 4221-4236.
of directors, for making false reports. $$ 4240-4255.

statutory, of directors and officers to creditors. See DIRECTORS, subd. 13.
Libel.

See Torts.
License taxes.

distinguished from licenses of occupations. 8 8109.
Lien.

See TRANSFERS OF SHARES.
of corporation on its shares of stock. $S 2317-2344.

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Lien-(Continued).

of factors. $ 2703.

of bankers, on cash dividends. $2132.
Life tenant.

right of to dividends. See DIVIDENDS, subd. 5.
Limitations.

See CONSTITUTIONAL RESTRAINTS.
Limitations, statute of.

See SHAREHOLDERS.
1. Limitation of actions by or on behalf of creditors of corporation - general principles.

preliminary statement. $ 3766.
statutes of limitation applicable to penalties. § 3767.
statutes exor

xonerating stockholders unless action brought against corporation

within a given time. $ 3768.
in the case of notes which have been renewed. $ 3769.
where the creditor sues to sequester unpaid balances. $ 3770.
filing of general creditors' bill arrests the running of the statute as to creditors

subsequently joining. 8 3771.
prescription under the code of Louisiana. $ 3772.
delay and laches. § 3773.
presumption of payment from lapse of time. $ 3774.

why a judicial call does not rebut this presumption of payment. $ 3775.
2. When such statutes begin to run.

generally from the date of the call under which the action is brought. $3779.
where the statute gives a joint action against the corporation and the stock.

holders. § 3780.
from the date of the appointment of a receiver. g 3781.

in case of a motion for execution under the Missouri statute. $ 3782.
3. Limitation of actions against corporations.

corporations may acquire title by adverse possession. g 7837.
limitation of actions to forfeit charters. 7838.
limitation of actions by creditors against trustees of corporations. $ 7839.
part payment to take the case out of the statute. $7840.
limitation of actions against foreign corporations. $7841.
equitable doctrine of laches. $ 7842.

limitations of actions against shareholders. $S 1986–1999.
Liquidation.

See WINDING UP.

voluntary liquidation of national banks. $7204.
Lis pendens.

See Bona FIDE PURCHASERS.
not notice when. $2604.
filing notice of to purchasers. $ 3675.

as notice-stock shares pledged. 8 2639.
Loans.

See SHARES, subd. 15.
of stock shares. $$ 2714-2716.

prohibited, liability of directors for. SS 4285, 4286.
Lobbying.
See FOBFEITURES,

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Locus penitentiæ.

where stock subscription is illegal. $ 1183.
Lunatics.

See VOTING.
Majority.

See BONDHOLDERS; ELECTIONS; QUORUM.
Malicious acts.

See TORTS.
Malicious injuries.

by corporations, liability for. See Torts, subd. 2
Managers.

See DIRECTORS; OFFICERS.
Managing agent.

See AGENTS.
1. Appointment and powers of.

who regarded as a "managing agent.” § 4846.
his appointment and tenure. $ 4847.
powers ascribed to "managing director.” 8 4848.
general view of the scope of the powers of managing agents. $ 4849.
his power to bind the corporation by acts done in the ordinary course of its

business. $ 4850.
his powers touching negotiable paper. § 4851.
cannot clothe sub-agents with power to make commercial paper. $ 4852.
powers of the "superintendent.” § 4853.
may employ workmen. $ 4854.
whether employ surgeons, etc., for wounded employés. § 4855.
make assignments for creditors. § 4856.
powers touching litigation. 4857.
powers of managers of particular kinds of corporations. $ 4858.
is liable to the company. $ 4859.
his powers when also president. $ 4860.

his powers in respect of taxation. § 4861.
Mandamus.

See REMEDIES.
1. Against corporations.

mandamus against corporations to compol performance of public duties. $ 7826.
when not issued to compel the performance of public duties. $ 7827.
doctrine that the public duty must be enjoined by statate. 87828.
does not lie to compel the performance of discretionary acts. $ 7829.
who apply for the writ: plaintiff in the action. 8 7830.
against corporation in corporate name. 87831.

corporation may appeal where the writ runs against its officers. $7832.
2. Miscellaneous.

to compel holding of corporate election. $700.
to restore member of corporation. $ 904.
to compel admission of member. $ 905.
to reinstate members of corporation. $8 4398, 4399.
to reinstate officer of corporation. $ 829.
to compel inspection of books of foreign corporation. $$ 4430-4433.

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