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of our superiority in artillery, with | 336 missing—total, 1,317; and claims which the principal execution was to have taken 275 prisoners, 5 done. Hindman's official report flags, 23 wagons, and

over 500 makes it, 164 killed, 817 wounded, small arms.



The river Tennessee, taking rise is the largest tributary, draining an in the rugged valleys of south-west- area of over 40,000 square miles. ern Virginia, between the Alleghany Very rarely frozen, it is usually naviand the Cumberland ranges of moun- gable, save in dry summers, from its tains, but drawing tribute also from mouth to the Muscle Shoals, toward western North Carolina and northern the lower end of its course through Georgia, traverses East Tennessee in Alabama, and thence by smaller boats a generally W. S. W. direction, en- at high stages of water some 500 tering Alabama at its N. E. corner; miles, to Knoxville, the capital of and, after a detour of some 300 miles, East Tennessee. The Cumberland, through the northern part of that draining the opposite slope of the State, passes out at its N. W. corner; Cumberland Mountains, takes its rise rëentering Tennessee, and, passing in the heart of eastern Kentucky, and, again through that State in a course pursuing a similar but shorter course, due north, and forming the boundary runs W. S. W. into Middle Tennesbetween what are designated respec- see, which it traverses very much as tively West and Middle Tennessee, the Tennessee does northern Alabathence flowing N. N. W. till it falls ma, passing Nashville, its capital, into the Ohio scarcely 70 miles above bending N. W. into Kentucky some the mouth of that river, whereof it 20 miles eastward of the latter river, and pursuing a generally parallel rifles, destroying the camp equipage, course to that stream, to its own re- and returning to Pikeville without ception by the Ohio, and being navi- loss. gable for 250 miles by large steamboats, save in seasons of summer Gen. Zollicoffer, at the close of drouth, and by boats of 500 tuns for 1861, held a position on the Cumbersome 300 miles further. These two— land, near the head of steamboat navthe only rivers, save the Mississippi, igation on that sinuous stream, which navigable southward from the border may be regarded as the right of the of the Free into the Slave States- Rebel army covering Tennessee and were obviously regarded on both holding a small part of southern Kensides, in view of the notorious im- tucky. His force did not exceed practicability of Southern roads in 5,000 men; but even this was with Winter and Spring, as the natural great difficulty meagerly subsisted by routes of advance for our Western inexorable foraging on that thinly armies collected and drilled on and settled and poorly cultivated region. near the Ohio during the Autumn of His principal camp was at MILL 1861 and the Winter following. SPRING, in Wayne county, on the

Terely wounded, were taken to Van Buren. “Their transportation had been left south of Their loss in killed upon the ground will reach the mountains, and their retreat thereby made 1,000; the greater number of whom have been unincumbered and stealthy. I am assured by buried by my command.”

my own men who were prisoners with them, as Pollard, on the other hand, says of this battle:

well as by deserters from their ranks, that they "Our whole line of infantry were in close con

tore up the blankets of their men to muffle the flict nearly the whole day with the enemy, who wheels of their artillery." were attempting, with their force of 18,000 men, Gen. Herron, in a private letter, dated Dec. to drive us from our position. In every instance, 15th, says: they were repulsed, and finally driven back

" The loss of the enemy is terrific. After from the field; Gen. Hindman driving them to their burial-parties had been on the ground for within 8 miles of Fayetteville; when our forces three days, we had to turn in and bury 300 for fell back to their supply dépôt, between Cane them. The country for 25 miles around is full Hill and Van Buren. We captured 300 prison- of their wounded. We have, as captures, 4 ere, and vast quantities of stores. The enemy's caissons full of ammunition, and about 300 stand loss in killed and wounded was about 1,000; the of arms. Hindman had prepared himself, and Confederate loss, in killed, wounded, and missing, risked all on this fight. His movements were about 300."

shrewdly managed; and nothing but desperately Gen. Blunt further says of this Pollard victory : / hard fighting ever carried us through."

The close of 1861 left Gen. Hum- south side of the river; but, finding phrey Marshall, commanding the Con- himself unmolested, he established federate forces in south-eastern Ken- himself on the opposite bank, in tucky, intrenched at Paintville, John- a substantial earthwork, which he son county, intent on gathering sup- named Camp Beach Grove. He had plies and recruiting. Col. James A. one small steamboat, which had run Garfield, of Ohio, commanding a up with munitions from Nashville, Union brigade consisting of the 42 and was employed in gathering supOhio, 14th Kentucky, and a squad- plies for his hungry men; but the ron of Ohio cavalry, moved up the advance of a Union detachment to Big Sandy early in 1862, occupying Columbia, on his left, had rendered Paintville' without resistance, and his navigation of the river below him pushing on to Prestonburg, Floyd precarious, if not entirely obstructed county; near which town, at the forks it. On his right front, Gen. Schoepf, of Middle creek, he encountered Mar- with a force of 8,000 men, occupied shall, whom he put to flight with Somerset; but was content to occupy little loss on either side. Garfield it, without attempting or desiring to reported his full strength in this make trouble. But Gen. George H. engagement at 1,800, and estimated Thomas, having been ordered by that of Marshall at 2,500. Marshall Gen. Buell to take command in this was obliged to retreat into Virginia. quarter, had scarcely reached Lo

Cumberland Gap was abandoned gan's Cross-Roads' when Maj.-Gen. without resistance to the Unionists George B. Crittenden, who had renext month ;' and Gen. Garfield, cently joined Zollicoffer and superwith 600 men, made a rapid excur- seded him in command, finding himsion' to Pound Gap, where he sur self nearly destitute of subsistence, prised a Rebel camp, capturing 300 and apprehending an attack in over

*Jan. 7, 1862. * About Feb, 22, March 16, * Dec. 29, 1861. • Jan. 17, 1863.



whelming strength from all our forces with Kinney's battery-were seriousin that part of Kentucky, resolved to ly engaged; but the 12th Kentucky, anticipate it;' and, at midnight after and two or three Tennessee regiments, the next day,' advanced with his en- reached the field just as the day was tire available force, consisting of six won by a charge of the 9th Ohio on Tennessee, one Alabama, and one our left flank with fixed bayonets, Mississippi regiments of infantry, six supported by a galling fire from the cannon, and two battalions of cav- 2d Minnesota in front, under which alry, to strike and surprise the three the Rebels gave way and fled, or four Union regiments which he scarcely halting until they reached was assured were alone posted be- their intrenched camp by the river; tween him and Somerset. He struck leaving one gun on the battle-field them as he had expected, but did not and another by the way. surprise them; Gen. Thomas having In the heat of the battle, when taken the precaution to send out the combatants were scarcely sepastrong pickets of infantry on the rated by an open space, Gen. Zolliroads leading toward the enemy, coffer was shot by Col. Fry, and fell with a picket of cavalry still farther dead on the field, where his body in advance. These were encountered was left by his followers. Col. Fry's by Crittenden’s vanguard before day- horse was shot dead directly afterlight;but, after firing, retired slowly ward. Col. Robert L. McCook, 9th and in good order, and reported to Ohio, was wounded in the leg, and Col. M. D. Manson, commanding the also had his horse shot. The Rebels advance brigade, who in ten minutes lost 192 killed, 62 wounded and had his two regiments—10th Indiana captured, besides those carried off and 4th Kentucky, Col. S. S. Fry- by them, and 89 taken unhurt. Our in readiness; and the Rebels, in that loss was 39 killed, and 207 wounded. hour of darkness, necessarily pro- It rained, as usual, and the roads ceeded with caution, doubling them were horrible ; but the victors, conselves as they advanced Thomas siderably rëenforced, were, before 4 was of course at the front, having or- P. M., in front of the intrenchments dered up his remaining regiments, at Camp Beech Grove, within which within ten minutes afterward. the flying Rebels had taken refuge

The charge of the Rebels was des- an hour or two before. Shelling perate, and the battle raged with was immediately commenced on our great fury for nearly two hours, side, feebly responded to on the during which the muskets of the other; and this continued until 7 at combatants were often fired through night, when our soldiers desisted and the same fence. Barely five Union lay down to rest. Gen. Schoepf's regiments in all—the 10th Indiana, brigade came up that night, and 2d Minnesota, 9th Ohio, 4th Ken- were so disposed by Gen. Thomas tucky, and 1st Kentucky cavalry, as to make sure of the capture of

Courier, says:

* A Rebel letter to the Louisville (Nashville) that Fishing creek could not be crossed; and so

the Somerset force of several thousand could not “The enemy in front occupied Somerset with join the force from Columbia before the 20th." several regiments, and Columbia with an equal force. On the 17th and 18th, it rained so much

Jan. 18-19,

Sunday, Jan, 19.


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the enemy. At daylight, their little | little boat, they had silently escaped steamer was seen lying in the river, across the river during the night, and was quickly set on fire by our leaving 10 more guns, with caissons, shells ; cutting off, as was fondly cal- and many small arms, 1,200 or 1,500 culated, all chance of farther Rebel horses and mules, with tents, blankets, retreat. Fire was then opened on and all the material of an army, betheir intrenchments, but there was hind them. no response ; and it was soon discovered that, taking advantage of their The Rebel engineers had con

A Rebel letter to the Memphis Avalanche, says 11 guns were spiked and thrown into the river.



structed—mainly by slave labor with his gunboats, proceeded cauat a point some 80 or 90 miles up tiously up the river, shelling the the Tennessee and Cumberland, woods on either side to discover any where those rivers first approach masked batteries that might there be within 10 or 12 miles of each planted. Having pushed this reconother, a few miles south of the noissance far enough to receive a 32Kentucky line, and north of the pound ball through the unprotected Louisville and Memphis Railroad, side of one of his boats, Gen. Grant two strong and spacious works; decided that the proper landing-place Fort HENRY, commanding the Ten- for the troops was about four miles nessee from its eastern bank, and below the fort, where he and they FORT DONELSON, controlling the pas- were debarked" accordingly. The sage of the Cumberland from the next day was spent in preparations, west, a little below the Tennessee and the next appointed for the atvillage of Dover. A dirt road con- tack: Gen. Grant directing the main nected the two forts, whereof the body of his forces, under Gen. John garrisons were expected to support A. McClernand, to move diagonally each other if assailed. Fort Henry, across the country and seize the road situated on a point or bend of the leading from the fort to Donelson river, and scarcely above its surface and Dover, while Gen. C. F. Smith, when in flood, menaced the approach with his brigade, advanced along the by water for a mile on either hand, west bank of the river, and Com. but was overlooked by three points" Foote, with his gunboats, moved within cannon-shot on either bank of slowly up and attacked the fort from the river. It covered two or three the water. acres of ground, mounted 17 large Com. Foote formed his vessels in guns, 11 of them bearing upon any two lines: the iron-clads Cincinnati vessels approaching from below, with (flag-ship), Essex, Carondelet, and St. a spacious intrenched camp in its Louis, in front, while the old wooden rear, and a wide abatis encircling Conestoga, Tyler, and Lexington, all. It was defended by Gen. Lloyd formed a second line some distance Tilghman, of Kentucky, with 2,600 astern, and out of the range of the

enemy's fire, throwing shell over the To Brig.-Gen. U. S. Grant, of Illi- iron-clads into and about the fort. nois, was assigned the task of its Thus advancing slowly and firing reduction, with the powerful aid of deliberately, the iron-clads steadily Commodore A. H. Foote and his neared the fort, using only their bowfleet of seven gunboats, four of them guns, because unwilling to expose partially iron-clad. Leaving Cairo" their weak, unsheltered sides to the with some 15,000 men on steam heavy guns of the fort, one of them transports, he moved up the Ohio to having a caliber of 128 and another the mouth of the Tennessee, then as- of 60 pounds, and but 12 of ours in cended that stream to within ten all of our front line being available. miles of Fort Henry, where his trans- For a moment only was there hesitaports halted," while Com. Foote, tion in the attack; when, after an

So says Gen. Tilgbman's official report. " Feb. 2, 1862. » Feb. 4-5. 13 Feb. 4.



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