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of the House; in which, after a long, tious reverence. I have worshiped it from arduous, doubtful struggle, during cipline by which we were prepared for it, in

forefathers.' In the school of rigid diswhich Mr. Eliot's resolve was refer- the struggles out of which it was born, the red to the Judiciary Committee and seven years of bitter conflict, and the seven

darker years in which that conflict seemed reported against" by Mr. Hickman, to be fruitless

of good; in the wisdom with of Pa., its Chairman—" because the which it was constructed and first adminisPresident has all

tered and set in motion; in the beneficent power now"—it had

Government it has secured for more than been referred to a Select Committee two generations; in the blessed influences of seven, whereof Mr. Sedgwick, of it has exerted upon the cause of Freedom N. Y., was Chairman; whence Mr.

and Humanity the world over, I can not fail

to recognize the hand of a guiding and lovEliot, of Mass., reported two bills, ing Providence. But not for the blessed one providing for confiscating the memories of the past only do I cling to it.

He must be blinded with ex ess of light,' property, the other for emancipating or with the want of it, who does not see the slaves, of persistent Rebels; that to this nation, trembling on the vergo whereupon debate was renewed and of dissolution, it is the only possible bond of

unity." continued for days—every Democrat

Mr. Samuel S. Cox, of Ohio, asked: and nearly every Border-State mem

" Must these Northern fanatics be sated ber resisting Emancipation as ruinous with negroes, taxes, and blood, with division to the National cause. Said Mr. W. North and devastation South, and peril to S. Holman, of Ind. (one of the most lief shall come? They will not halt until

constitutional liberty everywhere, before reloyal and non-partisan of those elected their darling schemes are consummated. as Democrats):

History tells us that such zealots do not and

can not go backward." . “I have supported, Sir, and will still support, every just measure of this Adininistra

Said Mr. John Law, of Indiana : tion to restore the Union. No partisan in- “The man who dreams of closing the terest shall control me when the Republic is present unhappy contest by reconstructing in danger. I place the interest of my coun- this Union upon any other basis than that try far above every other interest. I will prescribed by our fathers, in the compact make any sacrifice to uphold the Govern- formed by them, is a madman-ay, worse, ment; but I will not be deterred from con- a traitor--and should be hung as high as demning, at this time, this or any other Haman. Sir, pass these acts, confiscate unseries of measures—the offspring of mis- der these bills the property of these men, guided zeal and passion, or of want of faith emancipate their negroes, place arms in the in our people—which tends to defeat the hands of these human gorillas, to murder hope of a restoration of the Union. The their masters and violate their wives and citizen soldier, stricken down in battle or daughters, and you will have a war such as worn out by the weary march, falls a will- was never witnessed in the worst days of ing sacrifice for the Constitution of his coun- the French Revolution, and horrors never try, and his dying eyes light up with hope exceeded in St. Domingo, for the balance as they catch the gleam of its starry sym- of this century at least.' bol; while we deliberate on measures which Mr. Eliot closed the debate * in would overthrow the one, and blot out the stars from the other."

an able speech for the bills; and the Said Judge Thomas (Conservative), Confiscation bill was passed-Yeas of Massachusetts:

82; Nays 68. " That the bills before the House are in The Emancipation bill was next violation of the law of nations, and of the taken up; when, after rejecting seveConstitution, I can not-I say it with all deference to others. I can not entertain a ral amendments, the vote was taken doubt. My path of duty is plain. The duty on its passage, and it was defeated : more imperative than now. I am not dis- Yeas 74 (all Republicans); Nays 78 posed to deny that I have for it a supersti- fifteen members elected as Repub5 March 20, 1862.

April 23.
** April 30.

May 26.

HAYTI AND LIBERIA RECOGNIZED.

265

licans voting Nay, with all the Demo- tion. Its purport is that all slaves crats and all the Border-State men. of persons who shall give aid or comThe Republicans voting Nay were fort to the Rebellion, who shall take Messrs. Dawes and Delano, of Mass., refuge within the lines of the army; Diven, of N. Y., Dunn, of Ind., Fish- all slaves captured from such persons, er, of Del., Horton, of Ohio, Wm. or deserted by them, and coming unKellogg, of Ill., Killinger, of Pa., der the control of the Government; Mitchell, of Ind., Nixon, of N. J., and all slaves of such persons found Norton, of Ill., Porter, of Ind., A. H. or being within any place occupied Rice, of Mass., Stratton, of N. J., by Rebel forces, and afterward occuand Train, of Mass.

pied by the forces of the United Mr. Porter, of Ind., now moved " States—shall be deemed captives of & reconsideration; which narrowly war, and shall be for ever free, escaped defeat, on a motion by Mr. and not again held as slaves; that Holman that it do lie on the table: fugitive slaves shall not be surrenYeas 69; Nays 73. The reconsidera- dered to persons who have given aid tion prevailed : Yeas 84; Nays 64: and comfort to the Rebellion; that and the bill was recommitted, with no person engaged in the military or instructions to report a substitute al- naval service shall surrender fugitive ready proposed by Mr. P., which pre- slaves, on pain of being dismissed vailed-Yeas 84; Nays 66: and Mr. from the service; that the President Eliot again reported " a bill eman- may employ persons of African decipating the slaves of certain specified scent for the suppression of the Reclasses of prominent Rebels, and also bellion, and organize and use them of all persons who shall continue in in such manner as he may judge best armed rebellion sixty days after the for the public welfare. President shall have issued his proc- This bill passed the House by the lamation requiring them to desist decisive majority of 82 Yeas to 42 therefrom. The bill thus modified Nays; also the Senate, by 27 Yeas to passed the House: Yeas 82; Nays 54. 12 Nays; and, being approved by the

The House Confiscation bill afore- President," became the law of the said was taken up in the Senate;" land. and, after debate, so amended, " on President Lincoln having recommotion of Mr. Clark, of N. H., as to mended, in his first Annual Mesrecombine Emancipation therewith ; sage," the establishment of Diplowhen it was passed : Yeas 28; Nays matic intercourse with the republics 13. The House non-concurred" in of Hayti and Liberia, Mr. Sumner this action : Yeas 8; Nays 124; where- reported" to the Senate, from its Comupon, the Senate insisted, and asked mittee on Foreign Relations, a bill a committee of conference; which for that purpose; which in due time was granted ; and the Committee was taken up,“ supported by its reported a bill which was in sub- author, opposed" by Mr. G. Davis, stance Mr. Clark's, providing for of Ky., who proclaimed his disboth Confiscation and Emancipa- gust at the continued “introduction May 27. 16 June 17. 17 June 23.

July 17. ** Dec. 3, 1862. ** Feb. 4, '63. 69 July 3. July 11.

* April 22. 6 April 24.

61

so June 28.

64

of the subject of slaves and Slavery of the District were taxed $36,000 into this chamber;" though no one per annum, whereof a tenth was apbut himself had mentioned either in propriated to the support of schools, connection with this measure. He not one of their children was perdrew a ludicrous picture of "a big mitted to enter those schools or to negro fellow,” fantastically arrayed, receive any benefit whatever from the being presented as Minister from money thus wrested from them by Hayti. Mr. Sumner rejoined ; and law for the education of the children Mr. Davis's substitute, providing for of the Whites, many of whom paid consular relations only with the re- no tax whatever. His bill proposed publics aforesaid, was voted down- simply that the city revenue raised Yeas 8; Nays 31—and then the bill for schools by the taxation of Blacks passed: Yeas 32; Nays 7. On reach- should be devoted to the education ing the House, it was referred to its of their own children, and not those Committee on Foreign Affairs; which of the Whites. Committee was discharged" from its This bill having been referred to further consideration, on motion of and reported" from the District ComMr. Gooch, of Mass., who ably and mittee, it was taken up,“ on motion temperately advocated its passage. of Mr. Grimes; and certain nonMr. Cox, of Ohio, replied, à la Davis; essential amendments of the Comand, after further debate by Messrs. mittee agreed to. Mr. Wilson, of Fessenden, of Maine, Eliot, of Mass., Mass., then moved to add a new secMcKnight and Kelley, of Pa., and tion, as follows: Maynard, of Tenn., in favor, and “ That all persons of color in the District Messrs. Biddle, of Pa., and Critten- of Columbia, or within the corporate limits

of the cities of Washington and Georgeden, of Ky., in opposition, it was town, shall be subject and amenable to the passed-Yeas 86; Nays 37-and, same laws and ordinances to which free being signed by the President, be- amenable ; that they shall be tried for

any

White persons are or may be subject or came the law of the land.

offenses against the laws in the same manner as free White persons are or may be

tried for the same offenses; and that, upon Previous to the triumph of Eman- being legally convicted of any crime or cipation in the Federal District, there offense against any law or ordinance

, such was no public provision for the edu- persons of color shall be liable to such

penalty or punishment, and only such, as cation of the Blacks, whether bond would be imposed or inflicted upon free or free; and very few, even of the White persons for the same crime or offense : latter, received any schooling what with the provisions of this act, are hereby

and all acts, or parts of acts, inconsistent The great obstacle to improve-repealed." ment having been swept away, Mr. This important amendment preGrimes, of Iowa, submitted" to the vailed; and the bill, thus improved, Senate a bill providing for the edu- passed :" Yeas 29; Nays 7. Reachcation of colored children in the city ing the House, it was there referred of Washington ; prefacing it by a to its District Committee; reported" statement that, whereas the number therefrom without amendment, by of those children was in 1860 no less Mr. Rollins, of N. H., and, on his than 3,172, and while the Free Blacks motion, passed, under the Previous 67 June 5.

*8 April 29. " April 30. ** May 8. "May 9. * May 15.

ever.

60 June 2.

7.

RENDITION OF FUGITIVE SLAVES.

267

Question, without a call of the Yeas / Jersey. That report killed it. But and Nays. It received the President's Mr. Wilmot, of Pa., soon revived " signature on the 21st. Bills making the proposition, by a bill which refurther and better provision for the quired every person, who should apeducation of colored children were ply for the legal process required for matured and enacted in the course of the arrest of a fugitive slave, to take that and the two following sessions. a stringent oath of loyalty. The

bill further provided that each alA treaty between the Great Pow- leged fugitive shall have compulsory ers of Western Europe, intended to process against witnesses deemed esprovide for the more effectual sup- sential to his defense, and that such pression of the African Slave-Trade, witnesses should be sworn and heard, was matured and signed at Paris in irrespective of their color. Mr. Wade 1841. It necessarily accorded a qual- promptly reported this bill; but it ified reciprocal right to search sus- shared the fate of its predecessor. pected cruisers to the National ves- Mr. Wilson, of Mass., proposed" sels of the subscribing parties. Gen. to amend the bill of 1850 aforesaid, Cass, then our Envoy at Paris, and a so as to secure to every one claimed prospective candidate for President, as a fugitive slave a trial by jury; resisted and defeated the accession of which, though once taken up"— our Government to this most right. Yeas 25; Nays 10—failed to comeous and necessary increase of power mand the attention of the Senate. to the international police of the Soon after the meeting of the next ocean, and earned thereby the quali Congress, Mr. Stevens, of Pa., subfied approbation of the Slave Power; mitted to the House a bill contemas was evinced in the Presidential elec- plating an absolute repeal, not only tion of 1848. A similar treaty was of the act of 1850, but also of the now negotiated between the United Fugitive Slave act of 1793. Messrs. States and Great Britain ; and a bill Ashley, of Ohio, and Julian, of Ind., designed to give effect to its provisions introduced bills of like tenor. Mr. was reported” to the Senate by Mr. Julian further proposed that the JuSumner, considered, and passed : " diciary Committee be instructed to Yeas 34; Nays 4. The House con- report a bill to repeal the most obcurred;" and the bill became a noxious provisions of the acts in law.**

question; but this was, on motion

of Mr. Holman, of Ind., laid on the The first proposition looking to a table: Yeas 82; Nays 73. repeal of the Fugitive Slave act of In the Senate, Mr. Sumner next 1850 by the XXXVIIth Congress introduced" a bill sweeping away was made" by Mr. Howe, of Wis- all slave-catching by statute; which consin, to the Senate; whereby it was referred to a Select Committee was read twice, referred to the Ju- of seven, whereof he was Chairman, diciary Committee, and reported " which had been raised to consider alí against by Mr. Ten Eyck, of New propositions affecting Slavery. Je ** June 12, 1862. 74 June 16.

18 July 7.
May 23.

80 May 27. May 24. * July 11.

77 Dec. 26, 1861. 7° Feb. 11, 1862. June 10, Dec. 14, 1863. * Feb, 8, 1864. 80 June 21. 9 June 23, 1864 » Dec. 4, 1861.

79

81

soon reported" his bill, with ample | Winkle and Willey, of West Va., reasons for its passage-Mr. Bucka- voting with the Opposition. The lew, of Pa., making a minority report President's signature, five days therein opposition. Mr. Sumner persist- after, made it a law of the land, abolently and successfully pressed the ishing for ever the least creditable consideration of his bill, offering not and most disagreeable function of the to debate it; and, after some discus- marshals of our Federal Courts. sion, the Senate adopted" an amendment proposed by Mr. Sherman, of The District of Columbia had been Ohio, excepting the act of 1793 from governed mainly by the laws of the the contemplated repeal: Yeas 24; States which ceded it; and those Nays 17. The debate was still fur- laws were framed in the interest of ther continued; but no final action slave-holding. They presumed evewas had on the bill.

ry colored person a slave who could Mr. Morris, of N. Y., reported" not produce White evidence of his from the Judiciary Committee a bill freedom; and there had grown up in repealing all acts and parts of acts Washington a practice, highly lucracontemplating the rendition of fugi- tive to her Federal Marshal, but tive slaves ; which was debated with most disgraceful to the city and Nagreat spirit by a score of members— tion, of seizing Blacks on the streets, Messrs. Mallory, of Ky., Cox, of Ohio, immuring them in the jail, advertisand others, opposing it as equivalent ing them, and waiting for masters to to annulling the Constitution. Mr. appear, prove property, pay charges, Mallory observed that the majority and take the human chattels away. had already crushed out the Union- Mr. Lincoln's Marshal, Col. Ward H. ism of the revolted States, and were Lamon, came with him from Illinois, now extending the process to that of but was a Virginian by birth, and did the Border Slave States, and impres- not revolt at the abundant and profisively warned the House to forbear. table custom brought to his shop by Finally, after having once moved and the practice just depicted. Gen. withdrawn the Previous Question, Mr. Wilson, of Mass., early" called the Morris moved it again ;98 when it pre- attention of the Senate to this painvailed, and the bill passed under it: ful subject; saying that he had “visYeas 88; Nays 57.

ited the jail; and such a scene of Mr. Sumner demanded the consid- degradation and inhumanity he had eration of this bill in Senate; and it never witnessed. There were perwas, after a fiery debate, ordered : sons almost entirely naked; some Yeas 25; Nays 17. Mr. Johnson, of of them without a shirt. Some of Md., endeavored to save the act of those persons were free; most of them 1793; but the Senate refused: Yeas had run away from disloyal masters, 17; Nays 22. The bill, after being or had been sent there by disloyal laid over one day to enable Mr. Da- persons, for safe keeping until the vis, of Ky., to make a speech against war is over.” He thereupon proposit, was passed :** Yeas 27; Nays 12 ed a discharge by joint resolve of all

Messrs. Cowan, of Pa., and Van persons confined in the District jail As Feb. 29.

* Mar. 19.

87 June 6.

88 June 13.

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