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“I have ordered troops to cross the river. clined; and, after due debate, the conThey come as your friends and your broth-ference terminated fruitlessly. Very ers—as enemies only to armed Rebels who are preying upon you. Your homes, your naturally, the transit of negroes from families, and your property, are safe under Slavery to Fortress Monroe was our protection. All your rights shall be religiously respected.

thenceforth almost continuous. “Notwithstanding all that has been said by Gen. Butler wrote" forthwith to the traitors to induce you to believe that our advent among you will be signalized by in

Lt.-Gen. Scott, soliciting advice and terference with your slaves, understand one direction. In this letter, he said : thing clearly--not only will we abstain from all such interference, but we will, on the

“Since I wrote my last, the question in contrary, with an iron hand, crush any at- regard to slave property is becoming one of tempt at insurrection on their part.”

very serious magnitude. The inhabitants

of Virginia are using their negroes in the Those volunteer officers, however, batteries, and are preparing to send their who had not been blessed with a from them are very numerous; and a squad

women and children south. The escapes West Point training, did not always has come in this morning," and my view the matter in precisely this pickets are bringing in their women and

children. Of course, these can not be dealt light. Directly after Gen. Butler's with upon the theory on which I designed accession to command at Fortress to treat the services of able-bodied men and

women who might come within my lines, Monroe, three slaves



and of which I gave you a detailed account within his lines from the Rebel lines in my last dispatch. adjacent; stating that they were held

“I am in the utmost doubt what to do

with this species of property. Up to this as property by Col. Mallory, of the time, I have had come within my lines inen Confederate forces in his front, who and women, with their children—entire was about to send them to the North families—each family belonging to the same

I have, therefore, determined to Carolina seaboard, to work on the employ-as I can do very profitably-the Rebel fortifications there in

able-bodied progress,

persons in the party, issuing intended to bar that coast against against their services the expense of care

proper food for the support of all; charging our arms. Gen. Butler heard their and sustenance of the non-laborers; keepstory, was satisfied of its truth, and in a strict and accurate account, as well

of the services as of the expenditures, havsaid: “These men are contraband of ing the worth of the services and the cost war:' set them at work.” He was, of survey hereafter to be detailed. I know

of the expenditure determined by a board very soon afterward, invited to a con

of no other manner in which to dispose of ference by Maj. Carey, commanding this subject, and the questions connected opposite; and accordingly met the insurgents it will be of very great moment

. Major (in whom he recognized an -the number that I now have amounting, old political compatriot) a mile from as I am informed, to what in good times

$. the fort. Maj. Carey, as agent of his would be of the value of $60,000.

“Twelve of these negroes, I am informed, absent friend Mallory, demanded a have escaped from the erection of the batreturn of those negroes; which Gen.

teries on Sewell's Point, which fired upon

my expedition as it passed by out of range. Butler courteously but firmly de- As a means of offense, therefore, in the eneMay 22, 1861.


May 27, 1861. O" In this matter, he (Gen. Butler] has struck this Southern Insurrection in a place which is 11 "These fugitive slaves, at this rate, will soon as vulnerable as the heel of Achilles; and we prove more powerful in suffocating this Southern dare say that, in receiving and seizing the slaves White insurrection than all the armies of Gen. of Rebels as contraband of war, this Southern Scott. This man Butler, in this thing, has Confederacy will be substantially suppressed proved himself the greatest lawyer we have bewith the pacification of Virginia."—N. Y. Herald, tween a pair of epaulets."-N. Y. Herald, June May 31, 1861.

28, 1861.


BUTLER-CAMERON-FREMONT-LINCOLN. 239 my's hands, these negroes, when able-bod-ion on the Slavery question had made ied, are of great importance. Without them, the batteries could not have been erected very considerable strides; when Gen. at least, for many weeks. As a military Fremont, on assuming civil as well question, it would seem to be a measure of as military control of the State of necessity, and deprives their inasters of their services.

Missouri, issued the memorable Gen“How can this be done? As a political eral Order," wherein he proclaimed question, and a question of humanity, can I that “ The property, real and personreceive the services of a father and a mother and not take the children? Of the humani- al, of all persons in the State of Mistarian aspect, I have no doubt; of the po- souri who shall take up arms against litical one, I have no right to judge. I therefore submit all this to your better the United States, or shall be directjudgment; and, as these questions have a ly proven to have taken active part political aspect, I have ventured--and with their enemies in the field, is detrust I am not wrong in so doing—to duplicate the parts of my dispatch relating to this clared to be confiscated to the public subject, and forward them to the Secretary use; and their slaves, if any they have, of War. Your obedient servant, “ BENJ. F. BUTLER.

are hereby declared free men.' " Lt.-General Scott."

This position was in advance of He was answered by the head of any that had yet been sanctioned at the War Department as follows: Washington; and, though it was very

“Sır:-Your action in respect to the generally sustained or acquiesced in negroes who came within your lines, from by the journals supporting the War, the service of the Rebels, is approved. The Department is sensible of the embarrass- President Lincoln wrote Gen. Frements which must surround officers con- mont that he must withdraw or modducting military operations in a State, by the laws of which Slavery is sanctioned. ify it. This, Gen. F. declined to do, The Government can not recognize the re- unless openly directed by his superior; jection by any State of its Federal obliga: hence the following order: tions, resting upon itself. Among these Feda eral obligations, however, no one can be “Washington, D. C., Sept. 11, 1861. more important than that of suppressing “Maj.-Gen. John C. Fremont : and dispersing any combination of the

“Sir:-Yours of the 8th, in answer to former for the purpose of overthrowing mine of the 2d inst., is just received. Asits whole constitutional authority. While, sured that you, upon the ground, could therefore, you will permit no interference, better judge of the necessities of your posiby persons under your command, with the tion than I could at this distance, on seeing relations of persons held to service under the laws of any State, you will, on the your proclamation of August 30, I perceived

no general objection to it; the particular other hand, so long as any State within clause, however, in relation to the confiscawhich your military operations are conduct- tion of property and the liberation of slaves, ed remains under the control of such armed combinations, refrain from surrendering to appeared to me to be objectionable in its

non-conformity to the Act of Congress, alleged masters any persons who come with

passed the 6th of last August, upon the in your lines. You will employ such persons in the services to which they will be best pressing my wish that that clause should

same subjects; and hence I wrote you exadapted; keeping an account of the labor be modified accordingly. Your answer, just by thern performed, of the value of it, and received, expresses the preference on your the expenses of their maintenance. The

part that I should make an open order qnestion of their final disposition will be re

for the modification ; which I very cheerserved for future determination.

fully do. It is, therefore, ordered that the -- Simon Cameron, Secretary of War. said clause of said proclamation be so modi“To Maj. Gen. BUTLER."

fied, held, and construed, as to conform Time passed. Bull Run had been with, and not to transcend, the provisions fought and lost; the called session of on the same subject contained in the Act

of Congress entitled "An act to confiscate Congress had been held; public opin- property used for insurrectionary purposes, '

12 See it in full, Vol. I., p. 585.


And no


approved August 6, 1861; and that the said | sonal animosity; no desire to harm your act be published at length with this order. citizens, destroy your property, or interfere Your obedient servant, A. Lincoln." with any of your lawful rights, or your soIn view of the sailing from Fort- causes herein briefly alluded to may render

cial and local institutions, beyond what the ress Monroe of the Port Royal expe- unavoidable.”.

. dition against the Sea Islands and

All in vain. None of the Whites coast of South Carolina, General In- on the adjacent mainland could be structions were issued" to its military induced even to accept a copy of this chief, whereof the gist is as follows: document-those who were brought

"You will, in general, avail yourself of to parley insisting that there were no the services of any persons, whether fugi- “ loyal persons” (in Gen. Sherman's tives from labor or not, who may offer them to the National Government; you will em

sense)—that is, no loyal Whitesploy such persons in such service as they within their knowledge. may be fitted for, either as ordinary em- South Carolina journal intimated ployés, or, if special circumstances seem to that Gen. Sherman's virtual pledge require it, in any other capacity, with such organization, in squads, companies, or other not to intermeddle with Slavery renwise, as you deem most beneficial to the dered his presence on their coast one service. This, however, not to mean a general arming of them for military service. whit less unwelcome than it would You will assure all loyal masters that Con- otherwise have been. If


White gress will provide just compensation to them native of South Carolina came over for the loss of the services of the persons so employed. It is believed that the course to us, or evinced a desire to do so, thus indicated will best secure the substan- thenceforth till near the end of the tial rights of loyal masters, and the benefits to the United States of the services of all Rebellion, his name has not been disposed to support the Government, while given to the public. it avoids all interference with the social systems or local institutions of every State, beyond that which insurrection makes un

Maj.-Gen. Wool, who succeeded avoidable, and which a restoration of peace- Gen. Butler in command at Fortress ful relations to the Union, under the Con- Monroe, issued " an order directing stitution, will immediately remove.

“Simon Cameron, Secretary of War." that “all colored persons called conGen. T. W. Sherman," having oc- others within his command, must be

trabands” employed by officers or cupied the forts guarding the entrance

furnished with subsistence by their to Port Royal, and firmly established himself on that and the adjacent employers, and paid, if males, not islands, issued a proclamation to the

less than $8; if females, not less than

$t people of South Carolina, wherein he $t per month; and that “all able

bodied colored persons, not employed said:

as aforesaid,” will be immediately “In obedience to the orders of the President of these United States of America, I put to work in the Engineer's or the have landed on your shores with a small Quartermaster's Department. By a force of National troops. The dictates of a subsequent order," he directed that duty which, under the Constitution, I owe to a great sovereign State, and to a proud the compensation of contrabands and hospitable people, anong whom I have working for the Government should passed some of the pleasantest days of my be $5 to $10 per month, with soldiers' life, prompt me to proclaim that we have come among you with no feelings of per- rations. 13 Oct. 14, 1861.

19 Not William T., who became so famous, * It is well understood that this sentence was but an old army officer, formerly 5th Artillery. inserted by the President in revising the order. 10 Oct. 14, 1861.

17 Nov. 1, 1861.




of an army

Maj.-Gen. Dix, being about to take in arms. If Congress shall pass it, you may

be certain that I shall enforce it. Perhaps possession of the counties of Accomac

my policy as to the treatment of Rebels and and Northampton, Va., on the east- their property is as well set out in Order ern shore of Chesapeake Bay, issued " No. 13, issued the day your letter was writ

ten, as I could now describe it." a Proclamation, which says:

That deserters from the enemy, “The military forces of the United States

entering the lines or camp are about to enter your counties as a part of the Union. They will go among you as in time of war, are “unauthorized friends, and with the earnest hope that they may not, by your own acts, be forced persons,” is quite obvious ; that they to become your enemies. They will invade very often give false information, and no rights of person or property. On the are in fact spies, deserting back again contrary, your laws, your institutions, your at the first fair opportunity, is well usages, will be scrupulously respected. There need be no fear that the quietude of known. Yet no commander prior to any fireside will be disturbed, unless the Gen. Halleck ever directed deserters disturbance is caused by yourselves.

"Special directions have been given not to be repelled from his front and to interfere with the condition of any person thrown back on the enemy; on the held to domestic service; and, in order that contrary, the risks of dissimulation, there may be no ground for mistake or pretext for misrepresentation, commanders of falsehood, and treachery, are preregiments and corps have been instructed sumed to be far overbalanced by the not to permit any such persons to come within their lines."

chance of thus obtaining valuable in

formation and aid. That the Whites Maj.-Gen. Halleck, soon after succeeding Gen. Fremont in command of Missouri were far more likely than in Missouri, issued his famous "Order the Blacks to be traitors at heart, No. 3,' which sets forth that

and infinitely more apt to steal away " It has been represented that important to the Rebels with important inforinformation, respecting the number and con- mation, was as palpable as noonday; dition of our forces, is conveyed to the yet Gen. Halleck's No. 3 repelled enemy by means of fugitive slaves who are

Blacks only. admitted within our lines. In order to remedy this evil, it is directed that no such Gen. Halleck's order No. 13 sheds persons be hereafter permitted to enter the no further light on this subject; but, lines of any camp, or of any forces on the march; and that any now within such lines in a subsequent order," he says: be immediately excluded therefrom.”

“It does not belong to the military to Gen. Halleck afterward, in a letter slave. Such questions must be settled by

decide upon the relation of master and to F.P. Blair, explained and justified the civil courts. No fugitive slaves will, this order, as follows:

therefore, be admitted within our lines or “ Order No. 3 was, in my mind, clearly a

camps, except when specially ordered by

the General commanding." military necessity. Unauthorized persons, Black or White, free or slave, must be kept

Never was a “therefore” more

” out of our camps, unless we are willing to misplaced. How were the persons publish to the enemy every thing we do or intend to do. It was a military, and not a presenting themselves adjudged to political order.

be or known as “fugitive slaves”? “I am ready to carry out any lawful in: Plainly, by the color of their skins, structions in regard to fugitive slaves which my superiors may give me, and to enforce and that only. The sole end of this can not make law, and will not violate it. slaves to their masters-seven-eighths any law which Congress may pass. But I regulation was the remanding of all You know my private opinion on the policy of confiscating the slave property of Rebels of whom were most envenomed, im. ** Nov. 13, 1861.

10 Feb. 23, 1862. VOL. II.-16


placable Rebels—by depriving them or protecting the property of those who of refuge within our lines from those are waging war against it.

“The principal wealth and power of the masters' power.

Rebel States is a peculiar species of proper

ty, consisting of the service or labor of Gen. Cameron, the Secretary of African slaves, or the descendants of Afri

This property has been variously esWar, had already become an ardent timated at the valne of from seven hundred and open convert to the policy of re- million to one thousand million dollars.

Why should this property be exempt cognizing Slavery as the Union's real from the hazards and consequences of a reassailant, and fighting her accord-bellious war ?

“It was the boast of the leader of the Reingly. In his Annual Report to the bellion, while he yet had a seat in the SenPresident of the operations of his ate of the United States, that the Southern Department, he said :

States would be comparatively safe and free

from the burdens of war, if it should be “It has become a grave question for de- brought on by the contemplated Rebellion; termination what shall be done with the and that boast was accompanied by the slaves abandoned by their owners on the savage threat that Northern towns and advance of our troops into Southern terri- cities would become the victims of rapine tory, as in the Beaufort district of South and military spoil,' and that 'Northern men Carolina. The whole White population should smell Southern gunpowder and feel therein is six thousand, while the number Southern steel.' No one doubts the disposiof negroes exceeds thirty-two thousand. tion of the Rebels to carry that threat into The panic which drove their masters in wild execution. The wealth of Northern towns confusion from their homes leaves them in and cities, the produce of Northern farms, undisputed possession of the soil. Shall Northern workshops and manufactories, they, armed by their masters, be placed in would certainly be seized, destroyed, or apthe field to fight against us? or shall their propriated as military spoil. No property in labor be continually employed in repro- the North would be spared from the hands ducing the means for supporting the armies of the Rebels; and their rapine would be deof rebellion ?

fended under the laws of war. While the “The war into which this Government | loyal States thus have all their property has been forced by rebellious traitors is and possessions at stake, are the insurgent carried on for the purpose of repossessing Rebels to carry on warfare against the Govthe property violently and treacherously ernment in peace and security to their own seized upon by the enemies of the Govern- property? ment, and to rëestablish the authority and "Reason and justice and self-preservation laws of the United States in the places forbid that such should be the policy of this where they are opposed or overthrown by Government, but demand, on the contrary, armed insurrection and rebellion. Its pur- that, being forced by traitors and Rebels to pose is to recover and defend what is justly the extremity of war, all the rights and its own.

powers of war should be exercised to bring “War, even between independent nations, it to a speedy end. is made to subdue the enemy, and all that “Those who war against the Governbelongs to that enemy, by occupying the ment justly forfeit all rights of property, hostile country, and exercising dominion privilege, or security, derived from the Conover all the men and things within its ter- stitution and laws, against which they are ritory. This being true in respect to inde- in arined rebellion; and, as the labor and pendent nations at war with each other, it service of their slaves constitute the chief follows that Rebels, who are laboring by property of the Rebels, such property should force of arms to overthrow a Government, share the common fate of war to which justly bring upon themselves all the conse- they have devoted the property of loyal quences of war, and provoke the destruc- citizens. tion merited by the worst of crimes. That “ While it is plain that the slave property Government would be false to national of the South is justly subjected to all the trust, and would justly excite the ridicule consequences of this rebellious war, and of the civilized world, that would abstain that the Government would be untrue to from the use of any efficient means to pro- its trust in not employing all the rights and serve its own existence, or to overcome a powers of war to bring it to a speedy close, rebellious and traitorous enemy, by sparing the details of the plan for doing so, like all

20 Dec. 1, 1861.

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