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hours, French paused, considerably | vanced as far as Dr. Piper's house, in advance of the position on which very near to Sharpsburg, and about the fight had commenced, but with the center of the Rebel army at the out having carried the heights. beginning of the battle. Here artil
Richardson's division of Sumner's lery was brought up—this division corps advanced on the left of French, having thus far fought without itcrossing the Antietam at 91 A. m., and, while personally directing the and going steadily forward under a fire of Capt. Graham's battery, 1st heavy artillery fire, half way up from U. S. Artillery, Richardson fell morthe creek to Sharpsburg, over very tally wounded, and was succeeded rugged ground, much of it covered by Hancock. Gen. Meagher had with growing corn, and intersected fallen some time before: the comby stone walls, which afforded every mand of his brigade devolving on advantage to the defensive. The Col. Burke, of the 63d New York. musketry fire on both sides was se- One two more attempts or vere; but our men steadily gained menaces were made on this part of ground; Caldwell's and Meagher's our line, but not in great force; and, (Irish) brigade vieing with each other though its advance was drawn back in steadiness and gallantry. Here a little to avoid an enfilading fire Col. Francis C. Barlow, of Caldwell's from Rebel batteries, to which it brigade, signalized himself by seizing could not respond, it held its well an opportunity to advance the 61st advanced position when night closed and 64th New York on the left, and the battle. take in flank a Rebel force, which, Porter's corps, in our center, holdsheltered by a stnken road, was at- ing the roads from Sharpsburg to tempting to enfilade our line, captur- Middletown and Boonsborough, reing over 300 prisoners and 3 flags. mained unengaged, east of the An
The left of this division being now tietam, until late in the afternoon; well advanced, the enemy, maneu- when two brigades of it were sent by vering behind a ridge, attempted to McClellan to support our right; take it in flank and rear, but was while six battalions of Sykes's regsignally defeated ; the 5th New ulars were thrown across the bridge Hampshire and the 81st Pennsylvania on the main road to repel Rebel facing to the left and meeting their sharp-shooters, who were annoying charge by a countercharge, which Pleasanton's horse-batteries at that was entirely successful. Some pris- point. Warren's brigade was deoners and the colors of the 4th North tached and sent to the right and rear Carolina remained in our hands. of Burnside, leaving but little over The enemy next assailed the right of 3,000 men with Porter. this division ; but Col. Barlow, again Burnside's corps held our extreme advancing his two New York regi- left, opposite the lowest of the three ments, aided by Kimball's brigade bridges crossing the Antietam. He on the right, easily repulsed it. Next, was ordered, at 8 A. M., to cross this a charge was made directly on Rich- one, which was held by Gen. R. ardson's front, which was defeated as Toombs, with the 2d and 20th Georgia, before, and our line still farther ad-backed by some sharp-shooters and
CLOSE OF THE BATTLE OF ANTIETAM.
the batteries of Gen. D. R. Jones, on his artillery, charged in front and Longstreet's right wing. Several fee- flank, and drove our men in confuble attempts to execute this order hav- sion down the hill toward the Antieing been successively repulsed, Burn- tam, pursuing until checked by the side was further ordered to carry not fire of our batteries across the river. only the bridge but the heights be- Gen. L. O'B. Branch, of N. C., was yond, and advance along their crest killed in this charge. Our reserves upon Sharpsburg; but it was not till on the left bank now advancing, while 1 P. M. that the bridge was actually our batteries redoubled their fire, the taken, by a charge of the 51st New Rebels wisely desisted, without atYork and the 51st Pennsylvania ; the tempting to carry the bridge, and reenemy making no serious resistance, tired to their lines on the heights, as and retreating to the heights as our darkness put an end to the fray. troops came over in force. More Jackson, during the afternoon, had hours passed idly; and it was after been ordered by Lee to turn our right 3 P. M. before Burnside, under peremp- and attack it in flank and rear; but, tory orders, charged up the heights, on reconnoitering for this purpose, carrying them handsomely; some of he found our line extended nearly to his troops reaching even the outskirts, the Potomac, and so strongly defendof Sharpsburg.
ed with artillery that to carry it was It was an easy but a short-lived impossible; so he declined to make triumph; for, thus far, Lee had been the attempt. able to spare but about 3,000 men, So closed, indecisively, the bloodiunder D. R. Jones, to hold this flank est day that America ever saw. of his position. Had this success Gen. McClellan states his strength been obtained hours earlier, it might --no doubt truly—in this battle at have proved decisive. The Rebel 87,164, including 4,320 cavalry, which forces throughout the greater part of was of small account on such ground the day had abundant occupation on and in such a struggle. General our right, so that Lee was unable to Couch's division, 5,000 strong, had spare sufficient troops to resist a de- been sent away toward Harper's Fertermined advance by our left; but ry-evidently through some misapnow, just as victory seemed to smile prehension-and only arrived at a upon our arms, A. P. Hill's division late hour next morning;" as did -which had only been ordered from Humphrey's division of raw recruits, Harper's Ferry that morning, and which had left Frederick--23 miles disstarted at 71 o'clock--came on the tant--at 4} P.M. of the sanguinary 17th. ground, and, covered by a heavy fire McClellan estimates Lee's strength of artillery, charged our extreme left, at 97,445, including 6,000 artillery when disordered by charging and (400 guns), 6,400 cavalry, and makfighting, and drove it back in still ing Jackson's corps number 24,778 greater confusion. Gen. Rodman, —all far too high. Lee says he had who commanded it, was mortally “under 40,000 men;" which probawounded; and the enemy, rallying bly includes neither cavalry nor A. with spirit and redoubling the fire of P. Hill's division; and perhaps not
* Sept. 18. VOL. II.-14
851 464 63
Total 7,508 2,438 8,241
McLaws’s. The Richmond Enquirer | 15,000 stand of small arms, and more than of the 23d (four days after the battle) | attest the success of our arms in the battles
6,000 prisoners, were the trophies which says it has “authentic particulars” of of South Mountain, Crampton's Gap, and the battle; and that “the ball was Antietam. Not a single gun or color was opened on Tuesday evening about 6 lost by our army during these battles.” o'clock, by all of our available force, And the reports of Lee's corps or 60,000 strong, commanded by Gen. division commanders give the followRobert E. Lee in person.” And this ing aggregates : seems to be the more probable aggre- Longstreet's.... 964 gate.
Pollard, in his “Southern History of the War," says of this battle: "It was fought for half the day with D. H. Hill reports 3,241 disabled, 45,000 men on the Confederate side; including 4 Colonels, out of less than and for the remaining half with no 5,000; and Lawton's brigade lost more than an aggregate of 70,000 554 out of 1,150. men."
Among the Rebel killed were Gen. McClellan makes his entire Maj. Gen. Starke, of Miss., Brig.loss in this battle 12,469: 2,010 Gens. L. O'B. Branch, of N. C., and killed, 9,416 wounded, and 1,043 miss- G. B. Anderson; Cols. Douglass (coming; and says his army counted and manding Lawton's brigade), Liddell, buried “about 2,700” of the enemy, 11th Miss., Tew, 2d N. C., Barnes, beside those buried by themselves : 12th S. C., Mulligan, 15th Ga., Barwhence he estimates their total loss clay, 23d do., and Smith, 27th do. as “much greater” than ours. As Among their wounded were Maj.the Rebels fought mainly on the de- Gen. R. H. Anderson, Brig.-Gens. fensive, under shelter of woods, and Lawton, Rhodes, Ripley, Armistead, on ground commanded by their ar- Gregg, of S. C., R. Toombs and tillery, this might seem improbable. Wright, of Ga. But Lee (writing his report on the 6th Lee, of course, did not care to reof March following) is silent as to his new the battle on the morrow of such losses, while the account of them given a day; and McClellan, though rëenas complete in the official publication forced that morning by about 14,000 of “ Reports of the Operations of men, stood still also. He says he the Army of Virginia, from June, purposed to renew the combat the 1862, to Dec. 13th, 1862," ís palpably next morning;" but, when his cavand purposely an under-statement. alry advance reached the river, they That account makes the total Rebel discovered that Lee had quietly loss in the Maryland battles only moved off across the Potomac dur10,291 : viz., killed, 1,567; wounded, ing the night, leaving us only his 8,724; and says nothing of missing ; dead and some 2,000 of his despewhile McClellan gives details of con- rately wounded. siderable captures on several occa- Lee having posted 8 batteries on sions, and sums up as follows: the Virginia bluffs of the Potomac,
“Thirteen guns, 39 colors, upward of supported by 600 infantry under PenJackson expressly states that A. P. Hill's losses were not included in his return.
* Sept. 19.
STUART RIDES AGAIN AROUND OUR ARMY.
dleton, to cover his crossing, Gen. | loss into Virginia at White's Ford, Porter, at dark,“ sent across Gen. below Harper's Ferry. McClellan, Griffin, with his own and Barnes's hearing he had gone on this raid, brigades, to carry them. This was felt entirely confident that he could gallantly done, under the fire of not escape destruction, and made exthose batteries, and 4 guns taken; tensive preparations to insure it; but but a reconnoissance in force, made his plans were foiled by lack of enby part of Porter's division next ergy and zeal. Stuart paroled at morning," was ambushed by A. P. Chambersburg 275 sick and woundHill, a mile from the ford, and driven ed, whom he found there in hospital; pell-mell into the river, with consid- burned the railroad dépôt, machineerable loss, after a brief struggle; the shops, and several trains of loaded Rebels taking 200 prisoners. They cars, destroying 5,000 muskets and held that bank thenceforth unmo- large amounts of army clothing. lested until next day, and then qui- Perhaps these paid the Rebels for etly disappeared.
their inevitable waste of horse-flesh, Lee moved westward, with the and perhaps not. bulk of his army, to the Opequan
Here ensued a renewal of the old creek, near Martinsburg; his cav- game of cross-purposes — McClellan alry, under Stuart, recrossing the calling loudly and frequently for rePotomac to Williamsport, whence he enforcements, horses, clothing, shoes, escaped on the approach of Gen. and supplies of all kinds, which were Couch's division. The Baltimore and readily promised, but not always so Ohio Railroad was now pretty thor- promptly supplied ; Halleck sending oughly destroyed for some distance orders to advance, which were not by the Rebels-neither for the first obeyed with alacrity, if at all. A disnor the last time. Gen. McClellan temper among the horses threw 4,000 sent forward Gen. Williams on his out of service, in addition to the left to retake Maryland Heights, heavy losses by Rebel bullets and which he did” without opposition; by over-work. Halleck states that as Gen. Sumner, two days later, oc- McClellan's army had 31,000 horses cupied Harper's Ferry.
on the 14th of October; McClellan Lee soon retired to the vicinity responds that 10,980 were required of Bunker Hill and Winchester; to move ten days' provisions for that whence, seeing that he was not pur- army, now swelled to 110,000 men, sued nor imperiled by McClellan, he beside 12,000 teamsters, &c.; and dispatched ” Stuart, with 1,800 cav- that, after picketing the line of the alry, on a bold raid into Pennsylva- Potomac, he had not 1,000 desirable nia. Crossing the Potomac above cavalry. His entire cavalry force Williamsport, Stuart pushed on rap- was 5,046; his artillery horses, 6,836; idly to Chambersburg, where he de- he needed 17,832 animals to draw his stroyed a large amount of supplies; forage; so that he was still 10,000 and, retiring as hurriedly as he short of the number actually required came, he made a second circuit of for an advance. McClellan's army, recrossing without At length, Gen. McClellan crossed ** Sept. 19. " Sept. 20.
33 Oct. 10.
the Potomac, between the 26th of had advanced to Warrenton, when October and the 2d of November; he was relieved from command," and, moving unopposed down the directed to turn it over to Gen. east side of the Blue Ridge (Lee's Burnside, and report by letter from army being still in the Valley, but Trenton, N. J.; which he proceeded moving parallel with ours), occupied forthwith to do. Thus ended his Snicker's Gap and Manassas; and active participation in the war.
THE comatose condition into which every cavalier. Burning bridges, the war on the Tennessee had fallen, and clutching whatever property after the removal of Mitchel to the could be made useful in war, had South, was fitfully broken by patter- been for some time current; when ings of Rebel enterprise far in the at length a bolder blow was struck rear of our main army. While Bu- in the capture' of Lebanon, Ky. [not ell, at or near Huntsville, Ala., was Tenn.], and almost simultaneously deliberately rëorganizing and disci- of Murfreesboro', Tenn., which Forplining his forces, schooling them rest surprised; making prisoners of to an unwonted deference for Rebel Brig.-Gens. Duffield and Crittenden, rights of property—especially of prop- of Ind., with the 9th Michigan, 3d erty in men-guerrilla raids and at- Minnesota, 4 companies of the 4th tacks became increasingly and disa- Ky. cavalry, and 3 companies of the greeably frequent throughout Ken- 7th Pa. cavalry, after a spirited but tucky and Tennessee—the Confed- brief resistance. Henderson, Ky., on erate leaders, especially those of cav- the Ohio, was likewise seized by a alry regiments, on finding that they guerrilla band, who clutched a large were not needed in our front, trans- amount of hospital stores; and, being ferring their assiduous and vehement piloted across by some Indiana traiattentions to our flanks and rear. tors, captured a hospital also at NewThe names of Forrest and John burg, Ind., and paroled its helpless inMorgan began to be decidedly noto-mates. Col. John Morgan likewise rious. Horse-stealing-in fact, steal. captured' Cynthiana, in north-eastern ing in general--- in the name and be- Kentucky; but was run off directly half of Liberty and Patriotism, is apt by a superior cavalry force under to increase in popularity so long as Gen. Green Clay Smith. Morgan it is practiced with impunity; and claims in his report to have captured the horses of Kentucky are eminently and paroled 1,200 Union soldiers calculated to inflame the love of during this raid, with a total loss country glowing in the breast of of but 90 of his men. Large quan34 Nov. 7.
* July 5, 1862.
? July 2.