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GEN. MCCLELLAN had already' HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF NORTHERN

“ VIRGINIA, NEAR FREDERICK, been verbally charged with the com

Sept. 8, 1862. mand of the defenses of Washington; “To the People of Maryland: and was, upon fuller advices of Pope's

“It is right that you should know the disasters, invested' by the President purpose that has brought the army under

my command within the limits of your and Gen. Halleck with the entire State, so far as that purpose concerns your

selves. control, not only of those fortifica

“The people of the Confederate States tions, but of “all the troops for the have long watched with the deepest symdefense of the capital,” in obedience pathy the wrongs and outrages that have to the imperious demand of a large monwealth allied to the States of the South

been inflicted upon the citizens of a Commajority of the surviving officers and by the strongest social, political, and comsoldiers. Pope's original army had mercial ties, and reduced to the condition

of a conquered province. in great part been demolished; while

“Under the pretense of supporting the that brought from the Peninsula by Constitution, but in violation of its most McClellan had been taught to attrib- arrested and imprisoned, upon no charge,

valuable provisions, your citizens have been ute the general ill-fortune not to the and contrary to all the forms of law. tardiness and heartlessness wherewith

A faithful and manly protest against

this outrage, made by a venerable and illusPope had been rëenforced and sup- trious Marylander, to whom in better days ported by their leaders, but to his no citizen appealed for right in vain, was own incapacity, presumption, and trea The government of your chief city has folly. McClellan at once ordered a been usurped by armed strangers; your concentration of his forces within the Legislature has been dissolved by the un

lawful arrest of its members; freedom of defenses of Washington; where they the press and of speech has been supwere soon prepared to resist the ene- pressed; words have been declared offenses my, but whither Lee had no idea of utive ; and citizens ordered to be tried by

by an arbitrary decree of the Federal Execfollowing them. Having been joined' military commissions for what they may by D. H. Hill's fresh division, from dare to speak.

“ Believing that the people of Maryland Richmond, he sent that division at possess a spirit too lofty to submit to such once in the van of his army to Lees à Government, the people of the South have burg; thence crossing the Potomac long wished to aid you in throwing off this

foreign yoke, to enable you again to enjoy and moving on Frederick. Jackson the inalienable rights of freemen, and restore followed with a heavy corps, consist the independence and sovereignty of your

State. ing of A. P. Hill's, Ewell's, and his “ In obedience to this wish, our army has own divisions, embracing 14 brigades, come among you, and is prepared to assist crossing at White's Ford and mov- the rights of which you have been so uning on Frederick, which was occu- justly despoiled. pied on the 6th, without resistance. “ This, citizens of Maryland, is our misGen. Lee, with the rest of his army, straint upon your free will is intended---no

sion, so far as you are concerned. No rerapidly followed, concentrating at intimidation will be allowed within the limFrederick; whence he issued the fol- its of this army at least. Marylanders shall

once more enjoy their ancient freedom of lowing seductive address :

thought and speech. We know no enemies * Sept. 1. * Sept. 2.

Sept. 2. * Sept. 5. Roger B. Taney, to wit. VOL. 11.-13

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among you, and will protect all of you intomac to replenish their wasted and every opinion. “It is for you to decide your destiny

inadequate resources. freely and without constraint. This army

Gen. McClellan was

was early apwill respect your choice, whatever it may prised' of the disappearance of the be; and, while the Southern people will Rebels from his front, and soon adrejoice to welcome you to your natural position among them, they will only welcome vised that they were crossing into you when you come of your own free will;, Maryland. His several corps were “R. E. LEE, General Commanding."

accordingly brought across the PotoThe fond expectations which had mac and posted on the north of prompted this address were never | Washington; which city he left' in realized. The Marylanders had no command of Gen. Banks, making his gluttonous appetite for fighting on headquarters that night with the 6th the side of the Union; still less for corps, at Rockville. He moved slowrisking their lives in support of the ly, because uncertain, as were his Confederacy. All who were inclined superiors, that the Rebel movement to fighting on that side had found across the Potomac was not a feint. their way into the Rebel lines long But his advance, after a brisk skirbefore; there being little difficulty mish, on the 12th entered Frederick, in stealing across the Potomac, and which the Rebels had evacuated, none at all in crossing by night to moving westward, during the two Virginia from the intensely disloyal, preceding days, and through which slaveholding counties of south-west- his main body passed next day. ern Maryland. In vain was Gen. Here he was so lucky as to obtain a Bradley T. Johnson—who had left copy of Lee's general order, only Frederick at the outset of the war to four days old, developing his proserve in the Rebel army-made Pro- spective movements, as follows: vost-Marshal of that town, recruit- "HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF NORTHERN ing offices opened, and all man

“VIRGINIA, September 9, 1862.

} ner of solicitations to enlistment set

“The army will resume its march to

morrow, taking the Hagerstown road. Gen. forth. The number of recruits won Jackson's command will form the advance; to the Rebel standard while it floated and, after passing Middletown, with such

portion as he may select, take the route toover Maryland probably just about ward Sharpsburg, cross the Potomac at the equaled its loss by deserters--say from most convenient point, and, by Friday night, 200 to 300.

take possession of the Baltimore and Ohio

Railroad, capture such of the enemy as may The conduct of the Rebel soldiery be at Martinsburg, and intercept such as was in the main exemplary. Hun- may attempt to escape from Harper's Ferry.

“Gen. Longstreet's command will pursue gry, ragged, and shoeless, as they the same road as far as Boonsborough, often were, they rarely entered a where it will halt with the reserve, supply,

and baggage trains of the army. house except by order, and never

“Gen. McLaws, with his own division abused women; but cattle, horses, and that of Gen. K. H. Anderson, will foland everything that might contribute low Gen. Longstreet; on reaching Middleto the subsistence or efficiency of an Ferry, and, by Friday morning, possess him

town, he will take the route to Harper's army, were seized by wholesale, not self of the Maryland Heights, and endeavor only for present use, but thousands to capture the enemy at Harper's Ferry and

vicinity. of animals were driven across the Po- "Gen. Walker, with his division, after • Sept. 3.

* Sept. 7.

MOCLELLAN'S BLUNDER AT FREDERICK.

195

accomplishing the object in which he is now clear not only that Harper's Ferry engaged, will cross the Potomac at Cheek's Ford, ascend its right bank to Lovettsville,

was Lee's object, and that Jackson's take possession of Loudon Heights, if prac- corps and Walker's division were ere ticable, by Friday morning; Key's Ford on this across the Potomac in eager his left, and the road between the end of the mountain and the Potomac on his right. quest of it, but that only McLaws's He will, as far as practicable, cooperate corps—20,000 men at the utmostwith Gen. McLaws and Gen. Jackson in in

was now between our whole army tercepting the retreat of the enemy.

"Gen. D. H. Hill's division will form the and the coveted prize. Our corps rear guard of the army, pursuing the road happened then to be mainly concentaken by the main body. The reserve artillery, ordnance and supply trains, &c., trated around Frederick ; but Frankwill precede Gen. Hill.

lin's division-nearly 17,000 strong “Gen. Stuart will detach a squadron of

-was some miles southward, and cavalry to accompany the commands of Gens. Longstreet, Jackson, and McLaws, thus nearer to Harper's Ferry, and and, with the main body of the cavalry, will in front of McLaws. Had McClellan cover the route of the army, and bring up all stragglers that may have been left behind.

instantly put his whole army in mo- The commands of Gens. Jackson, Mc- tion, marching by the left flank on Laws, and Walker, after accomplishing the parallel roads leading directly toward objects for which they have been detached, will join the main body of the army at the Potomac and the Ferry, and Boonsborough or Hagerstown.

sending orders to Franklin to ad" Each regiment on the march will habitually carry its axes in the regimental ordvance and either force his way to the nance wagons, for use of the men at their Ferry or engage whomsoever might encampments, to procure wood, &c.

attempt to resist him, assured that * By command of Gen. R. E. LEE. “R. H. Chilton,

corps after corps would follow swift“ Assistant Adjutant-General. ly his advance and second his at“Maj.-Gen. D. II. Hill, Com’ding Div.” tacks, McLaws must have been

McClellan had thus, by a rare utterly crushed before sunset of the stroke of good fortune, become pos- 14th, and Harper's Ferry relieved by sessed of his adversary's designs, midnight at farthest. That, instead when it was too late to change them, of this, McClellan should have adand when it could not be known to vanced his main body on the road that adversary, at least until devel- tending rather north of west, through oped by counteracting movements, Turner's Gap to Boonsborough and that he had this knowledge, and was Hagerstown, rather than on roads acting upon it. Lee had ventured leading to Crampton's Gap and to the hazardous maneuver of dividing the Potomac, is unexplained and inhis army in a hostile country, and explicable. placing a considerable and treacher- The South Mountain range of ous, though fordable, river between hills, which stretch north-eastwardly its parts, while an enemy superior in from the Potomac across Maryland, numbers to the whole of it hung are a modified continuation of Virclosely upon its rear. Such strategy ginia’s ‘Blue Ridge,' as the less conmust have been dictated by an in-siderable Catoctin range, near Fredeffable contempt either for the capa- erick, are an extension of the ‘Bull city of his antagonist or for the most Run' range. Between them is the obvious rules of war.

valley of Catoctin creek, some ten The order above given rendered it miles wide at the Potomac, but narrowing to a point at its head. Seve- | six of his brigades, under Anderson, ral roads cross both ranges; the best had been sent to cooperate with Mcbeing the National Road from Balti- Laws against Maryland Heights and more through Frederick and Middle- Harper's Ferry. This left only D. town (the chief village of the Catoc- H. Hill's division of five brigades to tin Valley), to Hagerstown and Cum- hold Turner's Gap and the adjacent berland.

passes, with such help as might be Lee, having divided his army in afforded by Stuart's cavalry; Stuart order to swoop down on Harper's having reported to Hill, on the 13th, Ferry, was compelled by McClellan's that only two brigades were pursuquickened and assured pursuit, based ing them. He was undeceived, howon the captured order aforesaid, to ever, when, at 7 A. M. next morning, fight all our army with half of his Cox's division of Burnside's corps own-reversing the strategy usual in advanced up the turnpike from Midthis quarter; for, if McClellan's ad- dletown, preceded by Pleasanton's vance were not impeded, Harper's cavalry and a battery, and opened Ferry would be relieved. So, Gen. on that defending the Gap; while by Pleasanton, leading our cavalry ad- far the larger portion of the Army of vance on the road to Hagerstown, the Potomac could be seen, by the encountered some resistance at the aid of a good field-glass, from a facrossing of Catoctin creek in Middle- vorable position on the mountain, town; but, skirmishing occasionally either advancing across the valley or with Stuart's cavalry, pressed on, winding down the opposite heights backed by Cox's division of Burn into it. side's corps, to find the enemy in Hill reports his division as but force before TURNER's Gap of South 5,000 strong; and even this small Mountain, a few miles beyond. force had been somewhat dispersed

This gap is about 400 feet high; in pursuance of the orders of Lee the crests on either side rising some and the erroneous information of 600 feet higher; the old Hagerstown Stuart. The brigade of Gen. Garand Sharpsburg roads, half a mile to land, which was first pushed forward a mile distant, on either side, rising to meet our advance, was instantly higher than the National Road, and and badly cut up, its commander bematerially increasing the difficulty of ing killed; when it retired in disorder, holding the pass against a largely and was replaced by that of Andersuperior force.

son, supported by those of Rhodes Lee, in his eagerness to grasp the and Ripley, who held the pass firmly prize whereon he was intent, and in for hours against the most gallant efhis confident assurance that McClel- forts of Cox's Ohio regiments. But, lan would continue the cautious and meanwhile, our superior numbers, hesitating movement of six or seven backed by desperate fighting, enabled miles a day by which he had hither- us steadily to gain ground on either to advanced from Washington, had side, until the crest of the heights on pushed Longstreet forward on Jack the left of the pass was fairly ours, son's track to Hagerstown,' whence though one of our batteries had • Sept. 13.

Sept. 11.

BATTLE OF SOUTH MOUNTAIN.

197

SEMOUR
MAGILTON

MITABOR CN

CHRISTIAN

TO FREDERICK

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ROHAERSVILLE

meantime been all but lost ; its gunonly Reno’s division on our side, and ners having been shot down or dri- Hill's on that of the Rebels, had ven off, and its guns saved from cap- been engaged. But, at 2 P. M., Hookture only by a determined charge of er’s corps came up on our side, and the 23d Ohio, 100th Pennsylvania, took the old Hagerstown road, leadand 45th New York,

ing away from the turnpike on our right, with intent to flank and crush

the Rebel left. At 3 P. M., our line BOONSBORO

of battle was formed, with Ricketts's

division on the right; King's, comTURNER'S GAPS CALLAGHER

manded by Hatch, in the center,
CIBBON TOURYA
I DRAYTEDAY
HARTSUEF

with its right resting on the turn

pike, and Reno's on the left; and a E PHARLAH IZITTLESTOWN

wilcox STURGIS general advance commenced, under T STAMMON

a heavy fire of artillery.

Meantime, Hill had sent pressing messages to Longstreet, at Hagerstown, for help; and two brigades had already arrived; as Longstreet himself, with seven more brigades, did very soon afterward; raising the Rebel force in action thereafter to some 25,000 or 30,000 men. Longstreet, ranking Hill, of course took command ; little to the satisfaction of Hill, who evidently thinks he could

have done much better." JBARTLETT

The enemy's advantage in position CRAMPTON'S GAP NEWTON

was still very great, every movement leRooks DIRWIN

on our part being plainly visible to them; while we could know nothing of their positions nor their strength, except from their fire and its effect. Our men were constantly struggling up rocky steeps, mainly wooded, where every wall, or fence, or ip

equality of ground, favors the comThe rattle of musketry ceased at batants who stand on the defensive. noon, and for two hours only the The disparity in numbers between roar of cannon was heard ; the com- those actually engaged was not very batants on either side awaiting the great-possibly three to two-but arrival of rëenforcements. Hitherto, then, our men were inspirited by the * Hill, in his official report, says:

I TORBETT

BURKITTSVILLE

PLEASANT VALLEY

UNION
REBEL

UEROWNSV. 10

21 MICES

31

SOUTH MOUNTAIN.

points; and, had these troops reported to me, Maj.-Gen. Longstreet came up about 4 | the result might have been different. As it o'clock, with the commands of Brig.-Gens. was, they took wrong positions; and, in their Evans and D. R. Jones I had now become fa- exhausted condition after a long march, they miliar with the ground, and kuew all the vital were broken and scattered,"

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