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Mechanicsville to Harrison's Bar, at river, during the night," and open a 1,582 killed, 7,709 wounded, and fire on our camps and vessels, where5,958 missing ; total, 15,249." This by we had 10 killed and 15 wounded, may or may not include those aban- with some little damage to tents, &c. doned to the enemy in hospitals, French desisted after half an hour's most of whom are probably numbered firing, or so soon as our guns were among the wounded. Lee's report brought to bear upon him, and dedoes not state the amount of his camped before daylight. Gen. Mclosses, but says it is contained in Clellan thereupon occupied and for“the accompanying tables ;" which tified Coggin's Point, on that side of the Confederate authorities did not the river; and was no farther mosee fit to print with his report. He lested. sums up his trophies as follows:

CAENSHAW “The siege of Richmond was raised; and the object of a campaign which had been prosecuted, after months of preparation, at enormous expenditure of men

and money, completely frustrated. More than

POSITION 10,000 prisoners, including officers of rank,

HARRISON'S LANDING 62 pieces of artillery, and upwards of 35,000 stand of small arms, were captured. The stores and supplies of every description, HARB ŞON 'PT.

ROLAND'S, MILL which fell into our hands, were great in amount and value, but small in comparison with those destroyed by the enemy. His losses in battle exceeded our own, as attested by the thousands of dead and wounded left on every field; while his subsequent inaction shows in what condition the survivors reached the protection to which they fled."

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The inaction” thus vaunted was mutual. Lee did not see fit to re- N peat at Harrison's Bar his costly experiment at Malvern; but, after scrutinizing our hastily constructed defenses, and guessing at the numbers and spirit of the men behind them, withdrew * to Richmond, leav

14 42 ing but a brigade of cavalry to watch

POSITION AT HABEISON'S LANDING. and report any fresh evidences of activity on our side. None being af- Even if we raise our actual losses forded, he sent Gen. French, with 43 of men in the Seven Days' to 20,000, guns, to approach Harrison's Bar it is doubtful that they much, if at all, stealthily on the south side of the exceeded those of the Rebels, whose 46 List of killed, wounded and misking in the Army of

Killed. Woun'd. Miss'g. Total the Potomac, from the 26th of June to the 1st of 5. Porter's July, 1862, inclusive.

corps.. 6. Franklin's

1,313 1,179 2,787 Killed. Wound. Miss'g. Total.

Engineers.. 1. McCall's division..

1,581 8,074
Cavalry...

176 2. Sumner's corps........ 1,076 8. Heintzelman's ".

1,051

Total... 2,078

.1,582 7,709

5,958 13,949 4. Keyes

'507 201

4 July 8.

17 July 31.

620
245

2,460

1,198

4.278

2 60

21 97

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OUR ARMY AT HARRISON'S BAR.

169

reckless attacks on our strong posi- | there were, in all, east of the Alletions at Mechanicsville, Gaines’s Mill, ghanies, less than 75,000 men not Glendale, and Malvern, being stoutly already on the James, including resisted, must have cost them very those under Gen. Wool at Fortress dearly. The official reports of two Monroe; so that to send him even corps commanders show an aggre- 50,000 was impossible. gate of 9,336 killed, wounded, and The President went down so to the missing ;" while other" subordinate Army at Harrison's Bar, and found reports indicate heavy losses in other 86,000 men there. As 160,000 had divisions. On the whole, it is fair to gone into that Army on the Peninestimate our total loss at 15,000 sula, he wrote for an account of the killed and wounded, and 5,000 un- residue. Gen. M. replied" that his wounded prisoners; and the Rebel force then “present for duty” numas at least equal to ours, minus the bered 88,665; absent by authority, prisoners and the guns.

34,472; absent without authority,

3,778; sick, 16,619; present and abGen. McClellan had telegraphed sent, 144,407. Of those absent by the President from Haxall's, on the authority, he says that one-half were morning of this battle, that: “My probably fit for duty; but, having got men are completely exhausted, and I away on sick leave or otherwise, had dread the result if we are attacked failed to return. The Adjutantto-day by fresh troops.” Next day General's office reported (July 20th) (20), he telegraphed from Harrison's Gen. McClellan's army as numbering Bar that, “ As usual, we had a severe - Present for duty, 101,691 ; on spebattle yesterday, and beat the enemy cial duty, sick, or in arrest, 17,828; badly, the men fighting even better absent, 38,795; total, 158,314. This than before.” Next day (3d), he does not include Gen. Wool's nor telegraphed again to the Secretary Gen. Burnside's force, then at or of War that he presumed he had not near Fortress Monroe. over “ 50,000 men left with their colors ;" and that, “To accomplish Upon a suggestion“ from Gen. the great task of capturing Rich- Halleck at Washington that deserters mond and putting an end to this Re- had reported the Rebels moving bellion, rëenforcements should be sent southward of the James, leaving but to me rather much over than less a small force in Richmond, Gen. than 100,000 men.” The President McClellan ordered Gen. Hooker, had advised him, the day before, that with his own division and Pleasan

Killed. Woun'd. Miss'g. Total. Howell Cobb reports that his brigade, of Ma8,271

8,890 gruder's division, went into battle at Savage's

Station 2,700 strong; whereof but 1,500 apTotal

..1,585
7,688

9,836

peared on the battle-field of Malvern, where Brig.-Gen. R. S. Ripley, Rebel chief of ar- nearly 500 of them were killed and wounded. tillery, reports that his brigade entered into Among the Rebel officers killed during the these fights 2,366 strong, including pioneers and Seven Days were Gen. Griffith, Miss.; Cols. C. ambulance corps, of whom 889 fell at Malvern, C. Pegues, 5th Ala., Allen, 2d Va., Fulkerson, and 3 out of 4 Colonels were killed. Brig.-Gen. commanding Texas brigade, and Lt.-Col. Faison, Garland reports his loss in all the battles at 192 3d N. C. killed, 637 wounded, 15 missing; total, 844.

45 Jackson's. A. P. Hill's.

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July 15.

50 July 7.

69 July 30.

54

*

ton's cavalry, to advance upon and ments from the South. Gen. Pope's army, seize Malvern Hill. Through the now covering Washington, is only about

40,000. Your effective force is only about incompetency of his guides, Hooker's 90,000. You are about thirty miles from first attempt miscarried; but it was Richmond, and Gen. Pope eighty or ninety, renewed the next night," and, not- ready to fall with his superior numbers

with the enemy directly between you, withstanding the ample notice of it upon one or the other, as he may elect;

neither can rëenforce the other in case of given to the enemy, proved an easy such an attack. success; Hooker driving the Rebels

“If Gen. Pope's army be diminished to from Malvern with a loss of barely. rëenforce you, Washington, Maryland, and

Pennsylvania would be left uncovered and 14, and taking 100 prisoners ; Col. exposed. If your force be reduced to Averill, with part of Pleasanton's strengthen Pope, you would be too weak to cavalry, pushing north to White Oak even hold the position you now occupy,

should the enemy turn around and attack Swamp Bridge, driving thence the you in full force. 'In other words, the old 10th Virginia cavalry and capturing Army of the Potomac is split into two parts, 28 men and horses. This advance, between them. They cannot be united by

with the entire force of the enemy directly promptly and vigorously followed up land without exposing both to destruction; in force, would doubtless have placed and yet tl ey must be united. To send

Pope's forces by water to the Peninsula, is, McClellan in Richmond forth with.

under present circumstances, a military imBut Gen. M. had already received possibility. The only alternative is to send

the forces on the Peninsula to some point an order directing a withdrawal of

by water-say Fredericksburg—where the his army by water to Acquia creek, two armies can be united: to support a fresh demonstration on

n But, you will reply, why not rëenforce Richmond from the Rappahannock; from my present position ? To do this, you

me here, so that I can strike Richmond which order he began" most reluct- said at our interview, that you required antly to obey; of course, recalling it was impossible to give you so many. Gen. Hooker from Malvern. He was You finally thought that you would have now eager to resume the offensive some chance of success with 20,000. But with far smaller rëenforcements than would require 35,000, as the enemy was

you afterward telegraphed me that you he had recently pronounced indis- being largely rëenforced.

“ If your estimate of the enemy's strength pensable, and suggested that, in ad

was correct, your requisition was perfectly dition to Burnside’s men, they might reasonable ; but it was utterly impossible to be spared him from Pope's army on fill it until new troops could be enlisted the Rappahannock and from the and organized; which would require several West. Gen. Halleck—assuming the “ To keep your army in its present posicorrectness of McClellan's own mis- tion until it could be so röenforced, would

almost destroy it in that climate. The taken assumption as to the strength months of August and September are alof the Rebel Army of Virginia-re- most fatal to whites who live on that part plied

of James river; and, even after you receive 58 with crushing cogency the rëenforcements asked for, you admitted lows:

that you must reduce Fort Darling and the

river batteries before you could advance on "Allow me to allude to a few of the facts Richmond. in the case.

“It is by no means certain that the re“You and your officers at our interview duction of these fortifications would not reestimated the enemy's forces in and around quire considerable time—perhaps as much Richmond at 200,000 men. Since then, as those at Yorktown. you and others report that they have re- “This delay might not only be fatal to ceived and are receiving large rëenforce- the health of your army, but in the mean 6 August 4-5. 64 On the 4th, dated 3d. 65 August 7.

August 6.

as fol

68

RETREAT FROM THE PENINSULA.

171

time Gen. Pope's forces would be exposed cavalry, taking that road on the 14th, to the heavy blows of the enemy, without crossing the Chickahominy by a ponthe slightest hope of assistance from you.

"In regard to the demoralizing effect of toon-bridge at Barrett's Ferry and a withdrawal from the Peninsula to the at Jones's Bridge; and Gen. M., Rappahannock, I must remark that a large with the rear-guard, breaking camp number of your highest officers—indeed, a majority of those whose opinions have been and following the army on the 16th; the movement. Even several of those who crossing and removing the pontoonoriginally advocated the line of the Penin- bridge on the morning of the 18th. sula, now advise its abandonment."

The retreat was covered by Gen. Gen. McClellan forthwith com- Pleasanton with the

the remaining menced embarking his sick and cavalry. five of his batteries, which had been Gen. Porter was under orders to assigned to Burnside; who, having halt the advance at Williamsburg been ordered on the 1st to Acquia until the crossing was complete; but, creek, had immediately rëembarked intercepting there a letter which aphis men, reaching his destination on prised him that the enemy were conthe 3d, and promptly sending back centrating rapidly on Pope, with his vessels to McClellan, who had intent to crush him before he could been invested with complete control be rëenforced, he took the responsiover the immense fleet of transports bility of pressing on to Newport then in the Potomac, Hampton News, which he reached on the 18th, Roads, and the James. The latter having marched 60 miles in three commenced as if expecting to embark days; and on the 20th his corps had his entire force, including even the embarked and was on its way to cavalry, at Harrison's Bar; but re- Acquia creek. On that day, the last peated and urgent messages from of the army had reached its prescribWashington, announcing " that the ed points of embarkation at YorkRebels were crossing the Rapidan in town, Newport News, and Fortress force, and pressing Pope, soon im- Monroe." Heintzelman embarked pelled him to move the bulk of his at Yorktown on the 21st ; Franklin troops by land to Fortress Monroe; at Fortress Monroe on the 22d; the two leading corps (Porter's and Keyes had been left at Yorktown to Heintzelman's), preceded by Averill's cover the embarkation, should any 67 August 10.

in as good condition as when they embarked, all 68 Gen. Victor Le Duc, who entered the service within two weeks. Each corps as a unit should

have been embarked and landed by itself, and as Captain and A. Q. M., and who acted as Di

its transportation have accompanied it; and, vision Quartermaster throughout the retreat with the two wharves at Newport News, inconfrom before Richmond, and thence to Fortress venient as they are, three days and nights was Monroe, being promoted for eminent efficiency ample time in which to put the transportation to be a Corps Quartermaster thereafter, thus

on shipboard ; three days more would have been sums up, in his private diary, under date of Sept. and one day in transitu—seven days. Three

occupied in discharging it off and setting it up, 1st-8th, 1862, the results of his experience and corps could have shipped at the same time-one observation :

at Fortress Monroe, one at Newport News, and

one at Yorktown. It has taken, in fact, nearly " I am confident that there has been gross mismanagement in this whole affair. With all all have arrived.”

one month; and will be an entire month before the resources that Government places in the hands of officers, the Army of the Potomac

This view assumes that sufficient transportashould have been transferred from the Peninsulation was always in readiness exactly where and. to Acquia creek or Alexandria and landed, and when it was required; which is unproved.

68

Rebel force be sent down the Penin- | bers, usually contrived to bring the sula on the track of our army; but larger force into action-fighting twothere was none, and our retreat was thirds to three-fourths of his entire entirely unmolested—the attention strength against one-fourth to oneand forces of the enemy being now half of ours. Our commander, inabsorbingly devoted to Pope. Gen. cessantly calling urgently for rëenMcClellan and staff embarked at forcements, never brought into action Fortress Monroe on the 23d, and re- nearly all he already had, save that ported at Acquia creek next day; at Malvern the enemy forced a concoming up to Alexandria, by Gen. flict before our army could again be Halleck's request, on the 26th. scattered, and thus incurred a sting

Thus ended the unfortunate Pen-ing repulse, though a large portion insular campaign of the magnificent of our men were, even then, not Army of the Potomac. Its unsuc- enabled to fire a shot. Never before cess was due to the fact that the did an army so constantly, pressingly enemy nearly always chose the time need to be rëenforced-not by a and place of combat; and, though corps, but by a leader; not by men, uniformly inferior in aggregate num- | but by a man.

VIII.

GEN. POPE'S VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN.

GEN. JOHN POPE, having been | Winchester, of whom 40,000 might summoned from the West for the be considered disposable. To Gen. purpose, was selected by the Presi- Pope was assigned the duty of coverdent, after consultation with Gen. ing Washington and protecting MaScott, for the command of a force to ryland, with its great railroad, while be designated the Army of Virginia, threatening Richmond from the north. and to consist of all the troops then He had at first intended and expected covering Washington or holding the to advance to the neighborhood of lower end of the Shenandoah Valley. Richmond, and there unite in the This army was to be composed of operations of McClellan against that three corps, under Maj.-Gens. Fre- city. But he was appointed on the mont, Banks, and McDowell respec- very day' when Lee's designs against tively; but Gen. Fremont was re- McClellan's right wing were devellieved, at his own request, from serv-oped at Mechanicsville ; and, before ing under one whom he regarded as he could concentrate his army, the rehis junior, and the command of his treat through White Oak Swamp to corps assigned to Gen. Sigel. The Harrison's Landing, by exposing his entire strength of this newly organ- meditated advance, unaided, to a ized army was nearly 50,000 men, succession of blows from the entire scattered from Fredericksburg to Rebel Army of Virginia, rendered

* July 26.

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