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wooden bridge across the larger of through the morning, but had now the two streams into which the south fallen in between Schenck and Milbranch again forks at this place, and roy. Thus formed, our army adover the other and smaller branch vanced steadily and successfully, unby a ford, Jackson was obliged to der a storm of shot and shell, losing turn and fight in order to gain time. heavily in men, but constantly gainAccordingly, Maj.-Gen. Ewell, with ing ground, until after 3 o'clock; the rear division of his army, halted" when Stahl's brigade, having passed near Union Church, and took up a through the wood in its front to a strong position along a ridge which clover-field, which gradually ascendhere crosses the road, with his flanks ed to another wood filled with Rebels well protected by timber. He had beyond, encountered a murderous but 5,000 men directly in hand; but fire, by which its ranks were fearthe residue of Jackson's army was fully thinned and its progress arrestbetween him and Port Republic, 4 ed. Two of Bohlen's regiments were or 5 miles distant, ready to be sent ordered up to its support; but, before up as required.

they could arrive, the brigade had reFremont pushed out of Harrison- coiled; understanding, it was said, burg at 6 o'clock next morning," and that they were to give place to before 9 his advance was engaged Bohlen's men, instead of being susnear a little hamlet known as Cross- tained by them. Up to this moment, KEYS, some seven miles on. Ewell's Schenck, on our right, had been makthree brigades, under Trimble, Elzey, ing slow but steady progress; but he and Stewart, ranged from right to now halted by order, and finally releft, with his artillery in the center. ceded for a mile, finding that Milroy Gen. Dick Taylor, with a Louisiana, had moved toward the left, and that and Col. Patton, with a Virginia he must follow or be isolated. Two brigade, came to his aid when hours later, the Rebels cannonaded wanted.

him in his new position, but were Gen. Fremont's order of battle, a easily and quickly driven off by his mile and a half long, was formed batteries. with the 32d, 55th, 730, 75th, and Our total loss in this indecisive 82d Ohio, under Brig.-Gen. Schenck, action was 664, two-thirds of it in on the right, and the 2d, 3d, and 5th Stahl's brigade; and our troops slept Virginia, with the 25th Ohio, under on the battle-field, expecting to reGen. Milroy, in the center, with the new the fight next morning. Gen. 8th, 41st, and 45th New York, and Ewell's report admits a total loss on 27th Pennsylvania, and what were their side of 329; but among their left of the Bucktails, under Gen. severely wounded were Gens. Elzey Stahl, on the left, supported by Gen. and Stewart. During the night, Bohlen's brigade; while the remain- Ewell silently moved off, carrying der of Blenker's division was held in away all but his mortally wounded.

Col. Cluseret, with the 60th Jackson had turned aside from his Ohio, 8th Virginia, and Garibaldi direct line of retreat, because he Guards, had held the advance found that, with an army nearly or

78 June 7.


74 June 8.




quite equal to his own pressing close- | Tyler received and replied to a ly on his rear, he must sometimes dispatch from Shields; but, before turn and fight, and thus permit the finishing his answer, he was apprised other hostile army, advancing on his that the Rebels were in his front, flank, to gain on him. He was at endeavoring to outflank his left. Port Republic during the conflict at The struggle that ensued was short: Cross-Keys, preparing to cross, and the Rebel attack being resisted with watching for Shields, whose column, great gallantry by our men; but they though delayed by burnt bridges and were 3,000 at most, while their asswollen streams, had reached Con- sailants were 8,000, with more berad's Store, only 15 miles distant, hind them. We were even successand whose advance of cavalry and ful at first over Winder on our right; artillery, under Col. Carroll, appear- but to no purpose, since the odds ed that day."

against us were constantly increasCarroll had been told that Jack- ing; and, at length, Dick Taylor's son's train was parked near Port Re- Louisiana brigade, which had flanked public, with a drove of beef cattle; our left by an unobserved advance the whole guarded by some 200 or through the forest, made so sudden 300 cavalry; and he dashed into the and overwhelming a dash at Col. village with his troopers and two Candy's battery on our left, that it guns, expecting to cross the bridge was captured; its horses having been and make an easy capture of the killed or disabled. Exasperated raaforesaid train and cattle. Had he ther than dismayed by this loss, Col. comprehended the situation, he might Candy, with the 5th and 7th Ohio, have burned the bridge, and thereby made a spirited counter-charge, and exposed the enemy to serious loss, if retook his battery; but was unable, not utter destruction. But Jackson for lack of horses, to bring it off," was already there, with 2 infantry though he drove back the Rebel inbrigades and 3 batteries; by the fire fantry and artillery, and actually of which Carroll was driven out in captured one of their guns, which, 20 minutes, falling back two miles with 67 prisoners, was brought off and a half, upon Gen. Tyler's brig- in our retreat, which was admirably ade of infantry, 2,000 strong. covered by Col. Carroll. The Rebels

Tyler, who, on hearing of trouble pursued about 5 miles, capturing 450 ahead, had been rapidly hurrying to prisoners and about 800 muskets. the rescue, ought now to have re- Disastrous as was its result, there is treated also; instead of which, he no battle whereof the soldiers of the sent his men to bivouac, and went Union have more reason to be proud forward with Carroll to reconnoiter. than that of Port Republic. His vedettes, at 4 a. M.," reported

Fremont awoke that morning to that there had been no advance of find his enemy vanished, and to folthe enemy across the bridge during low on his track to Port Republic; the night, and that only their pickets arriving just in time to find the last were visible. Returning to his camp, Rebel safely across the river and the 75 June 8.

was this battery lost and won, in the desperate 77 Jackson's official report says: " Three times and determined efforts to capture and recover it."

76 June 9.

their escape.

bridge in flames. Some of Jackson's moned on the 17th, with the bulk of officers had been obliged to abandon his army, to Richmond. their horses in order to make good

On the same day" with Jackson's Gen. Jackson makes his total loss demolition of Kenly at Front Royal, in these engagements, 133 killed, Gen. Heth, with 3 regiments of Vir929 wounded, and 34 missing-in ginia Rebels, attacked at Lewisburg, all, 1,096 ; or, since he left Winches in West Virginia, the 36th and 44th ter, 1,167, with 1 gun; while he had Ohio, Col. Geo. Crook, by whom he captured, including wounded in hos- was quickly routed, though Heth pital, 975 men and 7 guns. Con- seems to have had decidedly the adsidering the perils he braved, and vantage in numbers. Before our arthe odds which ought to have been, tillery could be brought into position, but were not, brought to bear against the Rebels were broken and flying, him, his campaign was one of the with a loss of 4 guns, 300 muskets, most brilliant of the war, and stamps and 100 prisoners. Our loss was 11 him a true military genius." killed and 52 wounded, including

Both Fremont and Shields, being Col. Crook in the foot. The Rebel recalled by orders from Washington, loss is stated at 50 killed and 75 here relinquished the pursuit and wounded, part of whom were doubtslowly retired; while Jackson, master less included in the prisoners. Heth of the situation, recrossed the South burnt the bridge over the GreenFork on the 12th, and encamped at brier, three miles distant, and thus Weyer's Cave; whence he was sum- arrested the pursuit.




The capture of Norfolk and the where he found the channel thordestruction of the Merrimac, alias oughly obstructed by two separate Virginia, having opened James river barriers of piles and vessels, the banks to our navy, Commander John Rodg- lined with sharp-shooters in rifle-pits, ers, in the steamer Galena, backed by and a battery of heavy guns mounted the Monitor, Aroostook, Port Royal, on Drewry's Bluff,' 200 feet above and Naugatuck, moved up that river the surface of the water. The river unimpeded, save by the shallows on was here so narrow as to compel him which they repeatedly grounded, to to come to anchor; which he did very within eight miles of Richmond, near the lower barrier, and within

7* Confidential letters, unpublished, from Lee Shields from Banks, and sending the former to and Jackson to Johnson and Ewell, show that McDowell at Fredericksburg, in order to enable the movement was suggested, and in fact direct- the latter to advance to the aid of McClellan beed, from Richmond: Jackson and Ewell being fore Richmond, determined the direction of the ordered to combine their forces and strike a blow. blow at Banks or at McDowell, as circumstances May 23.

* May 15—-7 A. M. should render advisable. The detachment of * Called “Fort Darling' in some of our reports * May 27



600 yards of the Rebel guns. He at until rëenforced by Gen. D. C. Butonce opened fire on the battery, and terfield, with four regiments of his maintained a most unequal contest brigade, when the enemy was charged for 3} hours; when, having exhaust- and quickly routed; one of his guns ed his ammunition, he desisted and being captured by Col. Lansing's fell down the river. The Galena had 17th New York. The cavalry, Ben13 men killed and 11 wounded; the son's battery, and Gen. Morell's inNaugatuck 2, and the Port Royal 1 fantry and artillery, keenly pursued wounded. The bursting of a 100- the fugitives; while Martindale's bripound Parrott on the Naugatuck gade, with a section of artillery, adthreatened a more serious disaster. vanced on the Ashland road, pushCapt. Farrand, commanding the ing back the enemy in his front, Rebel battery, reports his loss at 7 until ordered to rëform his brigade killed and 8 wounded.

and move up the railroad to the

Court House. One regiment having The first collision on the Chicka- taken that course, Gen. Martindale hominy between the advance of Gen. was left with but two and a half McClellan's army and the Rebels oc- regiments and one section of Marcurred' near New Bridge; where the tin's battery, when he was attacked 4th Michigan, Col. Woodbury, waded by a superior force and compelled to the stream and assailed and drove maintain the unequal contest for an off a superior Rebel force, losing but hour. 8 men in all, and taking 37 prisoners, Meantime, Gen. Porter, at the of whom 15 were wounded.

Court House, learning that his rear Directly afterward, Gen. Fitz-John was thus attacked, faced his whole Porter, commanding the 5th corps, column about and moved rapidly to on our right, was ordered by Gen. the rescue, sending the 13th and 14th McClellan to advance from New New York, with Griffin's battery, diBridge, via Mechanicsville, to Hano- rectly to Martindale's assistance,pushver Court House, in order to facili- ing the 9th Massachusetts and 62d tate and render secure Gen. McDow- Pennsylvania through the woods on ell's expected junction from Freder- the right (west) to take the enemy icksburg. Starting at 3 A. M.,' in a in flank; while Butterfield, with the pouring rain, our cavalry advance, 83d Pennsylvania and 16th Michiunder Gen. W. H. Emory, had gan, hastened through the woods still reached at noon a point two miles farther to the right, and completed southward of the Court House, where the rout of the enemy. The 13th the road forks to Ashland, and where New York, of Col. G. K. Warren's the enemy were found in position to brigade, which, having been delayed bar our further progress. The 25th repairing bridges, had not hitherto New York and Berdan's sharp-shoot- been in action, now came up on our ers speedily coming up, they were left; and, the odds being too palpadeployed by Gen. Emory, with a ble, the Confederates made a rapid section of Benson's battery, and thus retreat. Their loss is stated by Gen. advanced slowly toward the enemy McClellan at some 200 killed, 730 • May 24.

prisoners, including wounded, one River Railroad, to the right and 12-pound howitzer, many small arms, rather in advance of Couch's positwo railroad trains, and their camp tion. Heintzelman's (3d) corps had at Hanover Court House captured crossed after Keyes's, and been staand destroyed. We lost 53 killed tioned in his rear, but rather to the and 344 wounded. The Rebel force left, so as to observe the roads de- ; thus defeated consisted of Gen. L. bouching on that side from White O’B.Branch’s division of North Caro- Oak Swamp, whereby we might be lina and Georgia troops, supposed by unexpectedly assailed in flank. SumGen. McClellan to be 9,000 strong. ner's corps was still north of the

Chickahominy, some miles higher up, The Chickahominy, opposite Rich- ready to cross at command. Gen. mond, 20 to 30 miles from its mouth, McClellan was with Fitz-John Poris a sluggish, oozy mill-stream, three ter's and Franklin's corps, at and to four rods wide, often fordable, but near New Bridge, nearly 10 miles traversing a swampy, miry bottom, above Bottom's Bridge. Heintzelgenerally wooded, half a mile to a man, as senior Major-General, was in mile wide, bordered by low, irregular command on the left until Sumner bluffs. All the bridges by which it appeared. was previously crossed were of course The enemy being seen in force destroyed in their retreat by the Reb- barely a mile from our front, Casey's els; but Brig.-Gen. H. M. Naglee, of pickets were posted some half a mile Casey's division, Keyes's (4th) corps, in advance of his line. It rained leading our advance on the left, heavily throughout the night of May crossed it near Bottom's Bridge 30, swelling the Chickahominy to an without difficulty, wholly unopposed; extraordinary height, flooding its followed by the rest of the corps miry bottom, and setting afloat sevethree days later, the bridge having ral of our new-made bridges. Gen. meantime been rebuilt. During the Jo. Johnston, who commanded the three following days,' Naglee made a Rebel army, saw his opportunity, spirited reconnoissance toward Rich- and resolved to profit by it. The mond, and to within two miles of the roads of all that region center on James, on our left; Couch's division Richmond, radiating thence like the took up,' by order, a position some folds of a fan, and affording a conmiles in advance, at a place known siderable advantage in maneuvering as the SEVEN PINES, on the direct to the combatant who holds the city. road from Bottom's Bridge to Rich- Informed by his scouts of the nummond; which he proceeded hastily bers and isolated position of Keyes's to fortify with abatis, rifle-pits, etc., corps, Johnston resolved to assail and by building and arming a small and crush it before it could be aderedoubt. Meantime, the remaining quately rëenforced. To this end, he division (Casey's) of Keyes's corps directed Maj. Gen. Longstreet, with was advanced to and encamped his own and Gen. D. H. Hill's diviabout the station known as Fair sion, the latter in advance, to push Oaks, on the Richmond and York out by the Williamsburg road and May 20,

May 24, 25, 26.

? May 28.



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