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gation to he void, else to remain in full force;" which bond shall be payable to the sitting justices and their successors, and may be put in suit and prosecuted in like manner, as is beline directed in the case of bonds to be given by executors or administrators, with the
will annexed. Securities XXX. But no security for any executor or adnot liable be. yond the as, ministrator shall be chargeable beyond the assets of sets, for de. the testator or intestate, hy reason of any omission or fect of plead. mistake in pleading or false pleading of such executors ing.
or administrators. Court liable. XXXI. If any court shall grant a certificate for obif insufficient taining administration of the estate of any person desecurity la- ceased without taking good security for the same, as ken.
aforesaid, to be judged of according to the apparent circumstances of the security when taken, aud not from subsequent accidents or discoveries thereof, the justices of such court then sitting shall be answerable to the person or persons injured, for all loss or damage occasioned by the not requiring any, or by the taking insufficient security, recoverable with costs, by action on the case, in any court of record.
XXXII. When securities for executors or administies relieved. tralors conceive themselves in danger of suffering there
by, and petition the court for relief, the court shall summon the executor or administrator, and make such order or decree thereupon, to relieve and secure the petitioners, by counter security, or otherwise, as to them
shall seem just and equitable. Certificates
S XXXIII. All certificates of probat or of administraof administra. tion effectuai. tion, attested by the clerk, shall enable the executor or
administrator to acı, and may be produced or given in evidence in any court within this commonwealth, and
be as effectual as any probat or letters of administra.
lotion made out in due form; nevertheless the clerks of ministration in due forn. the courts shall, when required by an executor or ad
ministrator, make ont such probat or leilers, in due form, in the name of the first justice of the court, which probat or letters shall be signed by such justice, and sealed with the county, city, or corporation seal, if the will be proved in a county, city, or corporation court, or with the seal of the commonwealth, is proved in the
general couri. Lists of addo XXXIV. The clerk of every county, city, or corministrations to be return. poration court, shall half yearly, in the months of April
Letters of action mode
and October, return to the clerk of the general court, ed to clerk a list of all certificates granted in his court for probats of ger
court, and administrations, within the preceding half year, in this form [date of certificate name of testator or in(estate] (names of securities] (penalty of bond] which lists, together with such certificates as are granted in the general court, shall be entered by the clerk of the general court, alphabetically, in books for that pur
XXXV. Every court granting a certificate for a Appraisers. probat or administration, shall nominate three or more appraisers in every county, city, or corporation, where any of the personal estate of the decedent shall be, who being sworn before a justice of the peace, for that purpose, shall truly, and justly, to the best of their judgment, view and appraise all the personal estate, to them produced; and shall return such appraisement under their hands to the court ordering the same; which appraisement, if signed by the executor or administrator, may be considered as an inventory of such part of the estate as had theretofore come to his lands.
XXXVI. Inventories and appraisements may be gi- Inventorics ven in evidence in any suit, by or against the executor and appraiseor administrator, but shall not be conclusive for or a.
a far evidence. gainst him if other testimony be given that the estate was really worth, or was, bona fide, sold for more or less than the appraisement.
XXXVII. Each appraiser shall be entitled to thirty pounds of tobacco, per day, for his attendance, to be
e lowance paid by the executor or administrator, and charged to the estate.
XXXVIII. Executors and administrators, whether it be necessary for payment of debts, or not, shall as
Sale of per soon as convenient, after they are qualified, sell at pub- ishable coods lic sale, all such goods of their testator, or intestate, specific legacies excepted, as are liable to perish, be consumed, or rendered worse by keeping, giving such credit as they shall judge best, and the circumstances of the estate will admit of, taking bond and good se. curity of the purchasers, and shall account for such goods according to the sales. If more be sold than will pay the debts and expences, the executor or administrator may assign the bonds for the surplus, to those entitled to the estate, and be discharged as to so much.
Sale of other XXXIX. If such perishing goods be not sufficient
de for paying the debts and expences, the executor or adtate; slaves last.
ministrator shall proceed in the next place to sell the other personal estate, disposing of the slaves last, until the debts and expences be all paid, having regard to
the privilege of specific legacies. When no ap. XL. Nevertheless, if the testator direct his estate not praisement to be appraised, it shall be sufficient to return an inven. necessary.
tory thereof only; and if he direct his estate not to be sold, the same shall be preserved in specie, unless a sale be necessary for the payment of debts.
XLI, The dead victuals and liquors, which at the
de death of any testator or intestate shall have been laid in als and lio
ors, for use for consumption in his family, shall not be sold by the of family. executor or administrator, but shall remain for the use
of such family without account thereof to be made: If, however, before its final consumption, any child shall leave the family, such child shall have a right to carry with him an equal share of what shall then be on hand. Any live stock which may be necessary for the food of the family, may also be killed for that use, at any time
before the sale, division, or distribution of the estate. Sale of lands XLII. The sale and conveyance of lands devised to devised to be sold, how
De be sold, shall be made by the executors, or such of them made. as shall undertake the execution of the will, if no other
person be thereby appointed for that purpose, or if the person so appointed shall resuse to perform the trust, or
die before he shall have completed it. Rules as to XLIII. If any person sball die after the first day of servants,
March, the servants and slave's of which he was slaves and crops,
possessed, whether held for life or for other interest, and which were employed in making a crop, shail be continued on the plantations in the occupation of the decedent, until the last day of December following and then delivered to those who shall have a right to demand the same; and their crops shall be assets in the hands of the executors and administrators, subject to debis, legacies, and distribution; the levies and taxes, their tools, the expence of feeding them and their families to that time, and delivering them well clothed, being first deducted. And if such servants or slaves be held by the testator or intestate for his life only, in that case the executor or administrator shall be obliged to deliver to those who are entitled in remainer or reversion, three
barrels of ludian corn for every such servant or slave, old and young, to be allowed in their accounts of adininistration.
XLIV. If a testator or intestate shall die after the Emblements. first day of March, all the emblements of his lands, which shall be severed before the said thirty-first day of December following, shall, in like manner be assets in the hands of the executor or administrator; but all such emblements growing on the lands on that day, or at the time of the death of the testator or intestate, if that event happen after the thirty-first day of December, and before the first day of March, shall pass with the land to the heir, devisee, reversioner, or remainder man.
XLV. If there be tenant for life of lands or slaves let Tenant for or hired to another, at the death of such tenant for life, life dying. if that event happen after the first day of March, the lessee, or person hiring, shall hold the lands and slaves until the last day of December following, paying rent or hire to that time, and in the case of slaves, delivering them well clothed:
XLVI. The rent of land or hire of slaves shall be Rent hire apportioned between the executor or administrator of him who having a freehold, or other uncertain estate in the land, and the use for life, or for other uncertain term in the slaves, shall die before the rent or hire become due, and him who shall succeed to the land and slaves, as heir, devisee, or person in reversion or remainder, unless in the case of a devisee, the contrary be directed by the testator. .
LXVII. The appointment of a debior executor shall Debtor ap. in no case be deemed an extinguishment of the debt, pointed unless it be so directed in the will.
XLVIII. No distribution shall be made of an intes- Distribution late's state until nine months after his death, nor shall of intestates,
estates, wber an administrator be compelled to make distribution at made. any time, until bond and security be given by the per- Bond to reson entitled to distribution, to refund due proportions fund. of any debts or demands, which may afterwards appear against the intestate, and the costs attending the recovery of such debts.
LXIX. Executors and administrators shall be allow. Allowances ed in their accounts all reasonable charges and dis
once and is to executors bursements which they shall lay out and expend in the trators.
10' and adminis.
funeral of the deceased, and other their administration; and in extraordinary cases may be allowed such recompence for their personal trouble, as the court on passing
their accounts shall judge reasonable. (Debts of first L. The executors or administrators of a guardian dignity, guar- of a committee, or of any other person, who shall lave dian to ward,
been chargeable with, or accountable for the estate of a ward, an ideot, or a lunatic, or the estate of a dead person, committed to their testator or intestate by å court of record, shall pay so much as shall be due from their testator or intestate, to the ward, ideot, or lunatic, or to the legatees or persons entitled to distribution,
before any proper debt of their testator or intestale. Power of ten LI. Where any persons shall die seized of lands held ant to devise for life of another, such person may, by bis or her last
will and testament, in writing, made and proved as is herein before directed, for the devise of lands, devise all his interest in such lands, which shall, if necessary, be assets in the hands of such devisee. And if no such devise be made, such lands for the residue of the term, shall be assets in the hands of the heir, if it shall come to him by reason of a special occupancy, in the same manner as lands descending in fee simple; and if there shall be no special occupant, it shall go to the executors or administrators of the person so dying, seized, and be assets in their hands, subject to debts, legacies,
and distribution. Suits against LII. Executors or administrators may sue or be sued executors or upon all judgments, bonds, or other specialties, bills, administra
notes, or other writings of their testators or intestates, iors.
whether the executors or administrators be, or be not named in such instruments, and also upon all their personal contracts.
LIII. Actions of trespass may be maintained by or Tresspass.
against executors or administrators, for any goods taken and carried away in the life-time of the testator or intestate; and the damages recovered shall be in the one case for the benefit of the estate, and in the other
out of the assets. Executors of LIV. Executors of executors shall do and perform executors; all things in the execution of the will of the first testa.
tor, which shall remain undone at the death of the first executor; and shall and may sue or be sued in all things respecting the estate, in the same manner as such first executor could or might have sued or been sued.