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1. A tone begun, continued, and ended, with an equal degree of force, called an ORGAN TONE. The Organ-tone may be indicated thus, 2 A tone beginning soft and gradually increasing to loud, called CRESCENDO. The Crescendo is indicated thus, 3. A tone beginning loud and gradually diminishing to soft, called The Diminuendo (or Decrescendo) is indicated thus,

4. The union of the Crescendo and the Diminuendo, called the SWELL. The swell is indicated thus, 5. A very sudden or instantaneous Crescendo, called the

PRESSURE TONE. The pressure tone is indicated thus, > or <. 6. A tone very suddenly, forcibly and instantly diminished, called an EXPLOSIVE TONE, or SFORZANDO, or FORZANDO. The sforzando is indicated thus, >. CHAPTER XI.

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XLIX. The APPOGIATURA is a passing tone that preceedes an essential tone on an accented part of a measure.

NOTE. From the Italian APPOGIARE, to lean or rest upon. The voice leans or rests upon the appogiatura before taking the principal tone. It takes its time from the principal tone.

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LI. The SHAKE OF TRILL is the rapid alternation of a tone with the next one above in the scale, whether at the distance of a step or a half-step.

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LII. The TURN is formed of a principal tone sung in rapid succession with the tone next above, and the one next below it. It has a variety of forms.







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NOTE. Neither the Trill or Turn belongs to chorus singing. The Trill at least should only be introduced by a cultivated voice after long practice.

An Appoggiatura before a dotted note generally receives double the time it others wise world.

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LII. VARIOUS CHARACTERS, SOME OF WHICH HAVE NOT BEEN INTRODUCED. The BRACE, placed before two or more staves, show how many parts move together, or form the score. The REPEAT shows that a portion of a piece of music is to be sung or played twice. Sometimes a repetition of a short passage is indicated by the term Bis. A DOUBLE SHARP is used before a note that represents a tone elevated two half-steps above the natural tone. Thus F is a half-step higher than F, while Fx is two half-steps above F, and sounds the same to the ear as G, though occupying another degree of the staff. A DOUBLE FLAT is the reverse of the DOUBLE SHARP. Thus, is two half-steps lower than G. A DOUBLE SHARP is canceled thus:, and a DOUBLE FLAT thus: . A note may be twice-dotted, the second dot adding half to the length of the first.

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or HOLD, over a note or rest, signifies that its time is to be prolonged beyond the usual length. In beating time, the hand during such prolongation must remain stationary at the point it may have reached. The is frequently used with or without the word FINE over a double bar, to mark the close of a position after a D. C. The SLUR connects notes that are to be sung to one syllable. When placed over notes upon the same degree, it is called a TIE.


NOTE.-The DOUBLE SHARP is used in those keys having several sharps in their
signatures, before a note representing a tone of the scale THAT IS ALREADY MARKED
In the example above we want at the second note
SHARP FOUR in the Treble. In the key of E, A is four, Athen will be sharp four,
as written. In the Alto we want SHARP TWO, but two in the key of E is F There
fore it will not do to put a before the note on two, as it would only indicate F
which is already indicated in the signature; but a X double sharp is used to show
that not two of the scale, (F), is to be sung or played, but that SHARP Two, which is
a half-step higher than is required. This is especially necessary for the organist
or pianist, where a indicates that he shall play the key next to the right. and a X,
the second key to the right of the one he otherwise would play. The would not answer
here to cancel sharp two, for the note following it would then represent F natural;
therefore is used to show that one is removed, and that the note now represents just what elements constitute a word.


F which, we know, is two in the scale, key of E. The DOUBLE FLAT is simple the

reverse of the double sharp.

The letters D. C. [la capo, to the head.] placed at the end of a piece of music, direct the performer to return to the beginning. The piece then generally ends somewhere in the middle, at a double bar, over which is the word FINE, meaning the end. DAL SEGNO, [from the sign,] in the same position, means, repeat from the sign . A PAUSE


LIV. EMMISSION OF TONE. In singing, let the tone be free, open, round, full, pure, and resonant: attacked with vigor "by a shock of the glottis " (but without a jerk), delivered without drawling, and held firmly, without trembling. or wavering. Let it not be dry and monotonous, expressing nothing, but sympathetic like the voice in speech, where the tone itself will betray the emotions of the speaker, though we can not distinguish a word. Most especially, however, avoid that agonizing tone, heard from many imitators of the opera, especially Soprano singers, who sing everything, even the most spirited music and words with a tone of voice that would lead a hearer to suppose, all hope had fled, and they, poor souls! were standing on the very verge of blank despair.


Here we would observe, that a person who does not pronounce, accent and emphasize his words correctly in reading, will not do so in singing. Again, that if the tone be delivered lazily and without vigor, the words will surely be indistinct.

The general rule is to pronounce, accent, and emphasize words in singing as in reading, unless there be some purely musical reason to the contrary. More care, however, is needed in singing, y reason of the prolongation of the tones. A few hints only will be added. Form the vowels correctly, and hold them firmly without change. Who can tell pine from pin, unless the vowel in each be correctly. formed? In any syllable it is the vowel only that is prolonged. Be careful, great, grea-ee-t. then, that it be prolonged without change. For example, do not sing the word

The consonants should be given quickly, forcibly, and with great precision, for on them, in a great measure, depends the distinct articulation of words. I the words say, lay, hay, ray, bay, may, nay, who can tell one from another, unless the consonant beginning it, be distinctly given? Form the habit of knowing

◊ LVI. TAKING BREATH. Take breath at such places as will not injure the sense; at pauses and after emphatic words.

LVII. Finally let the tone be pure and the style simple; then entering into the spirit of both words and music, deliver the one distinctly, and the other neatly, and the performance will seldom fail to produce the intended effect.

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§ LVIII. COMMON ERRORS. Errors in pronunciation are often heard not only in choirs, but also in the singing of those who have given much attention to the cultivation of the voice. The following are some of the most common faults:


1. The sound of a in fate for that of a in fat or hat; as atone for atone; other words in which the same error is often heard are, adore, among, amid, alone, amaze, alarm, awake, away, above, about, afar, again, agree, arise, &c. 2. The sound of i in pine for that of i in pin; as divert for divert; other words are, digress, direct, divulge, fertile, hostile, engine, &c.

3. The sound of o in no, for that of o in done; as, testimony for testimony; other words are, nugatory, patrimony, matrimony, dilatory, &c.

4. The substitution of er for ow: as foller for follow; other words are, window, sorrow, widow, pillow, shallow, fellow, &c.

5. The omission of g in such words as end with ing; as runnin for running ; other words are, writing, speaking, walking, singing, &c.

6. The omission of the soft r: as, laud for Lord; other words are, storm, morning, war, far, star, depart; also, fust for first, bust for burst, &c.

7. The omission of the characteristic feature, or trilling of the hard r, in such words as great, gracious, grand, green, repent, return, rich, rest, rough, right, wrong, and generally where the r precedes a vowel.

8. The omission of the letter h, in such words as when, why, which, while, whence, hail, heaven, hope, happy, &c.

9. The aspiration of the h in words in which it should be silent, as humble for umble, &c.

10. The substitution of a harsh hissing sound (snake-like) for the more mild yet penetrating whistle which the letter s properly represents.

11. Cummand for command; the same error is heard in the words complete, comply, commend, correct, corrupt, &c.

12. Goodniss for goodness; the same error is heard in endless, matchless, boundless, anthem, forget, &c.

13. Evidunce for evidence; the same error may be observed in silence, prudence, ardent, excellent, providence, influence, contentment, judgment, even, &c.

14. Verbul for verbal; so, also, infant, dormant, countenance, musical; also in appear, arrive, abjure, gentleman, &c. 15. Regelar for regular; so, also, in educate, singular, articulate, perpendicular, particular, &c.

16. Joining the last letter of a word with the following word; this is a very common fault. The following examples are excellent for illustration and practice :

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The word and is often narrowed down so as to souad like end, or yeand, yet with a kind of nasal snarl or mewl, by which it is easy to be distinguished from a proper human sound. Arnd is the opposite extreme, equally to be avoided.

The word amen should not be sung amen, or ay-men, but always amen or ah-men. Awe-men is the opposite extreme.

Jerusalem is often improperly pronounced Jee-ru-say-lem, or Jee-ru-se-lum.

LIX. A few hints follow:

1. The indefinite article, represented by the letter a, should never receive the sound of a, (as in ale or in fate), but a sound nearly the same as is heard. in had or in hat; or perhaps a shade broader, or towards that of a; yet it must never be à, (ah).

2. The definite article (t-h-e) should never receive the sound of thee, but, when it comes before a vowel, the e should receive nearly the same sound as is heard in the word pin, or perhaps a shade nearer to ē; when it occurs before a consonant, its vowel sound should be the same as that of the indefinite article. 3. The word my in the solemn style in which it usually occurs in psalmody, should receive the long sound of i, as my God, (mi) ; but in familiar style, even in sacred poetry, it should receive the short sound of i, in the passage, “I myself will awake right early," the word myself should be pronounced with

the sound of i in him.

4. The termination of ed in chanting the psalms, in such words as bless-ed, sav-ed, form-ed, prepar-ed, &c., should be distinctly pronounced as a separate syllable; solemnity of style requires it.

5. The word wind, in common conversation, and in reading prose, is universally pronounced with the sound of i, as in pin, win, &c. In poetry, on the contrary, it is common to give it the sound of i in mind, find, &c. Professional singers always adopt the latter usage, and pronounce the word wind. Which of the two shall prevail in church singing should depend upon custom. AR every thing eccentric, affected, or pedantic should be avoided, perhaps the safest course for choirs is to follow the minister, and pronounce wind or wind, according to his example.

6. The word heaven is sometimes used by the poets in one, and sometimes in two syllables; thus, in the line, "Bread of heaven," it is made to consist of two syllables; but in singing, as in speech, it should always be pronounced in a single syllable, or heav'n. The words lyre, wire, hour, &c., should also be pro aounced in one syllable.

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We nave endeavored in the following exercises to present a systematic course of practice for the Singing-School. We begin with the Scale, and each succeeding Exercise presents some new difficulty in the easiest manner possible. Pupils should study carefully the system of notation that precedes these exercises, there learning the theory, here carrying out the practice. The teacher can commence these exercises as soon as the pupil can sing the scale, and has become somewhat acquainted with the different kinds of notes, the staff and clefs. Eight of the exercises may be sung at first without beating time, and the pupil has only the difficulty of reading the notes and giving them the correct sounds. Afterwards sing the same exercises in double measure and introduce beating time, and as they have already studied the exercises, the principle difficulty will be that of keeping time. The teacher should present but one difficulty at a time.

No. 1. The Scale, which is the foundation of all music. Let it be practiced until it is familiar to the class. From the very first exercise try and produce a good quality of tone. (See directions in voice training department.) Sing with numerals, then with syllables.

No. 1.

One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight. Eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two, one.

Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Si, Do. Do. Si, La, Sol, Fa, Mi, Re, Do.
No. 2.

One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight. Eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two, one.

Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Si, Do. Do, Si. La, Sol, Fa, Mi, Re, Do.
No. 3.

One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight. Eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two, one.


Do, Re, Mi, Fa. Sol, La, Si, Do. Do, Si, La, Sol, Fa, Mi, Re, Do.

In No. 4, sing each tone of the Scale twice. This exercise is in two-part, or double measure. A double measure has two beats, which are indicated to the eye by two motions of the right hand-down-up. They are indicated to the ear by counting-one-two. In describing the motions of the hand, we say first downward beat, upward beat-then down, up-finally one, two. These mo tions of the hand are called BEATING TIME, and they should be very steady and exact, in order to establish an even measurement of the time.


NOTE. The teacher must not allow the pupil to neglect this very important exercise in the first lessons, else both will regret it.

4 after the clef, signifies that there are two beats in the measure, and that a quarter note is given to each beat. So two quarter notes will fill the measure; singing one to the upward beat, and one to the downward beat. In double measure, we sing the first part of the measure stronger than the second part, and we say that the first part is accented, and the second part unaccented. Perpendicular lines are used to mark the boundaries of measures in notation. They are called BARS. The end of a line of poetry, or of a section or period, and the final close of a piece of music, is often indicated (as at the close of this and the preceding examples) by a DOBLE BAR.


The measure is said to be in primitive form when each part is represented by

a note.

No. 4.

Do Do, Re Re, Mi Mi, Fa Fa, Sol Sol, La La, Si Si, Do Do. Pleas-ant is the hour of sing-ing, Cheer-ful voices sweet-ly ring-ing,

gigad 971 Joodo2-gnignia oft zot osim


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No. 8.



O, the wonder's of creation Fill the mind with a do ra- tion. In No. 9 we have the Scale with the Base clef, and one is on the second space. Both ladies and gentlemen should practice reading in this clef,until familiar with it.

No. 9.




Spring her ver-dant robe is wearing With her beauteous flow'rs ap-pear-ing. lu No. 8, more variety is presented, as the melody moves in various directions.


O'er the hills today we ramn-ble And mid rocks and thickets scramble. No. 10, We have thus far used sounds of but one length, and represented them by quarter notes, to each of which we gave one beat. We now introduce half notes, which are twice as long as quarter notes, to each of which we give two beats. So a half note will fill the measure. Where two parts of a measure are united and sung to one sound, the measure is said to be in derived form. The first measure in this exercise is primitive, the second derived.

No. 10.

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